Skip to main content

Full text of "San Francisco water"

See other formats

c^r C 5c- ; # c ^ u crseZLK-'V cVzZJxsd t 




628.1 Sp83aT ^ 320500 



FORM NO. 37 2M-6-24 

v-^ rr^j'® *^sjp°^ ^~SLj^ - A-jqfy J ^ c ' *^>&^>s- 











'AN Francisco IA&ter 


Spring Valley Water Company ^bfc'L^- 



Volume I 

J A N U A R Y, 19 2 2 

Number t 

The Railroad Commission's Decision 

By S. P. Eastman, Vice-President and Manager 

THE Railroad Commission, by an order 
of August 21, 192 1, authorized an in- 
crease in San Francisco water rates, subject 
to express conditions — one being that imme- 
diate steps be taken to increase the city's 
water supply. 

The rate granted was less than the Com- 
pany thought essential to meet its financial 
requirements for the future. The Company 
had hoped for an increase in hydrant rates 
to at least five dollars per hydrant. The rates 
collected by the Company at the time the 
order was made were the same which it had 
been collecting since 1908. 

Since 1908 the operating costs of the Com- 
pany have doubled; taxes have considerably 
more than doubled. It will be remembered 
that the Water Company, alone of all the 
large utilities in the state, was not granted 
relief in rates to meet the increased costs 
during the war period. 

The first condition in the Commission's 
order required Spring Valley to expend a 
sum of one and one-half million dollars in 
enlarging the Calaveras Dam and in making 
such other additions to structures and facili- 
ties as may be requisite in order to produce 
an additional water yield of not less than 
twenty-four million gallons daily. This 
would bring the total supply for the city 
from forty-two million gallons daily to 66 
M.G.D. This requirement was, in turn, made 
dependent upon the construction by the city 
of the westerly section of its proposed Hetch 
Hetchy conduit. The order contemplated that 
the city and the Water Company enter into 
an agreement whereby water may be trans- 
mitted through the city's conduit. The Corn- 
pan}- is to pay the city for the use of the con- 

duit an annual charge amounting to $250,- 
000 per year. 

For the purpose of safeguarding the new 
capital expenditures required on the part of 
the Company, the Company is required to set 
aside annually out of its revenue a sum 
which, with its accumulations, will finally 
produce an amount equal to the estimated 
new expenditures. The fund to be so accumu- 
lated is called the "amortization fund." In 
order, in turn, to safeguard the interests of 
the city, it is further provided in the Com r 
mission's order that the amortization fund 
must be transferred to the city in the event 
that the properties of the Water Company 
shall be purchased prior to January 1, 1932. 
In brief, the declared purpose of the Com- 
mission was, first, to bring about an imme- 
diate increase in the city's water supply; 
second, to protect the Company against loss 
of the new capital which it is required to put 
into its plant for this purpose, and, third, to 
protect the taxpayers by requiring the trans- 
fer of the amortization fund to the city in the 
event the city ultimately detei mines to pur- 
chase the properties of the Water Company. 

The plan outlined by the Commission for 
increasing the city's water supply is based 
essentially upon a plan made on the part of 
the city in a protest filed in the rate proceed- 
ings. Objection was made in the city's pro- 
test against the expenditure by the Water 
Company of the estimated amount required 
for the construction of additional Company 
pipe-line or aqueduct from the Calaveras 
Reservoir. The plan of the Company in- 
volved an expenditure of some twelve mil- 
lion dollars for a gravity conduit which 

(Continued on page IO.) 


January, it»22 

The New Submarine Suction for the Lake 
Merced Pumping Plant 

By G. A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

IN the construction of water works it is 
not always the large and costly structures 
that are the most difficult and interesting 
achievements. Man}- projects involving the 
expenditure of large sums of money present 
no particular difficulties either in design or 
accomplishment and attract attention princi- 
pally on account of their magnitude. A very 
good illustration of this fact is the work, re- 
cently finished, of replacing the suction line 
of the Lake Merced Pumping Station of the 
Spring Valley Water Company in San Fran- 
cisco. This station is situated on the bank of 
the South Lake near its northeastern end, 
and is used for pumping up to seven million 
gallons a day, either from the lake or from 
the San Andres transmission pipe, forcing 
the water into Lake Honda. 

The pipe to be replaced was located partly 

Pipe-line connected and mounted on trucks ready to be 
launched, with barrels for notation attached 

in the lake bank and partly on a wood wharf 
which needed to be renewed. It was 1600 
feet long, of which 500 feet was on the 
wharf. Obviously, rebuilding the wharf 
would have been a simple solution, but there 
were several objections to that. A suction 
line is always operating under a* vacuum, and 
the presence of a small amount of air de- 
creases the efficiency of the pump. The old 

line was made of cast-iron pipe, with a 
caulked lead joint every twelve feet of its 
length. Each of these lead joints was a poten- 
tial source of air-leakage, and it required 
constant attention to keep them tight. An- 
other objection was that the loss of head due 
to friction of the moving water in the long 
pipe prevented the pumps from lowering the 
lake as much as was desirable. It was finally 
decided to run a new line directly out from 
the pump into the lake. This pipe would be 
only one quarter as long as the old line, 
which would reduce the friction propor- 
tionately, and because the greater part of its 
length would be submerged the chances for 
leakage of air would be very much reduced. 
Last but not least, the entire absence of wood 
or other perishable material would eliminate 
the necessity for future replacement. 

Submarine pipes have been in use by 
water works for many years and various 
methods have been employed in placing them 
in position. Generally a pipe with a ball- 
and-socket joint is used, which allows a cer- 
tain amount of movement for the line 10 ad- 
just itself to the profile of its resting-place. 
This type of pipe is usually placed from a 
floating barge or from a trestle built along 
the final location of the line, or is sometimes 
built on shore and floated into position. 
Sometimes a rigid line is used, which is 
shaped to conform to the bed upon which it 
will rest, and is then floated into position 
and sunk in place. Most submarines are used 
for crossing channels from bank to bank. 
The Lake Merced pipe was to terminate 
under fifteen feet of water, and furthermore 
required the construction of a large block of 
concrete around the end in the lake upon 
which to place a screen. Ball-and-socket- 
jointed pipe was not readily available. The 
placing of concrete under water is an expen- 
sive operation, and the length of pipe to be 
laid was not enough to justify a large pre- 
paratory expense, so all of the generally ac- 
cepted methods for doing this sort of work 
were not desirable. 

As finally worked out and adopted, the 

January, 1922 



following plan was used: The sloping bank 
of the lake between the pumping station and 
the water's edge was smoothed off and 
rounded into an easy curve, the end of which 
coincided with the water surface. A track, 
using wood rails spaced to accommodate the 
running gear of a standard mining or ore 
car, was laid on the prepared surface. About 
two hundred and fifty feet of the old cast- 
iron suction pipe, two feet in diameter, was 
removed and hauled to the site of the new 

3. Concrete barge attached to end of 

the barge became an anchor bli 

for screen and superst 

work. The lengths of cast-iron pipe were 
then placed one at a time on the ore-car 
trucks, and connected by means of the ordi- 
nary lead joint used in connecting street 
mains. Iron bands encircled the pipe on 
either side of the joint, connected together 
by two bars on the horizontal diameter of 
the line, to keep any two lengths from sepa- 
rating as the pipe was moved out into the 
lake. The open end of the line was plugged 
temporarily to prevent the admission of 
water. Two empty fifty-gallon barrels were 
attached to each length of pipe, using a wire 
bridle which was so arranged that by trip- 
ping a small vertical lock bar both barrels 
would be released. When about four lengths 
of the pipe had been connected and prepared 
as outlined above, the stay ropes were re- 
leased and the fifty-foot length of line al- 
lowed to move down the track into the water. 
The lead joints, although not of the movable 
ball-and-socket type, permitted sufficient 
movement to allow the lengths of pipe to 
straighten out as the line entered the water 
and the empty pipe with the aid of the bar- 
rels floated just at the surface of the lake. 
Practically no leakage occurred. As soon as 
the pipe floated the car trucks were cut loose 
and brought back to carry additional lengths. 
The operation was repeated until finally the 


January, 1922 

to be poured 

entire length of pipe was floating in position 
ready to sink to the bottom. Illustrations 1 
and 2 illustrate the method of attaching the 
car trucks and barrels and show the pipe in 
position ready for submergence. 

With the pipe ready for submergence, 
there still remained the question of the con- 
crete anchor block and screen support on 
the outer end of the line. Ordinarily this con- 
crete block would be placed after the line was 
sunk, depositing the concrete under water. 
This is an expensive operation and requires 
the services of a diver. To get away from this 
difficulty a concrete barge was built as shown 
in illustration 3. The barge was fourteen feet 
square, with sides four feet high. Concrete 
blocks widi circular recesses in which ver- 

I j I fj 


tical fourteen-inch diameter pipes could 
be placed, were cast in the corners of the 
barge. It was planned to fill these pipes with 
concrete after the barge was in place, to form 
the four columns to support the superstruc- 
ture. The barge was floated out to the end of 
the pipe and backed into position so that the 
end of the pipe-line was inserted into the re- 
entrant niche. The pipe was then secured to 

the bottom of the barge and a cross wall of 
concrete poured around it. This left the line 
opening directly into a square box in the 
center of the barge, the four sides of which 
formed a support for the screen. The four 
corner pipes, twenty feet long, were then set 
in the corner blocks and asphalt poured 
around them to make a water-tight joint. 
Everything was then in readiness to sink 
the line as shown in illustration 4. 

A line was attached to all of the vertical 
lock bars operating the barrel trips, so that 
all of the barrels could be released simultan- 
eously. The plug was removed from the end of 
the pipe and two three-inch sea-cocks which 

had been cast in the bottom of the barge were 
opened. The barge filled with water and as 
it was on the point of sinking, the barrels 
were released and the entire line sunk to, the 
bottom. Illustration 5 shows the barge just 
disappearing and the released barrels on the 
surface. It was then a comparatively simple 
matter to fill the four pipes with concrete, 
build the superstructure, and place the 
screen. The completed structure with the 
screen in the foreground is shown in illus- 
tration 6. 

The completion of the work now gives 
Lake Merced Pumps a permanent suction 
line at a cost of only one quarter of the old 
one, and enables the lake to be drawn down 
five feet lower than was possible heretofore. 

The success of the work was due to the 
ingenious plans and devices worked out by 
O. Goldman, Assistant Engineer, and to the 
care of P. D. Rice, General Foreman, who 
executed the work. George W. Pracy, Super- 
intendent, was in charge of the entire job, 
and through his foresight in anticipating 
all difficulties the construction was finished 
without trouble. 

January, 1 922 


A Chinatown Episode 

By 0. E. Clemens, Manager Water Sales Department 

& m 'r ! ;- 


-til WJ ,£ i : 



& ft ^ 

45c IS* 

A M. "''J 



f A* 


& f ! In) 

IN Chinatown proper, which comprises 
roughly the district between Stockton 
Street and Grant Avenue, California and 
Broadway, the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany has 847 services. Applying the stand- 
ards by which the sales department of a 
public utility measures its customers, the 
Chinese of San Francisco must be rated "A 
No. 1." They are upright in their dealings, 
pay their bills promptly, and make no frivo- 
lous, unreasonable complaints. 

Recently, however, some of the Chinese in 
Chinatown brought vigorous complaints to 
the office of the Water Company. But, hap- 
pily, these complaints were not made against 
the Company or any of its employees. 

The Chinese complained that an impostor 
posing as a collector for Spring Valley had 
obtained money from a number of rate- 
payers in the oriental quarter. In some in- 

stances this impostor presented the genuine 
water bill. Evidently he had dogged the foot- 
steps of the Company's collector, abstracting 
the bill from the mail-box or from under the 
door where the collector leaves it when the 
bell is not answered. At other times the im- 
postor boldly asked for two or three dollars, 
alleging that the sum he mentioned was the 
amount of the bill. If this ruse succeeded, he 
gave a receipt on a blank receipt form or on 
an ordinary scrap of paper. 

In many instances, of course, this impostor 
was unsuccessful, for the reason that most 
rate-payers know the regular collector and 
will pay no one else. It is the policy of this 
Company to assign a collector to a certain 
route and keep him on that route year in and 
year out. The consumer pays readily when 
the collector is known, and the collector does 
not have to take time to prove his identity. 
This system minimizes the opportunity for 
such petty larceny as has recently been prac- 
ticed in Chinatown. Had the Company's col- 
lectors in Chinatown been less well known, 
the losses would have been many times what 
they were. 

Efforts were made through the Police De- 
partment to catch the impostor, but without 
success. A rogues' gallery photograph ob- 
tained from the Pacific Gas & Electric Com- 
pany answers pretty closely to the descrip- 
tion furnished by the Chinese who had been 
victimized. The rogues' gallery sitter de- 
voted himself to the collection of gas bills 
about a year ago, was caught, and was sent 
to the County Jail. There is reason to believe 
that he is a "hophead." 

The police were handicapped in tracing 
the impostor by the characteristic reluctance 
of the Chinese to supply clues. "No sabe" 
was all that the police could elicit from most 
of the victimized Chinese; yet these had 
talked quite freely when they visited the 
office of this Company. The Chinese is never 
conversational in the presence of a star. 

There are three excellent newspapers in 
Chinatown, and in order to warn unwary- 
water consumers this Company inserted the 
following advertisement which ran for a 
week in Young China, Chung Sai Vat Bo. 
and Sai Gai Yat Bo: 


January, 1922 

Impostors have obtained money from the Chinese of 
San Francisco by saying falsely that they are col- 
lectors for the Spring Valley Water Company. 
Sometimes they steal genuine water bills from mail- 
boxes and collect the amount of these bills. Some- 
times they present fake bills. 

Do not pay your water bill unless you know that 
the collector is employed by the Water Company. 
If you are in doubt, ask the collector to show you 
his badge. All our collectors wear these badges. 
Spring Valley Water Company. 

This notice was rendered into Chinese 
ideographs in the offices of the newspapers. 
From the Chinese text as published in Young 
China the following literal retranslation into 
English has been made by Mr. John J. 
Sharon, an enthusiastic and profound stu- 
dent of the Chinese language : 

To inform those who read. Recently have been 
knaves falsely assuming to be our Company's col- 
lect-money men in Sam Fan-shee (i. e. San Fran- 
cisco), collecting money among Chinese people. 
Look out for that sort of men. Sometimes from 
post-box steal to take away our Company's what 

out (i. e. delivered) bill. Sometimes themselves 
make false bills. Now specially told to population. 

It is hoped Chinese people all know about it. 
Afterwards have call our Company's collect-money 
men, must recognize them surely. Doing so, can 
accordingly hand over (i. e. pay). If have doubt," 
must at our Company's number mark (i. e. badge) 
look. Do can (i. e. you are privileged to do so). 
Our Company's collect-money men all have number 

Shi-po-ling Wah-lay (i. e. Spring Valley) Water 
Company publishes this. 

"Sam Fan-shee," it appears, is the closest 
approach Chinese speech and Chinese ideog- 
raphy can make to the name of our city, and 
"Shi-po-ling Wah-lay" is the approximation 
to Spring Valley. The Chinese, according to 
Mr. Sharon, do not always call this city 
"Sam Fan-shee." It has been known to 
Chinese all over the globe since the days of 
'49 as "Dai Fau," meaning "Large Port." 

Since the advertisement appeared in the 
Chinese papers, the "knave falsely assuming 
to be our Company's collect-money man" has 
desisted from his operations in Chinatown. 

Lobos Creek 

By John E. Behan, Secretary and Assistant Manager 

HOW many San Franciscans going west 
on Lake Street from Fifteenth Avenue 
realize that they are within a stone's throw 
of what once constituted the city's water 
supply ? 

A picturesque stream, Lobos Creek, which 
is now used to serve the Presidio Military 
Reservation, is the outlet of an underground 
drainage area of about ten square miles com- 
prising most of Golden Gate Park and the 
Sunset and Richmond districts. It has main- 
tained a constant flow of two and one-quarter 
million gallons of water daily for over sixty 
years of recorded measurements. Yet one is 
hardly aware of its existence. This was the 
city's first organized water supply. 

In the later fifties of the last century a 
water company known as the San Francisco 
City Water Works, commonly called "the 
Bensley Company," availed itself of this 
source of supply. Pumps were constructed 
on the lower reaches of the creek near Baker's 
Beach. The water was lifted into a flume 
built on the north side of the Presidio Hills, 

and taken by pipe-line through a tunnel 
under Fort Mason to the pumping plant now 
known as Black Point Pumps. From this 
point the water was again lifted into the 
Francisco-Street and Lombard-Street reser- 
voirs at different elevations and then dis- 
tributed to consumers in the city proper. 

The Bensley Company was amalgamated 
with the Spring Valley Water Works in 1863. 
San Francisco has since been supplied with 
water by the latter company. 

Lobos Creek was in constant use as one of 
the units of the city's water supply until 
1893, when the upbuilding of the Sunset 
and Richmond sections contaminated the 
water, so it was deemed advisable to discon- 
tinue use of this source. The abandoned 
flume gradually decayed. 

The San Francisco City Water Works had 
acquired ownership of the southerly bound- 
ary of the creek, and its northerly line was 
ultimately fixed by United States authority 
as the middle of the stream. Although the 
War Department was at all times entitled to 

January, 1922 


The old flume is rounding Black Point just above the water's edge. To the extreme right is the home of Fremont 
the Pathfinder; to the extreme left, the Haskell home, where Senator Broderick died from Terry's bullet 

one-half the flow of the water, it permitted 
most of its portion to be devoted to the city's 
use, taking only what it currently required 
on the reservation. 

In recent years the requirements of the 
post became so great that the War Depart- 
ment purchased the Spring Valley ownership 
in the stream, and constructed a filtration 
plant on the bank. It has been using all the 
water supplied by the creek for several years 

In the earlv days of the citv's historv it 

was thought that the small lake known as 
Mountain Lake was the feeder of Lobos 
Creek. This was disproved through the con- 
struction of shafts and a tunnel between the 
lake and the head of the creek, known as the 
"Hotaling Tunnel," for it then became ap- 
parent that the flow of the creek was caused 
by the passage of underground streams from 
the higher lands to the south, from which 
waters flowed into the basin. It took many 
years of observation and study as well as a 
deal of vexatious litigation to prove that 

A close-up of the old flume. Against the sk 


January, 192 

The brick stack of Black Point Pumps, built in 1863 and still standing. These pictures were taken in the sixties 

Mountain Lake had no connection with Lo- 
bos Creek. 

Long before this misapprehension had 
been removed, and even before the formation 
of the Bensley Company, a water company 
had taken its name from this Mountain 
Lake. The inglorious history of this concern 
is given as follows in "The History of the 
Development of the Water Supply of San 
Francisco" by John R. Freeman : 

"The first steps toward introducing a 
water supply into the city of San Francisco 
were taken on June 1st, 1851, when the 
Board of Aldermen passed an ordinance 
granting A. D. Merrifield et al. a franchise, 
and on August 14th, 1851, Merrifield and 
his associates incorporated the Mountain 
Lake Water Company for this purpose. The 
source of supply selected was Mountain 
Lake, covering about seven acres and located 
at the head of Lobos Creek, situated in the 
southwestern portion of the present United 
States Military Reservation at the Presidio. 
The company proposed to build a gravity 
conduit from the lake down Lobos Creek 
and thence along the water-front, to a pro- 
posed reservoir at North Beach. Owing to 
injudicious expenditures in construction (an 
expensive brick aqueduct having been 
planned) the company's funds gave out and 
it was unable to complete the work within 
the time allowed by its charter. From time 
to time, several other acts and ordinances 
were passed for its relief, but without avail." 

The early history of Lobos Creek, with 
the litigation arising from conflicting claims 
as to its origin, is most interesting, constitut- 
ing as it does one of the many long-drawn 
legal battles of the San Francisco water 

The following quotations bearing on the 
subject are taken from the files of the Alta 
California, the principal newspaper pub- 
lished in the early days of our city : 

August 3, 1857: — "From a conversation 
with the Engineer of the projected works, we 
understand that the stream of water from 
whence the supply is to be derived is never 
failing, and though not large, it flows the 
entire year in near the same volume, which 
he estimates will over-supply the city at 
present and for a long time to come. The sim- 
plicity of the works will add to the expedi- 
tion of their completion." 

August 7, 1857: — "In May, 1853, the 
Mountain Lake Water Company, which had 
been organized under a special act of the 
Legislature, broke ground on its aqueduct to 
bring in water from Mountain Lake; but the 
company failed in the course of five or six 
months, and little has been done since. Some 
men are now engaged upon the works, but 
we are not informed at what time the water 
can be brought in at their present rate of 
progress. . . . The Bensley Water Com- 
pany, which received its charter from the Su- 
pervisors last week, declares it proposes to go 
to work at once and furnish water for the 

January. 1922 


wants of the city within one year, at one- 
quarter of the present prices." 

August 25, 1857: — "Vigorous operations 
have been commenced at a point on Lobos 
Creek, midway between Mountain Lake and 
the ocean. . . . The Mountain Lake Corn- 
pan}-, impressed with the belief that their 
pond was the source of the stream known as 
Lobos Creek, and from which the supply of 
water is to be furnished for city consumption, 
have sunken a number of shafts at various 
points in the bed of the creek, between the 
lake and the head of the aqueduct. These 
experiments have in every instance only 
confirmed the reports of the engineers, who 
have conclusively shown that the springs in 
the underlying hills, and not the lake, fill 
the channel of Lobos Creek." 

June 18, 1858: — "The Bensley Water 
Company, after contending against innumer- 
able obstacles and embarrassments since its 
organization, has at last triumphed over all 

opposition, and will give our citizens in a 
short time a taste at their very doors of the 
pure and healthful waters of Lobos Creek. 
. . . The flume is already finished as far 
as Blackpoint, and a few weeks only will 
elapse before the water flows through the 
thickly settled streets of our city.'' 

February 15, i860: — "Water is now con- 
ducted by iron pipes to 644 consumers. About 
fourteen miles of this pipe have been laid in 
the narrow streets and vigorous measure- 
are under way to continue the work. . . . 
The Lobos Creek runs summer and winter 
about two millions of gallons each twenty- 
four hours, which it is estimated will supply 
a population of 150,000 persons with fifteen 
gallons per day each, or 200,000 with ten 
gallons each. . . . The great force pump 
which throws the water up to the reservoir 
is set in motion at six o'clock every morning 
and works until six o'clock in the evening." 

The Salesman as an Asset 

By J. H. Le Pla, Purchasing Agent 

CONTRARY to the somewhat prevalent 
opinion, the salesman is not looked 
upon as a nuisance by the purchasing agent. 

Quite the reverse is the case. The pur- 
chasing agent needs the salesman equally as 
much as the salesman needs the purchasing 

By the simple application of the Golden 
Rule the salesman can be made an asset, 
not only to the purchasing department, but 
to the house which the purchasing depart- 
ment represents. 

A friendly salesman can be of real assist- 
ance in many ways, particularly in advanc- 
ing information regarding anticipated mar- 
ket rises and falls. He also comes in very 
handy when a telephone order is received 
to rush a delivery of "some stream tin." If 
the salesmen vou see in the next few hours 

are really friendly to the department, you 
are not left wondering very long whether 
"stream tin" is packed in bottles or crates, 
or whether it should be ordered in units of 
quarts or sacks. 

Although to some it may seem peculiar, 
nevertheless it is a fact that for about two 
years previous to 1921 the sales departments 
of many concerns did not encourage their 
salesmen to solicit new accounts. Salesmen 
also had orders to sell to regular customers 
in the smallest quantities they could induce 
customers to accept. This condition, of 
course, was due to the World War, with the 
resultant shortage of materials in all lines. 

Those were the days when it was brought 
forcibly to the understanding of every pur- 
chasing agent that friendly salesmen were a 
real asset. 



January, 1922 

SAN FRANCISCO WATER rhe Railroad Commissions Decision 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

375 Sutter Street * Phone Douglas 2562 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. I 

January, 1922 

No. 1 

READERS of Mr. Behan's article about 
>. Lobos Creek will be interested in a 
picture of that region drawn by one of the 
greatest word-painters San Francisco has 
ever had. In that fascinating classic, "In 
the Footprints of the Padres," Charles War- 
ren Stoddard thus described from boyhood 
memory the route by which Lobos Creek 
water came into San Francisco : 

"As for Black Point, it was a wilderness 
of beauty in our eyes; a very paradise of 
live-oak and scrub-oak, and of oak that had 
gone mad in the whirlwinds and sandstorms 
that reveled there. Beyond Black Point we 
climbed a trestle and mounted a flume that 
was our highway to the sea. Through this 
flume the city was supplied with water. The 
flume was a square trough, open at the top 
and several miles in length. It was cased in 
a heavy frame; and along the timbers that 
crossed over it lay planks, one after another, 
wherever the flume was uncovered. This 
narrow path, intended for the convenience 
of the workmen who kept the flume in re- 
pair, was our delight. We followed it in the 
full assurance that we were running a great 
risk. Beneath us was the open trough, 
where the water, two or three feet in depth, 
was rushing as in a mill-race. Had we fallen, 
we must have been swept along with it, and 
perhaps to our doom. Sometimes we were 
many feet in the air, crossing a cove where 
the sea broke at high tide; sometimes we 
were in a cut among the rocks on a jutting 
point; and sometimes the sand from the 
desert above us drifted down and buried 
the flume, now roofed over, quite out of 

"So we came to Fort Point and the Golden 
Gate; and beyond the Fort there was more 
flume and such a stretch of sea and shore 
and sunshine as caused us to leap with 

(Continued from page 1.) 

would traverse a different route. The protest 
of the city directed attention to the fact that 
the Hetch Hetchy project calls for the con- 
struction of an aqueduct line which would 
pass close to the Calaveras Reservoir, and it 
was suggested that that portion of the aque- 
duct extending from the vicinity of Cala- 
veras to the peninsula could be utilized for 
the transmission of water from Calaveras 
sources under such reasonable and equitable 
arrangements as would meet with the ap- 
proval of the Commission. The terms of the 
Commission's order involve the acceptance 
of this plan. 

The Commission made it clear, in hand- 
ing down this order, that it was strongly of 
the opinion that the Water Company should 
hold itself in readiness to sell its properties 
to the city at the price fixed by the Commis- 
sion for the purchase election of last March, 
plus certified capital expenditures made sub- 
sequent to the determination of that price. 
This plan debars the Company from enjoy- 
ing the advantage of the natural increase in 
land and other values which would accrue to 
it were it not thus obligated to the price al- 
ready determined by the Commission. 

The effect of the Commission's decision 
may be summarized briefly in the statement 
that the Commission has attempted to solve 
four problems, which are, of necessity, inter- 
related : 

1. The increase of the city's water supply; 

2. The extension of the city pipe system; 

3. The financial problem; 

4. The rate problem. 

To this end — that is, to increase the sup- 
ply and to maintain the service — a rate in- 
crease was granted, but upon condition that 
the Company co-operate with the city with 
a view to increasing the immediate water 
supply, and upon the further condition that, 
if the Company's properties shall ultimately 
be purchased by the city, the purchase is to 
be based on the old price and the city shall 
have the benefit of the fund accumulated 
out of earnings for the amortization of the 
new capital expenditures. 

Following the rendition of the decision 
the Company commenced construction work 
on the Calaveras Dam, in order that no time 
might be lost in increasing the city's water 

January, 1922 



San Felix Station M. Carey, Pr 
The stages from San Mateo to Pescadero and Santa G 

San Mat eo Co. Cal. 
stopped at this station, now sub 

Crystal Springs, Past and Present 

By W. B. Lawrence, Superintendent Water Division 

RIDING southward down the valley of 
. San Andreas in the cool, quiet even- 
ing, we came to the Crystal Springs, one of 
the most beautiful of the summer resorts in 
the vicinity of San Francisco. There is a 
fine, large hotel, with a broad piazza all 
around it, just the place to sit and smoke a 
good cigar, have a quiet talk with your 
friends, and admire the beauty of the sur- 
rounding scenery, brought out in all its love- 
liness by the full autumn moon which was 
pouring down its full flood of mellow light 
upon the scene. The San Mateo Creek runs 
through a wild, tangled thicket in front of 
the house; parterres of flowers of every hue, 
in full bloom, fill the intervening grounds; 
and on the west the steep mountain sweeps 
around in a grand curve, forming a magnifi- 
cent amphitheatre beside which the Coliseum 
is but the toy playhouse of a child." 

This flowery description of the region 
which is now submerged beneath the im- 
pounded waters of the Crystal Springs Lake 
of the Spring Valley Water Company, was 
written by Colonel Albert S. Evans of San 
Francisco, and is to be found in his "A La 
California," a book now quite rare, pub- 
lished in 1873. 

It requires a distinct effort of the imagina- 
tion nowadays for one who stands on the 
causeway of the great Crystal Springs Dam 
to visualize the busy hotel and the farms 
which were all swept away from that smiling 
vale before it was converted into a lake. 

Crystal Springs Lake is situated about 
four and one-half miles west of the city of 
San Mateo, occupying part of the San An- 
dres, Crystal Springs, and Canada de Ray- 
mundo valleys. The water is impounded by 
the Crystal Springs Dam, a concrete struc- 



January, [922 

Before Crystal Springs became a Spring Valley lake, its gayeties attracted visitors f 

ture 145 feet wide at the base, 145 feet high, 
and 600 feet long. 

The exploration operations at the damsite 
were started in 1886, the first concrete was 
placed in 1887, and the dam was completed 
to its present height in 1891, construction 
going on only during the summer season. 

The Crystal Springs Reservoir thus 
formed has a catchment area of twenty-two 
and one-half square miles, from which it 
receives its water supply. The lake is prac- 
tically nine miles long, one mile wide at its 
widest, and about 140 feet deep in the deep- 
est part. It has a surface area of 1483 acres 
and a capacity of 21,622 million gallons, 
and submerges portions of the Canada de 
Raymundo Rancho, Rancho de las Pulgas, 
Feliz Rancho, and the San Mateo Rancho — 
these being the names of the early Spanish 

At the time of the acquisition of the lands 
by the Spring Valley Water Company for 
the purpose of forming the Crystal Springs 
Lake, the holding owners of portions of these 
ranchos were Margaret O'Callahan, J. R. 
Spring, Adolph C. Weber, Romeo Mauvais. 
Isaac Friedlander, Edwin A. Rowe, John 
and Rebecca Spaulding, Gustave Touchard, 
Samuel L. Theller and wife, Alexander Cas- 
selli, G. F. Maynard, Michael Dolan, Luis 

A. Arguello, S. (). de Arguello, Soledad de 
Arguello, James Byrnes, S. M. Mezes, W. H. 
Howard, Home Mutual Insurance Company, 
James D. Walker, Christian Bollinger, San 
Mateo Water Works, R. and E. N. Sher- 
wood, Mary Jane Starr, John Claffey, Ellen 
Carey, Mary Craig, Agnes Bowie, M. Casey, 
John Donald, J. A. Drinkhouse, J. Quinn, 
Julia J. Morrison, and Peyton. 

It was in i860 that the Spring Valley 
Water Company commenced operations in 
San Mateo County. San Francisco's demands 
for water could not be met from sources 
within its limits. Necessity required that 
those who were charged with the responsi- 
bility of keeping pace with the demands go 
farther afield for adequate supplies. So in 
i860 the Company leased in the name of 
Samuel S. Steward from Dr. Carl Precht of 
San Francisco several parcels of land in the 
present Crystal Springs reservoir site with 
the view of securing the waters of San Mateo 
Creek. One of these parcels was the Crystal 
Springs Hotel tract, containing ninety-five 
acres. The lease included the hotel and its 
furniture and household goods. The term of 
the lease was one year, the rental $600. The 
lease provided an option to purchase within 
the year for $9000 all of the property leased. 

At the time the lease was acquired the 

January, 1922 



■©Crystal Sidings Hotel,^ 1 

1776 . [^^ 1889 f 

J*** *** 

*A'P CALUM* 1 ' 



Souvenir of patriotic lestivities at Crystal Springs half a 
century ago 

Company, according to the minutes, "had 
caused proceedings at law to be instituted 
to appropriate lands and water for the use 
and benefit of said Company in said count}" 
(San Mateo), and "in consequence of the 
proposed introduction of said waters" it was 
necessary to increase the capital stock of the 
Company. The capital stock was accordingly 
increased from $60,000 to $3,000,000. 

In that same year (i860) the Company 
acquired lands and rights on Pilarcitos 
Creek, and began development of water there 
by means of a small reservoir (now sub- 
merged by the present Pilarcitos reservoir) , 
and a conduit thirty-two miles in length was 
constructed, terminating at the present La^ 
guna Honda reservoir in San Francisco. 

The Company did not exercise its option 
to purchase the Crystal Springs lands, but 
deeded its rights under the terms of the lease 
to George H. Ensign, one of the incorpor- 
ators of the Spring Valley Water Works and 
its agent in leasehold, in part payment in 
settlement of accounts between them. 

No records are available now from which 
can be ascertained the reason for the Com- 
pany's deferring until a later date the pur- 
chase of the Crystal Springs reservoir site. 
Judging, however, from the cost of subse- 
quent development of the Crystal Springs 

system, the reason probably was that it was 
more economical to develop by stages the 
same quantity of water from the Pilarcitos 
and San Andres systems, which were located 
at a higher altitude and closer to the city. 

In the course of time the Company came 
to the development of Crystal Springs, and 
in 1874 purchased for $37,500 the identical 
Crystal Springs Hotel tract of ninety-five 
acres which it had leased in i860 and which 
it could have bought at that time for $9000. 
This parcel occupied a strategic position at 
the outlet of the valley, a fact which Colonel 
Evans adumbrated in his flowery description 
already quoted. Its easterly boundary is just 
west of the present Crystal Springs concrete 
dam, and within its limits is the confluence 
of San Mateo Creek and its branches. Other 
important and strategic tracts were bought, 
and the Upper Crystal Springs reservoir 
was commenced in 1875. This was completed 
in 1877 by the construction of an earthen 
dam. Ten years later the lower reservoir was 
commenced, and was finished in 1891 by the 
construction of the big concrete dam. 

The postponement in i860 of the devel- 
opment of the Crystal Springs system left 
this beautiful valley for a number of years to 
thrift}' farmers who cultivated ever}- avail- 
able acre; left undisturbed the Crystal 
Springs Hotel, described by Colonel Evans 
as "one of the most beautiful summer resorts 
in the vicinity of San Francisco"; and left 
also the scenic road in the valley over which 
ran the Concord stages of Taft, Garretson & 
Co. (San Mateo, Pescadero, and Santa Cruz 
Stage Company), carrying passengers and 
the mails from San Mateo past the stations of 
Crystal Springs Hotel, San Feliz, and 
Byrnes Store, toward Half Moon Bay, and 
down the coast to Pescadero and Santa Cruz. 
The stages ran daily to Pescadero, and three 
times a week to Santa Cruz. 

The Crystal Springs Hotel was built in 
the later sixties. The following advertise- 
ment was published in the San Mateo Ga- 
zette, June 5, 1869: 

Crystal Springs Hotel — This favorite place of 
summer resort situated about four miles from the 
San Mateo depot of the San Francisco and San 
Mateo Railroad is now open for the accommodation 
of invalids, families and visitors. A new and com- 
modious building has just been completed and 
newly furnished, of forty first-class accommodations 
to patrons of the hotel. The hotel is situated at the 
base of the Sierra Marina mountains in a dense 
forest of live oaks and other evergreen trees and 



January, 1922 

From the causeway of the great Crystal Springs concrete 

dam one sees only a great expanse of water where formerly 

were all the life and bustle of a thriving community 

shrubbery, presenting one of the most pleasant 
spots in the state for a few days' sojourn away from 
the noise and dust of the city. There are fine trout 
streams in the immediate vicinity and cool shady 
roads in every direction, affording delightful drives. 
M. Kenny, Proprietor. 

Through the kindness of Mr. P. P. Cham- 
berlain, Treasurer of San Mateo County, 
there is reproduced here the program for the 
Fourth of July celebration given at the hotel 
in 1869 by a coterie of "good fellows" 
styling themselves in the fashion of that day 
"Camp Gallant." Mr. Chamberlain has a 
vivid recollection of the festivities of that 

Round about that favorite resort cluster 
many memories. Mr. Sawyer, whose name is 
perpetuated in the present picnic ground 
called Sawyer's Camp, was a familiar figure 
at the resort. He was a noted trainer of circus 
horses, and the stock from many a circus 
wintered at the Sawyer place. Then there 
was Carento Idalzo, a fat Indian, unbeatable 
in the hundred-yard dash. At odd times he 
raised watermelons for the San Francisco 
market or hauled wood with his ox-team. It 
was a great watermelon region, but it was 
known too for corn, tobacco was grown, and 
the dairies of Messrs. Sharon, Bollinger, and 
Blanchard supplied the Palace Hotel with 
butter, milk, and cheese. Charcoal burners 
from Half Moon Bay plied their trade there; 
wood was cut, hauled to San Mateo, and 
transported by water to San Francisco; and 
there were lime-kilns too. Altogether it was a 
busy and thriving place. Occasionally the 

stage was held up, but all the names of the 
bandits have been forgotten with the excep- 
tion of Tom Bryson. Mine Host Kenny's 
advertisement spoke of the excellent trout- 
fishing. There was also good quail-trapping, 
but this was not a sport — the live birds were 
sold to the Crystal Springs Hotel for $2.50 
a dozen. The fashionable guests from San 
Francisco whose smart equipages thronged 
the hotel grounds every Sunday always de- 
manded quail on toast with their vintage 

Farther down the road was San Feliz 
Station, another baiting-place for the daily 
stage. Domingo Feliz, proprietor of the 
rancho, gave this station its name. Earliest 
among the so-called "foreign settlers" were 
Maynard, Bollinger, Condon, and Wolf. M. 
Casey came in 1857. About the same time 
James Byrnes began trading at the place 
(another stage station) then and still known 
as Byrnes Store, doing a very considerable 

All of these activities ceased when the 
needs of San Francisco made the full devel- 
opment of those excellent water sources im- 
perative. Hotel, farms, fields, dairies, every- 
thing had to go. Even the county road had to 
be relocated on higher ground. In the end the 
entire thirty-five square miles of catchment 
area were swept clean of all human habita- 
tion. Today this is regarded as the most 
highly developed catchment area in the 

If Mine Host Kenny of the Crystal 
Springs Hotel could come back to the once 
familiar spot, he would seek a long time 
before he identified the site of the hotel 
where he used to accommodate "invalids, 
families, and visitors." And doubtless he 
would gaze at the wide expanse of water in 
the same astonishment which Balboa is sup- 
posed to have exhibited when he stumbled on 
the Pacific Ocean. 

The photographs of Black Point and of 
the Crystal Springs Hotel published in this 
issue of San Francisco Water are from 
the valuable collection of Charles B. Turrill 
of San Francisco. 

January, 1922 



Beauty and the Utilities 

By Mark Daniels, Landscape Engineer 

THERE have been a number of instances 
in the past few years where large cor- 
porations, including public service corpora- 
tions, have done considerable work in the 
landscape treatment of their properties. In 
every case the investment has paid dividends. 
It has created better conditions for em- 
ployees, inspired workers to render more 
careful service, enhanced realty values not 
only on the land treated, but also in the 
vicinity, and won for the corporation the re- 
spect and good-will of clean-living, right- 
thinking people. 

Love of beauty is an instinct in most of 
us, like love of fresh air and sunlight. Those 
who add to our sum of beauty will always 
earn our gratitude and esteem. 

What is beauty? A professor in one of our 
foremost colleges has defined it as "that 
which pleases the eye." If that definition 
were correct the Louvre would be crowded 
with billposters extolling the texture of "a 
skin you love to touch." 

Even if the definition had been qualified 
by confining the pleasure experienced to the 
eye of an observer trained in the arts, it 
would still be wide of the mark. For there 
is more to beauty than pleasure, gratification, 
satisfaction, or a titillation of the senses. 

Beauty is the product of creative effort, 
the visible or sensible expression of ideal- 
istic conceptions. Its foundations are thought 
and order. 

From the beginning man has struggled to 
put thought and order into his daily life. 
Every step in the advance of science, law, 
and civil government has been accompanied 
by a progress in the thoughtful disposition 
and design of objects cherished solely for 
their charm of line and arrangement. 

Six thousand years before Christ the in- 
habitants of Peru were striving with crude 
tools to add to the walls of their heavy tem- 
ples sculptured ornament that would soften 
the awkward lines of their primitive archi- 
tecture. In Egypt, Assyria, China, India, 
Mexico, the groping for beauty went on, and 
thus the arts were slowly developed. About 
the fifteenth century of our era this progress 
reached its height in a full recognition of the 
artist, his work and its value to humanitv. 

During the last two or three hundred years 
there has been a growing tendency to ex- 
punge art and beauty from the list of neces- 
sities and to place them in the category of 
luxuries. This tendency has reached the peak 
of its development in America. Too many 
regard beauty as a luxury to be indulged 
only by the idle, the wealthy, or those 
(usually called "dreamers") who prefer the 
pursuit of beauty to the stimulating chase 
after gold. 

Such a drift in the mental development of 
a people cannot be other than temporary, for 
true beauty founded in thought and order is 
an integral part, an essential element in the 
life of man. Abandon beauty in one form and 
it will take on another. Cease to consider it 
collectively and it will find expression 
through the individual. 

Beauty is the dial on which is registered 
the degree of civilization attained by a peo- 
ple. It is the indicator of character develop- 
ment in the individual. 

Observe a city that neglects its parks, 
streets, and public buildings, and you will 
find civic debasement. Investigate a public 
utility that is smothering in its own rubbish 
and you may discover large expenditures not 
remotely connected with ward politics. 

The reason for this is plain. We are de- 
veloped largely through our environment. 
Our mental and visual horizons are closely 
related. If you would think broadly, see 
broadly. If you want your thoughts clean 
and orderly, surround yourself with beauty. 
A sunflower will not grow in a swamp. 

Environment and intelligence act equally 
upon each other. As we become more intel- 
ligent we seek better surroundings. Attaining 
these, our intelligence receives an added 
stimulus, and we strive still more to improve 
our surroundings. 

Utility is not enough. It is a higher im- 
pulse which prompts the householder to em- 
bower his home in blooms, the municipality 
to border its public walks with roses and its 
lanes with pomegranates, the water company 
(let us say) to lure the songs of birds with 
mulberries and magnolias. 

Progressive intelligence is nourished on 
repeated contemplation of inspiring views. 



January, 1922 

Spring Valley Water Company 

F. B. Anderson Benjamin Bangs 

John E. Behan W. B. Bourn S. P. Eastman 

E. L. Eyre C. Osgood Hooker Frank B. King E. J. McCutchen 

Louis F. Monteagle F. P. Muhlner 

Captain A. H. Payson 

Officers and Departments 



Vice-President and Manager 

Secretary and Assistant 

Assistant Secretary and 
Assistant to Manager 

Assistant Secretary 



Chief Engineer 

Construction Engineer 
Chief Draftsman 
Superintendent, City Distribution 
Assistant, City Distribution 
Foreman, Service and Meter 
Foreman, City Distribution 

W. B. Bourn 

Captain A. H. Payson 

S. P. Eastman 

John E. Behan 

John J. Sharon 

II. M. Estes 

Benjamin Bangs 

F. P. Muhlner 

G. A. Elliott 

T. W. Espy 

I. E. Flaa 

George W. Pracy 

O. Goldman 

John J. Kelly 

P. D. Rice 

Superintendent Water Division w. B. Lawrence 

Assistant Superintendent (',. J. Davis 

Assistant Superintendent A. \V. Ebright 

IIydrographer S. M. Millard 

Manager Water Sales Department o. e. Clemens 


Chief, Inspection and Service 

Chief Adiuster 

Chief, Collection 

Manager, Docks and Shipping 

Superintendent Agricultural 

Assistant Superintendent 
Assistant to Superintendent 

Director of Publicity 

Manager Real Estate 

Purchasing Agent 

Chief Accountant 

V. E. Perry 

II. Starcke 

Frank P. Clark 

C. I. Gavin 
H. Templcman 

F. W. Roeding 

C. H. Schween 

Frank Peters 

Edward F. O'Day 

Theodore J. Wilder 

J. II. Le Pla 

D. W. Cooper 

•an Francisco "Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I 

April, 1922 

Xl'MBER 2 

Co-operation and Understanding 

By S. P. Eastman, Vice-President and Manager 

BY unanimous vote the Board of Super- 
visors of the City and County of San 
Francisco has approved the water supply 
agreement contemplated by the Railroad 
Commission in its decision of August, 192 1. 
The Commission's decision provided the 
foundation, the agreement with the City the 
immediate means, of a large additional water 
supply for the City. 

In 19 1 7 the Company filed an application 
with the Railroad Commission for a needed 
increase in rates. The evidence presented to 
the Federal Court in the 1907-19 14 rate 
cases was filed with the Commission as a 
part of the evidence in the new application. 
This showing was greatly supplemented by 
additional testimony of many authoritative 
witnesses. The case was postponed from time 
to time, and supplemental applications for 
relief in rates were filed. 

In the latter part of 19 19, with the certain 
knowledge that a substantial rate increase 
was inevitable, the City sought the suspen- 
sion of the prosecution of the rate case before 
the Commission in order that the City might 
purchase the properties of the Company. The 
Company agreed to co-operate with the City; 
and the Commission on its part agreed, at 
the request of the City, to determine the fair 
value for purposes of sale. The election of 
March, 192 1, though it carried by a large 
majority, failed of the necessary two-thirds 

Since the case was originally filed with 
the Commission in 19 17, the City has grown 
in population and industrial requirements. 
The intervening years have been a period of 
sparse rainfall. As consumption grew, reser- 
voir storage became depleted. Without addi- 

tional rates the credit of the Company would 
not afford the large investment entailed in 
the construction of the Calaveras pipe-line 
for additional water. Coincident with these 
conditions of growing demands, depleted 
sources, and inadequate credit, the construc- 
tion by the City of the Hetch Hetchy system 
was proceeding, though it would not be pos- 
sible to finish this system for a period of 
years to come. It therefore could not offer 
relief to the City, yet its menace as a com- 
petitor in the absence of adequate protective 
measures, foreclosed the Company from 
making the large investment necessary to 
bring in additional water for the City — an 
investment that would thereafter be dupli- 
cated or ruined when the official plans of the 
Hetch Hetchy had in time become a reality. 

Such was the problem which, after the 
failure of the purchase project of 192 1, con- 
fronted the City, the Company, and the Rail- 
road Commission. 

In its decision of August 12, 192 1. the 
Commission addressed itself directly to the 
conditions set forth above. The decision dealt 
with each of the conditions and produced a 
practical and workable solution for the fu- 
ture water supply. It was based further on 
the co-operation of the City and the Com- 
pany in fulfilling this solution. The decision 
contemplated an agreement between the City 
and the Company whereby the Company 
would finish the construction of the Cal- 
averas dam to a height which would yield 
twenty-four million gallons daily, and the 
City would, on its part, immediately con- 
struct the westerly division of its Hetch 
Hetchy conduit for the conveyance of Cal- 

(Continucd on Page 16.) 


April, 192 

Hermann Schussler: An Intimate Glimpse 

By John J. Sharon, Assistant to Manager 

ANTOINE BOREL, banker and director 
A. of Spring Valley, stopped before the 
office of the Water Company on California 
Street, just west of Montgomery, and said 
impressively to the youngster who accom- 

Hermann Schussler, 1842-1919 

panied him: "When you meet Mr. Schussler, 
look him straight in the eye, answer 'Yes' or 
'No,' and show plenty of confidence in your- 

"What can you do, young man?" asked 
Spring Valley's Chief Engineer after Borel 
had recommended the youngster for a job. 

"I can do anything," replied the young- 
ster, looking Schussler straight in the eye. 

"Henderson, Henderson!" cried Schussler 
to his chief clerk. "Come here quick! We 
have a young man who can do anything!" 

The young man was not visibly daunted, 
but his sponsor hastened to help out : 

"He's a good bookkeeper, Hermann." 

"Um," said Schussler. "Can you paint 

"Yes," said the youngster. 

"Put it down in the book, Henderson, that 
the young man who can do anything can also 
paint pipe." 

To that same young man (Borel's recom- 
mendation got him a job, though it was 
neither a bookkeeping nor a pipe-painting 
one) Hermann Schussler said one day: 

"Give me a young man that comes of de- 
cent people, trained in loyalty and industry, 
and I don't care how little he knows. He'll 
learn. But I don't want anybody around me 
that I can't trust." 

And that reminded Schussler of a story. 
He was often reminded of a story. He had a 
happy way of resolving complexities with 
stories. His stories were better than sermons 
because more easily remembered. 

"Once," he said, "I was offered a fair in- 
terest in a project provided I did the engi- 
neering work. The project was feasible, but 
I didn't know the projectors. I went to 
'Uncle Daniel' Meyer for advice. 

" 'These people you mention have the 
name of being very religious and charitable,' 
began 'Uncle Daniel.' 

" 'Good,' I said. 'I'll go in with them.' 

" 'But when I see them coming into my 
bank,' continued 'Uncle Daniel,' T yell out 
to everybody, Look out for your overcoats 
and umbrellas!' 

"Then I went to Antoine Borel and asked 

" 'Hermann,' he said, 'decent people can 
make a poor venture go, but bad people can 
ruin the best project in the world.' 

"I didn't go into the project. It was a suc- 
cess — after it changed hands." 

Hermann Schussler took great stock in 
"decent people." For those who were not 
"decent" he had vigorously descriptive 
terms, for he was not mealy-mouthed. His 
assistants he selected with utmost care, ex- 
acting always that their work be not merely 
"good enough," but the best. He liked to see 
a little extra work cheerfully performed, just 
as in the execution of his engineering plans 
he liked a little extra material thrown in for 
good measure and safety. At the same time 

April, 1922 


Native Sons monument commemorating Broderick-Terry 
duel. The exact site of the duel on Laguna de la Merced 
Rancho was in controversy until Hermann Schussler in- 
vestigated and settled the question 

he believed firmly in good pay — for those 
who met his requirements he believed still 
more firmly in better pay. He believed too in 
treating laborers well, paying them well, 
housing them well, feeding them well. On the 
witness-stand in the rate hearing of 1903- 
1904 he described certain concrete as "A 
number 1 concrete, well rammed, set by men 
who ate plenty of beefsteak." 

Schussler was no more exacting with 
others than with himself. Strong physically, 
he had an enormous capacity for work. 
After a hard, protracted day at the office he 
would appear early the next morning, full of 
vim, his pockets stuffed with notes, the re- 
sult of additional work at home. His "night 
thoughts," he called these notes. 

For skimped work he had an abhorrence. 

"The Company," he would say, "is rich 
— rich in debt. It can afford to go a few 
more dollars in debt for good goods. Good 
works cost money, but they are cheap in the 
long run." 

The definition of an engineer in a certain 
handbook — "a man who can spend one dol- 
lar wisely where a fool would spend two" — 
was called to his attention. 

"My definition of a good engineer," he 
said, "is a man who can spend the two dol- 
lars wisely. One million dollars is a big 
coward. There is only one bigger coward — 
two million dollars. A good engineer is a 
man to whom hard-fisted financiers will give 
two million dollars without hemming and 
hawing,- and then sleep well." 

"And then sleep well." That reminded 
Schussler of a story : 

A prominent San Franciscan went to 
"Uncle Daniel" Meyer to make an invest- 
ment for his son-in-law. "Uncle Daniel" told 
this man that he had all sorts of securities 
to offer, from safe and sound securities at 
four per cent to pretty good securities ;il ten 
per cent. It all depended, said "Uncle 
Daniel," on how the son-in-law viewed life. 

"Does he like to eat well, or does he like 
to sleep well?" 

Schussler believed in seeking advice from 
specialists, and urged younger men to do the 
same. At the same time he cautioned them 
not to volunteer advice, especially to supe- 
riors. He disliked meddling. 

"Never go to your king until you're 
called," was the way he put it. "If the boss 
wants your advice he'll ask for it." 

Here he had a story on himself. In the 
days when it was the fashion he drove two 
beautiful bays. One died. After looking at a 
great many horses he finally found a bay 
that suited him and paid a good price for it. 
After a month it went lame. He asked his 
driver what the trouble was. 

"It has a spavin, sor." 

"Did you know it had a spavin when I 
bought it?" 

"Yes, sor." 

:m ■ 



8^- x 

The Stone Dam on Pilarcitos Creek, San Mateo System, 

Spring Valley Water Company, built by Hermann 

Schussler in 1S71 


April, 1922 

rmann Schussler lived and worked in 1864. This photograph was made 
:ent snow-storm, which was the first in very many years 

"Why the mischief didn't you tell me?" 

"You niver axed me, sor." 

"He was right," Schussler would add, "I 
should have asked his advice." 

Even when Schussler asked for advice he 
was careful to check it and to apply his own 
experience to the subject in question. 

Algse — a quite harmless but unpleasant 
vegetable growth in storage reservoirs — 
bothered him, and he determined to rid the 
Spring Valley reservoirs of it. During one 
of his numerous trips abroad he sought the 
advice of a great specialist in Berlin. "Not 
enough fish in the reservoirs," said the Berlin 
man. Then Schussler consulted a still greater 
specialist in Copenhagen. "Too many fish in 
the reservoirs," said the Copenhagen man. 
Schussler came home, devised cloth screens, 
built screen tanks, and screened the algae out 
of Spring Valley water. This invention of his 
has been adopted by other water-works, no- 
tably at Ontario. 

When Schussler came to California he was 
a lad of twenty-one, fresh from Zurich. 

Old Jake Richardson, for many years the 
Company's keeper at San Andres, liked to 
describe the young engineer's arrival at 
Pilarcitos in '64. 

"He rode in on horseback," Jake used to 
say, "with all his personal belongings in a 
carpet-bag. He couldn't speak much English. 
But h — 11," Jake would add, "he can speak 
English now!" 

Building the Pilarcitos dam was quite a 
job for a boy of twenty-two. No need to say 
how well Schussler did it. He studied Eng- 
lish every night after a hard day of engi- 
neering. Study was his lifelong habit. 

"Knowing how," he used to say, "is almost 
everything. An engineer rendered his client a 
bill for one hundred dollars. The client 
thought the charge was high and asked for 
itemization. The engineer itemized his bill 
this way: For doing the job, $5; for know- 
ing how, $95." 

His religion was the Golden Rule. His 
lifelong example of personal conduct incul- 
cated fidelity to family, to friends and to 

April, 1922 



work. He was affectionate, sincere and cheer- 
ful. He liked warm-hearted people, and felt 
sorry for those who were "cold-nosed,'' who 
had "cobblestones under their vests where 
their hearts ought to be.'' His philosophy 
was optimism. 

For certain engineering services at Vir- 
ginia City he was paid with a foot of the 
Bonanza mine, worth forty thousand dol- 
lars. Afterward he sold it for two hundred 
thousand dollars. The man who bought 
from Schussler sold for a million and a half. 

Twitted with showing poor business sense 
in this deal, he said: "I'm not so sure. Blank 
bought gout and other troubles with his mil- 
lion and a half and died. I am healthy and 

He liked good company, thoroughly en- 
joying the companionship of congenial 
younger men. It was a privilege to sit with 
him in old Zinkand's and hear him talk his- 
tory, coins, art, old armor, the Broderick- 
Terry duel, books — anything and every- 
thing — as he did justice to a specially pre- 
pared hamburger steak and a bottle of Rhine 
wine. He knew a good cigar, though he gave 
up smoking for twenty-five years, resuming 
the habit late in life. No one who patronized 
Collins & Wheeland had a more discriminat- 
ing taste for good whisky. 

There was not a bit of hypocrisy in him. 
To an associate who whispered that he had 
seen an assistant of Schussler's going into a 
saloon, he replied out loud : "It is all right to 
go into a saloon. The great thing is to be 
able to come out." 

His knowledge of human nature, his good 
humor and shrewdness made him resourceful 
and persuasive. He needed to be persuasive, 
for he was building up a great water system, 
and was constantly asking the Spring Valley 
directors to buy huge parcels of land "sight 
unseen" so far as the water was concerned. 

He had difficulty in persuading some of 
the Company officers that the water-bearing 
possibilities of the Sunol Valley, where the 
filter-beds are now located, were what he 
represented them to be. He took the doubting 
Thomases over there. It was midsummer. 
The Sunol Valley looked a waterless rocky 
desert. Luncheon was served under the 
shadiest tree. While the chicken and wine 
were being discussed Schussler talked 
gravel-beds. He pictured the underground 
structure of the valley, with its wealth of 
percolating waters. The chicken was gone, 

the glasses were empty. He had failed to 
convince. He was almost discouraged. 

Almost, but not quite. He asked M. B. 
Kellogg, the attorney for the Company, to 
put his head down close to the scorching 
rocks and listen to the underground flow. As 
Kellogg complied Schussler filled the wine- 
glasses again, with a musical gurgling 
sound. Kellogg jumped up. 

"Schussler," he said, "you have convinced 
me. I heard not only a flowing but a gur- 
gling. I even heard the waters saying to one 
another: 'Look out! Schussler is here from 
Spring Valley. The first thing we know, he'll 
have them drinking us in San Francisco!' 
Here's to the Sunol supply!" 

"If this water is not drunk in San Fran- 
cisco," said Schussler, "at least it will be 
used for the Saturday-night bath." 

Perhaps Kellogg foresaw the Volstead 
Act, while Schussler did not. 

Schussler was appointed by President 
Roosevelt on the Board of Engineers to de- 
termine the type of the Panama Canal. He 
was ill at the time, and declined on that 
account. But back of his declination was the 
fact that Roosevelt wanted a lock canal while 
Schussler believed it should be sea-level. 

That appointment was one of many trib- 
utes to the eminence he attained in his pro- 
fession. He left his impress on many great 
hydraulic projects, mining, power, and irri- 
gation, as well as water supply. 

Spring Valley, however, is his monument. 
In his fifty years of service to the Company 
he designed and built this metropolitan 
water supply, one of the greatest in the world, 
solving new problems, pioneering in many 
fields of water-works engineering. The lay- 
ing of riveted pipe to be operated under 
heavy water pressure is only one of the 
achievements associated at home and abroad 
with the name of Hermann Schussler. He 
planned and built for the future so wisely 
that very little investment in these develop- 
ments of his has had to be discarded. Fol- 
lowing his advice, the Company came to 
control all the nearby sources of water avail- 
able for San Francisco. The securities issued 
to finance his work were always gilt-edged. 

His driving force was genius expressed 
in engineering — that and something else. 
The boy from Zurich grew to love his San 
Francisco with a passionate attachment, and 
with such a man — a doer not a dreamer — 
to love was to serve. 


April, 1922 

The First-Line "Trench 

By Frank P. Clark, Chief, Consumers' Accounts and Adjustments 

THE water consumer with a "kick" 
enters the adjusting department to find 
three men confronting him from behind the 
counter. The consumer may be very angry, 
he may wave his water-bill truculently, but 
Louis C. Coleman, George J. Hammersley, 
and Richard Ashley are not dismayed. 

These three adjusters are all so good- 
natured-looking that there is no reason why 
the consumer should apply to one of them 
rather than to another. As a matter of fact, 
he does not single out one of them. Being in 
a belligerent mood he applies to all three of 
them at once. From the way he feels, he is 
willing to debate his bill with the entire per- 
sonnel of Spring Valley. He wants to fight 
somebody. He will welcome the provocation 
to talk loud. 

By the time the consumer cools down a lit- 
tle he finds himself in the soothing company 
of a single adjuster. He begins to realize, 
much to his astonishment, that he is talking 
to a fairly reasonable human being instead 
of to the corporation ogre that he had ex- 
pected to face and fight. 

They come in red-eyed with rage, and they 
shake hands cordially before they leave. This 
is not a boastful statement; neither is there 
anything wonderful about it. The explana- 
tion is that the vast majority of people are 
fair-minded, and will not nurse a grouch or 
harbor a grudge in the presence of fair, 
square treatment. 

"Adjuster" as applied to the water busi- 
ness in San Francisco is a misnomer nowa- 
days. The word holds over from the old time 
of flat rates, when adjustments had to be 
made for vacancies, structural changes, etc. 
With universal metering, all bills are issued 
correctly, so much for the recorded delivery 
of water and so much for the service charge. 
Adjustments are not necessary. 

Allowances are made, however. The Com- 
pany does not wish to see the rate-payer 
penalized for water waste caused by hidden 
leaks and defective fixtures not immediately 
under the control of the party responsible for 
the bill. The Company, therefore, has 
adopted the very liberal policy of dividing 
the loss with the consumer, provided he co- 
operates by correcting the fault immediately 

following discovery. This policy has the ap- 
proval of the Railroad Commission. Allow- 
ances are made at intervals not closer than 
twelve months, for the Company feels (as 
does the Railroad Commission) that the con- 
sumer, after receiving warning and co-opera- 
tion from the Company, should maintain 
control for a year at least. These allowances 
are made in the adjusting department. 

Messrs. Coleman, Hammersley, and Ash- 
ley, then, are not adjusters in the strict sense 
of the word. They are advisers. They advise 
water consumers just as literally as a lawyer 
advises his client or a doctor his patient. 
And their advice saves consumers many 
thousands of dollars. 

About forty people consult each of the 
three adjusters every day — which means that 
one hundred and twenty people every work- 
ing day receive expert advice on how to read 
the water-meter, how to verify the water-bill, 
and how to detect and curb water waste. If 
the population of this city remained abso- 
lutely unchanged, if there were no new gen- 
eration growing up and no new people set- 
tling here, these men, by their educational 
activities, would long since have worked 
themselves out of their jobs. On second 
thought, however, that statement is not en- 
tirely correct. Our adjusters have been ad- 
justing and advising for many years, and 
they say that there are a few chronic kickers 
who come so regularly that they call them 
by their first names ! 

The fact that the work of this department 
is advising and not adjusting incorrect bills 
may be made clear by a recent case. The pro- 
prietor of a good-sized hotel west of Powell 
Street burst into the department wild-eyed. 
For three months he had been billed for 
water, and he was sure he had caught the 
Company off base! Talk about the accuracy 
of the meter and the meter reader ! He flour- 
ished his bill like a banner of war. 

Now, this hotel obtains its water from a 
well. There is a Spring Valley connection, 
but only for auxiliary use, in case of some 
accident to the well. The hotel had always 
paid a service charge, no more, for the well 
was dependable and the pump was kept in 
good condition. Nevertheless, the hotel had 

April, 1922 


been billed for water delivered during De- 
cember, January, and February. 

"We used no Spring Valley water. I'm 
sure of it." Thus the irate proprietor. We 
were not so sure of it by any means. We 
were willing to bet that his hotel had used 
Spring Valley water, but of course we did 
not say that to the angry boniface. It 
wouldn't be ethical to bet on a sure thing! 
Instead, permission to inspect his water- 
pipes was asked. He wouldn't permit this. 
But he did instruct his plumber to investi- 
gate, and the plumber, being an honest man, 
told him exactly what had happened. In 
December the well pump had been over- 
hauled, and the workman who did the job 
turned on the Spring Valley valve instead of 
the well valve when the job was completed. 

The proprietor came back and apologized 
for his heated behavior. Also he asked for an 
allowance on his bill — and he got it, the 
water having been used through no fault 
of his. 

The consumer who thinks he has a griev- 
ance must be handled diplomatically. Yet it 
requires only a few moments to make him 
appreciate the fact that the adjuster has 
nothing in mind except the consumer's in- 
terests. He leaves the office fully satisfied 
that the Company is willing to do and does 
do everything in its power to assist the pub- 
lic in the most economical use of water. 

The adjuster must be cheerful. He must 
never lose patience. He must smile easily 
and always. He works in trying circum- 
stances. Every approach to him is an attack, 
yet he cannot retaliate; he must use good 
humor and the truth, and never lose his tem- 
per. He is not supposed to be skilled in con- 
troversy, he is not expected to make telling 
points against the complaining consumer. 
He must explain simply and convincingly, 
and then offer helpful advice. Because hu- 
man nature is basically reasonable, he suc- 

The complaints flow in well-worn chan- 
nels. "The meter is inaccurate." "The meter 
reader does not read the meter, he guesses 
at it." It is astonishing, by the way, what 
eloquent English partially assimilated for- 
eigners talk when they are disputing a 
water-bill ! 

Speaking of meter readers: One day an 
engineer of note came into the adjustment 
department and told an experience he had 
just had. Walking along a residential street 

he saw a Spring Valley meter render in 
action. The man worked so fast that the 
engineer was persuaded his movements were 
perfunctory — that he was only making a 
pretense of taking the meter readings. He 
overtook the Spring Valley man. 

"You're not reading these meters," he- 
said. "You're going too fast." 

"Follow me, and check me up," said the 
meter reader. 

The engineer did so. At the end of a block 
they compared notes. 

"By Jove," exclaimed the engineer, "I 
didn't think it was possible." 

"Huh!" said the meter reader. "I was go- 
ing slow. I'm not feeling very peppy this 

Our adjusters are optimists on the subject 
of human nature. They keep always in mind 
that the person on the other side of the 
counter does not understand, that he has to 
be taught. They are sympathetic. They 
know just how the other fellow feels. And 
experience has taught them that once the 
Company's case is demonstrated the con- 
sumer is satisfied. 

The first call of a consumer is usually a 
complaint couched in angry terms. The sec- 
ond and subsequent calls are in the nature 
of appeals — "Help me; send the inspector to 
find the leak that I can't find." Patient serv- 
ice brings about that change of attitude. 
Knowing that human nature reacts this way, 
how can the adjusters be other than op- 
timists ? 

Drink Plenty of Water 

All foods are divided into protein or nitrog- 
enous substances, fats, starches or carbo- 
hydrates, minerals, vitamines, and water. 
And the greatest of these is water. Water does 
not "make fat." It can't. Reducing by cutting 
down the water supply of the body does not 
work. Less candy, less eating between meals, 
less fats, and enough exercise to burn up ex- 
cess food stored in the body are the only ways 
in which slimness can be achieved without 
risk of health. Lack of sufficient water causes 
trouble. Few people drink enough of it. Two 
quarts a day is not an undue allowance when 
you consider all the work that must lie done 
in the body by water. — League for the Con- 
servation of Public Health. 


April, 1922 

The JVater-Meter 

By George W. Pracy, Superintendent, City Distribution 

Meter set in lawn, with turf ready for replacement 

DURING 19 15 the city of San Francisco 
consumed over forty-two million gal- 
lons of water per day. This amounted to 
more water per day than the developed 
water supply. Through the first few months 
of 19 1 6, this water use increased until all 
indications pointed to an even greater use 
in 19 16 than there had been in 19 15. At 
this rate the surplus storage, saved to tide 
the city over dry years, would all have been 
used in a very few years and a partial water 
famine would have resulted. 

A systematic leak inspection a year or two 
before had shown that a great quantity of 
water was lost through leaking plumbing 
fixtures, and that a great deal more was 
used unnecessarily. After careful study of 
the whole situation, the decision was made to 
meter all services. 

At this time only the commercial services 
were metered. There were about twenty-two 
thousand of these. About fifty thousand resi- 
dential services were buying water under 
flat rates. 

These fifty thousand residential services 
were metered in two periods, about twenty- 
five thousand meters being set in each period. 
For a part of the time meters were set at the 
rate of three hundred a day. This was an 
undertaking unique in the history of water- 
works and one that will remain for some time 
as the record job of its kind. 

From a mechanical or engineering stand- 
point, the setting of fifty thousand meters 
means constant, watchful plugging. No great 
engineering knowledge is necessary. Rather, 

the requirements are an ability to see that 
plenty of material is always at hand, that 
the men do the least walking for the number 
of meters set, and that the pipe-fitters, la- 
borers, and handy men are so proportioned 
that each keeps the other busy. And then, 
too, the man in charge must always be alert 
to see that the workers are efficient and cour- 
teous. The big problems are those of pleas- 
ing the public. 

The records of the Company giving the 
location of the services were surprisingly cor- 
rect, considering their number and age, par- 
ticularly since the fire of 1906 had destroyed 
a large part of the city. Where the records 
were at fault, the service pipes were found by 
means of the "wireless pipe locater," a clever 
little electrical device that can be so con- 
nected as to make the location of under- 
ground pipes easy. Our only trouble with 
this machine was, in a very few cases, that 
it forgot to distinguish between water-pipe 
and gas-pipe where these two were con- 
nected together inside the houses. In these 
cases we had to make two tries before the 
water-pipe was located. This machine saved 
considerable in the way of money on the job, 

o be broken 

but, far more than that, it saved the owners 
of some beautiful lawns the agon)' of seeing 
those lawns dug up in the search for the 
missing service. 

It seems to me, after a good many years' 
experience, that the one thing the consumer 

April, 1922 


dislikes most is to have an apparently 
thoughtless, careless person come out and 
mutilate his lawn in the name of a water or 
gas company. We thought a great dial about 
that before the men were started out. The 

Meter-shop, Spring Valley Water Company, showing 
meters and bins tor repair parts 

men were all carefully instructed to take up 
just as little lawn as possible, to remove it 
carefully so that the sod would not be torn, 
and to replace the sod almost immediately 
after the meter had been set. We followed 
this up with a careful watering and the use 
of fertilizer. As a result, I remember only a 
few lawns that needed any special attention. 

In breaking up the concrete sidewalks 
care was taken to limit the breakage to one 
square. This was done primarily to please 
the consumer, but, unlike the care given to 
the lawns, it reacted to the advantage of the 
Company, as concrete sidewalks are expen- 
sive to break up and even more expensive to 
replace. People do not seem to object to the 
breaking of their sidewalks nearly as much 
as they do to digging up their lawns. But the 
only real conscientious objectors to metering 
were met when, in two cases, we found irate 
property owners, shotgun in hand, standing 
guard over spots we had marked for destruc- 
tion. A hurried hunt for a policeman and a 
few words on his part settled the argument 
and the meters w r ent in. 

The people of San Francisco, although in 
most cases opposed to the installation of the 
meters, were uniformly courteous to the men 
and aided them in such ways as they could. 
This feeling the Company tried to return, 
and in a good many cases meters were set 
at greater cost so that their location would 

not upset cherished plans for the laying out 
of front gardens. 

The water-meter of today is an exact mea- 
suring instrument. The amount of water you 
use each month is as accurate!} measured as 
the sugar or coffee or coal that you buy, and 
the water-meter in front of your house i- ju.-t 
as carefully and accurately made and as- 
sembled as the automobile engine in your 
car. Made entirely of bronze, except for the 
hard-rubber disk and rubber bushings, it is 
particularly well constructed to resist cor- 
rosion both from the water inside and from 
the soil outside. 

The meter operates by the water passing 
through the chamber and causing the disk to 
move in about the same way that a coin 
moves just before it stops after it has been 
spun. The word "nutation" has been used 
by meter manufacturers as coming the near- 
est to describing the motion of this disk. The 
dictionary defines "nutation"" as nodding, 
so the word does not fully describe the mo- 
tion of the disk, though it is as near to it as 
any word will come. The disk, in moving 
around, sets a train of gears in motion, which 
in turn moves the hands on the dial and 
shows the amount of water that has passed 
through the meter. 

The moving parts of a meter, like all other 
machines, wear down after a time, depending 
on how much water is drawn through them. 
Thev then begin to run slowly — that is, to 

transmit more water than they register. 
Finally the gears no longer mesh, or else 
they get out of line and jam, and the meter 
becomes a "no go." As soon as this happens 
the meter is taken out and a new one put in 



April, 192: 

its place. There are lots of meters that were 
set soon after the fire of 1906 that are still 
giving good service. All in all, about three 
thousand five hundred meters are changed 
each year. As there are over seventv-five 

Test bench for small metei 

one tii 

thousand in use, this means that each year 
we have to change less than five meters out 
of every hundred in use. 

A well-equipped meter-shop is main- 
tained at the Spring Valley Yard. Here they 
are cleaned, repaired, tested, adjusted till 
correct, and then put on a shelf till needed to 
replace others that have stopped working. 
The adjustments are made by means of what 
are known as "change gears." These change 
gears come for each style of meter. Each gear 

has a different number of teeth on it, so that 
when a meter tests fast or slow it can be 
made to read correctly by taking off the 
change gears and inserting others with the 
proper number of teeth. 

When the residential meters were set, 
there was a natural desire on the part of 
consumers to be able to read them. Every 
water company is glad to see its customers 
learn to read the meter dial, as this knowl- 
edge enables them to watch their consump- 
tion and so eliminate waste and leakage. A 
water-meter is not hard to read. A folder 
with diagrammatic instructions for reading 
the meter and a ruled space for recording the 
figures is supplied by the Company. 

A water-meter runs as well backward as 
forward, so that when a section is shut down 
and the water runs back through the meter, 
the amount passing is automatically sub- 
tracted from the meter reading. 

The ordinary water-meter is made for cold 
water only. Hot water causes the rubber disk 
to swell and warp and then stick. Hot-water 
meters are made by using a metal instead of 
rubber disk. A hot-water meter wears 
rapidly, and so far no really satisfactory hot- 
water meter has been made. 

A meter is made to read as nearly correct 
as possible before being set; but if no com- 
bination of gears will make it exactly correct, 
it is always made to read slow, so that the 
consumer gets a little more water than is 
paid for. 

Test bench for large meters 

April, 1922 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

375 Sutter Street * Phone Douglas 2562 
Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol I 

April, 1922 

No. 2 

AP R O B L E M with which purchasing 
agents have to contend at times is strik- 
ingly set forth and justly commented on in 
the following editorial from the Argonaut, 
entitled "Hard Going for General Dawes": 

"In his capacity of Director of the National 
Budget General Dawes is finding the sled- 
ding extremely rough. His efforts to intro- 
duce common-sense business methods into 
the operations of the Government encounter 
obstacles ranging along the line from rank 
recklessness to sheer stupidity. Here's an 
illustration: The Navy Department needs 
brooms for deck and yard use to the number 
of 12,000. A New York factory offered to 
supply them at 55 cents each. The War De- 
partment holds in its surplus stock-supply 
350,000 brooms, bought at war prices and 
listed by the Budget Bureau at 70 cents each. 
The budget director suggested that instead 
of buying a new stock of brooms the Navy 
Department fill its requirements by taking 
over brooms from the surplus stock of the 
War Department. But the Navy Department 
declined upon the theory that it would be bad 
business to pay 70 cents to the War Depart- 
ment for an article that could be bought in 
the market at 55 cents. That both depart- 
ments are branches of the same Government 
and that they draw their funds from a com- 
mon source made no appeal to the naval 

"Here we have in its finest flower the 
working of the bureaucratic mind. It re- 
gards the bureau as a separate and self-con- 
tained government. It can not grasp the fun- 
damental difference between paying by 
bookkeeping charge another branch of the 
Government for supplies and paying a pri- 
vate contractor for them. It is true that if in 
the instance above cited the brooms had been 
transferred from the army surplus to the 
Navy Department, the Navy Department's 

appropriation would have been reduced by 
the total of the purchase price. The differ- 
ence between 70 cents per broom and 55 
cents would by this process have been lost 
to the navy fund. But the national treasury 
would not have paid out a single cent. To 
the Government there would have been sal- 
vage to the extent of the purchase. On the 
other hand, by buying from a private con- 
tractor the Navy Department makes an 
apparent saving in its appropriation, al- 
though the public treasury is out that much 
more money. The Government is in the po- 
sition of buying a new set of brooms, al- 
though it has an over-abundant supply on 

"The only money in which a department 
or a bureau has any interest is that appro- 
priated for itself. It has no conception of 
government money as a whole. What other 
bureaus do, or what the condition of the na- 
tional treasury may be, is not of bureau con- 
cern. Self-contained and self-sufficient, it 
narrows its vision down to its own special 
interest. All other bureaus are as far re- 
moved from it as if they belonged to another 

The third annual convention of the Cali- 
fornia Section, American Water Works As- 
sociation, will be held in Oakland some time 
in October. Plans are already under way to 
make this the best convention ever held by 
the section. Water-works manufacturers will 
exhibit the latest in water-works tools and 

The illustration for the cover of Sax Fran- 
cisco Water shows a part of Lake Pilar- 
citos, the smallest of the three Spring Valley 
reservoirs in San Mateo County, during the 
recent quite unusual visit of the Snow King. 
The photograph was made by George E. 
Fanning, as were the photographs of the 
Stone Dam, Portola Woods, etc., reproduced 
in this issue. 

The Biblical quotation on the back cover is 
to be seen above the doorway of Spring Val- 
ley's Central Pumping Station on Sloat 
Boulevard, San Francisco. It was selected by 
Mrs. W. B. Bourn from Deuteronomy, the 
eleventh verse of the eleventh chapter. 



April, 1922 

Don Gaspar de Portola traversed this Portola Woods region in 1769 

Portola TV^oods 

By Theodore J. Wilder, Manager Real Estate Department. 

IS there anyone in San Francisco who has 
not seen the beauties of the region known 
as Portola Valley ? He should lose no time in 
acquainting himself with one of the most- 
entrancing spots in California. 

Portola Valley lies in San Mateo County 
six or seven miles south of the Crystal 
Springs Lake of the Spring Valley Water 
Company. It is usually known as the "Wood- 
side country," a term which embraces the 
beautifully wooded hillsides as well as the 

The country is rich in the lore of early 
Calif ornian history. The valley derived its 
name from Don Gaspar de Portola. On July 
14, 1769, this doughty soldier with sixty- 
four men began his march from San Diego 
to the north. The personnel of his party con- 
tains some of the best-known names in our 
history. It was only after suffering the sever- 
est hardships — most of the party, including 

Portola, falling desperately ill at one time 
or another- — that the expedition reached its 
destination. In the course of this march Por- 
tola and his men passed over practically all 
of this country and, it is recorded, camped 
on the San Francisquito Creek, near the site 
of Stanford University. 

In this valley the Spring Valley Water 
Company acquired many years ago several 
hundred acres of land. 

The Company also acquired Searsville 
Lake, immediately adjoining. This has since 
been deeded to Stanford University. 

These purchases were made with the view 
of adding a new unit to the San Mateo 
County sources of San Francisco's water sup- 
ply. This plan was subsequently abandoned. 
The Company thereupon decided to dis- 
pose of the land, a policy that has since be- 
come practically mandatory for all the Com- 
pany's lands "not used and useful,'' under a 

April, ii)22 



This sun-flecked leafy vista is a characteristic bit of beautiful Portola Woods 

decision of the California Railroad Commis- 
sion, rendered August 12, 192 1. 

It was realized that for those seeking 
country-home sites, this acreage in Portola 
Valley would prove ideal. 

Here was land near a growing metropolis, 
in a region where the climate is always mild, 
endowed by nature with beautiful oaks and 
clusters of redwoods which had taken years, 
perhaps centuries, to reach their present 
state of maturity. A great deal of time and 
thought was given to subdividing this prop- 
erty so that none of its natural beauties might 
be lost or marred. The developed plan of 
subdivision provides parcels ranging from 
seven to thirty-eight acres. The care which 
was taken to preserve the natural beauties of 
the property makes it one of the most desir- 
able and attractive "country estate" subdi- 
visions in the vicinity of San Francisco. 

A suitable name for the subdivision was 
thoughtfully considered. What could be more 
appropriate than coupling the name of the 
old Spanish Don who marched across the 
valley some hundred and fifty years ago 

with the woods which play so important a 
part in the beauty of the landscape ? 

So Portola Woods is the name borne by 
this enchanting tract of wooded hill and dell. 

A considerable portion of the acreage 
has already been sold. What remains to be 
disposed of comprises a total of 440 acres 
divided into twenty parcels. There are avail- 
able sites to suit every variety of discrimi- 
nating taste. Height and hollow are pleas- 
antly combined; there are clearings and 
wooded spaces. In addition to the oaks and 
redwoods, the trees are the cypress, pine, eu- 
calyptus, and bay. 

The land to the east of Portola Woods is 
virgin land belonging to Stanford Univer- 
sity, and will probably always be preserved 
to protect the Searsville Lake water supply. 
To the south is the Family Farm, the country 
playground of a San Francisco club. Those 
who purchase in Portola Woods, therefore, 
are assured an unusual degree of rustic se- 
clusion in spite of their proximity to centers 
of population. 



April, IQ22 

yust One Report After Another 

An Interview with the Auditor 

IN its lack of seclusion a public utility may 
justly be compared to the Carassius 

It was Spring Valley's Auditor speaking — 
Frederick P. Muhlner to certified public ac- 
countants, but plain "Fred" to his human 

This was one of those rare moments when 
Fred looks up from his folio sheet of ruled 
paper, lays down his sharp pencil, and, giv- 
ing his auditorial dignity a breathing spell, 
permits his innate geniality to romp. 

"May justly be compared to which?" 
queried the interviewer. 

"To the Carassius Auratus," repeated 
Fred, toying gracefully with a slide-rule. 
"Surely you have not forgotten your icthy- 

The interviewer maintained a noncom- 
mital silence. 

"Perhaps I had better put it this way," 
Fred went on; "a public utility has no more 
privacy than a goldfish." 

"Ah," he smiled as the interviewer regis- 
tered recognition, "though you have forgot- 
ten your icthyology, you remember your Irv 
Cobb. Yes, no more privacy than a Carassius 
Auratus, or goldfish. The statement is not too 
highly colored. Pitiless publicity is the lot of 
the public utility. The regulatory bodies are 
pitiless. And in saying 'pitiless' I am think- 
ing of the auditor's department — they have 
no pity on the auditor. And I am thinking of 
all this." 

Fred's arm swept a curve that embraced 
the adding-machine, Dave Cooper, Moody's 
Manual, the overcoat of a Government field 
auditor, and the cigar of an examiner from 
the Railroad Commission. 

"In these days of intensive regulation," 
Fred went on, unconsciously dotting a sheet 
with decimal points, "the auditor's lot, like 
the policeman's, is not a happy one. No, in- 
deed. It is just one darned report after 
another. The curiosity of the regulatory 
bureaus, state and federal, is insatiable. No 
matter how many returns you prepare for 
them, they come back like the horse-leech's 
daughter and Oliver Twist, always asking 
for more." 

"I think I am a measurably patient man," 

Fred continued; "but consider for a moment 
the auditing I do for public authority: 

"The Railroad Commission must receive 
an exhaustive annual report. 

"In accordance with our system of state 
taxation, the state has to have an annual re- 

"The Superintendent of Banks gets an an- 
nual report. 

"The federal income tax requires a very 
special kind of report. Indeed, the Federal 
Government is always with us. Every month 
it thinks of something it would like to know. 
In between times, just for good measure, it 
asks for additional affidavits. And then the 
Government field auditors appear to check 
the income and profits tax statements, the 
capital stock tax return, the monthly and 
annual return of normal income tax to be 
paid at source, and the stamps attached to 
canceled stock certificates. 

"In between times I do a little auditing 
for Spring Valley. 

"Considering this insistent curiosity of 
the regulatory bodies, I think the reference 
to the Carassius Auratus, or goldfish, was 
not far-fetched? Am I right?" 

The interviewer bowed assent. 

"Do you know," Fred went on earnestly, 
"I am tempted to emphasize my point by 
taking liberties with a well-known passage 
from Alexander Pope's Essay on Man. Will 
you bear with me?" 

Poetry in the auditor's sanctum! The 
interviewer was too astounded to speak. He 
sat breathless while Fred gave voice: 

"Lo the poor auditor! whose too tutored mind 

Unwinds red tape of every length and kind ; 

Insatiate Government will not let him stray 

From long reports, each framed a different way ; 

Yet fervent piety to his hope has given, 

Beyond bureaucracy, a rest in heaven ; 

Some peaceful world where balance-sheets are not, 

And state and federal audits are forgot ; 

Where special agents leave one quite alone, 

And income tax returns are all unknown. 

To Be, contents his natural desire, 

He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire, 

But smiles to think, within that quiet sky, 

There are no figures, so they cannot lie !" 

The interviewer brushed away a tear, and 
the adding-machine in the corner gave a 
sympathetic click. 

April, [922 



1' ri 'ii*iLir jjfotft 


t f.flmwfTff J 

! |r' '^VWfSf 'flUP\XLMTl f 

H jj 

1 ACACIA rt^.o...* 


u I 

/CI ■ t »»(. 


H ' " 

- • ,| | <. - - • • . 


- • ' 


I ',■' ■ , .. . 

■ ^a *$J 


H > 





Planting plan for Venturi Meter House of Spring Valley Water Company, at Millbrae, prepared by Mark Daniels, 

landscape engineer 

iA Public Utility Planting 

By Mark Daniels 

FIVE elements are essential to perfection 
in a product of the creative mind. They 
are unity, variety, propriety, character, and 
finish. Whether it be a garden or a song, the 
creation must stand these five tests before it 
can be called noteworthy. 

Galleries are full of paintings in which 
excellent technique is wasted on a jumble of 
unrelated subjects. A song with a lofty mo- 
tive is set to jig music. A tragic story is told 
with a humorous twist. In each case one of 
the five essentials is lacking. 

Only rarely is a product found that will 
stand the five tests, as, for example, Poe's 
poem, "The Bells," where words, rhythm, 
color, finish, and length are perfectly appro- 
priate to the subject. But though perfection 
is rarely attained, that is no reason why we 
should not strive for it. 

Unity, variety, propriety, character, and 
finish are essential elements in landscape 
gardening — and they are lacking in many 
gardens. Do we not find cactus in church- 
yards, cypress in playgrounds ? 

In gardening, as in the other arts, there is 
something to be expressed. The medium is 

trees and shrubs. Unfortunately, however, 
few persons have any idea of the meaning 
of trees and shrubs, or of the spirit they ex- 
press. If you would learn propriety and char- 
acter in trees, compare the willows of the 
meadows with the cedars of the mesas, study 
the stateliness of the sequoias, note the har- 
mony of line in the rounded oaks that hug 
the curving hills. 

A few comments on one of a series of 
planting plans prepared for the Spring Val- 
ley Water Company will illustrate the five 
essential elements named above. 

The subject to be treated was the Venturi 
Meter on the San Mateo Highway near the 
gates of the Company's pumping station at 
Millbrae. This master meter measures all the 
water flowing into San Francisco from the 
Alameda and San Mateo sources of the com- 
pany. Its architectural setting is simple, dig- 
nified, and classical. Passers-by behold a 
shrinelike facade; and this is proper, for 
here is enshrined an immutable law of public 
utility service — the vigilant and scientific 
control of water flowing from its sources to 
serve a great metropolis. 



April, 192: 

What could be more appropriate in the 
planting scheme than Lombardy poplars 
with their classical architectural lines, and 
suggesting, as all poplars do, the proximity 
of water? There is pride in the poplar, born 
perhaps of the knowledge that no female 
has ever existed in its line, for all the poplars 
spring from a parent male tree discovered 
early in the eighteenth century on the banks 
of the Po. 

In seeking to emphasize the water motive 
the willow comes to mind. Its pendent 
branches form a perfect complement to the 
aspiring boughs of the Lombardy. But there 
is sorrow in the willow. The Koreans plant 
the avenues leading to their tombs with wil- 
lows. Napoleon spent his last days beneath a 
weeping-willow on the Island of St. Helena. 
Chinese literature and Chinese porcelain or- 
nament, like the willow pattern, link the wil- 
low with grief. So the drooping, graceful 
branches of the Eucalyptus viminalis were 
chosen to complement the Lombardy. 

Further to recognize the architecture and 
introduce a note of steadfastness, the slow- 
growing, evergreen, columnar Irish yew was 
placed on either side of the little temple. 

Nothing can express the glory of water 
like grass, the child of the meadow. Three 
beds of lawn were placed at the entrance. 
Around these is planned a low border of 
trimmed boxwood to give finish to the fore- 

With an eye to unity, then, the twelve 
Lombardys and the two Irish yews were 
chosen, for they are architectural, and the 
dominant note must be the shrine. For pro- 
priety, the Lombardy combines with the 
drooping leaves of the eucalyptus. For va- 
riety, the bloom of the acacia and the scarlet 
eucalyptus give contrasting colors and blend- 
ing foliage in the background, while bedding 
plants and flowering shrubs form a frame 
of color around the lawn. The character 
notes are the Lombardys and yews. Finish 
is attained by neatly trimmed boxwood 
hedges, lawn borders, and privet hedges. 

So much for the thought. There remains 
the execution. If some of the plants do not 
thrive, others must be substituted. Care and 
attention must be lavish until the planting 
has achieved sufficient growth to show the 
result of thought and order. 

Co-operation and Understanding 

(Continued from Page 1.) 

averas water to Crystal Springs Lake and 
be compensated for this service, the Company 
paying $250,000 per year for a period of 

The City and the Company entered upon 
the negotiations contemplated by the Com- 
mission. The City was confronted with prac- 
tical difficulties in the execution of an 
agreement that the Commission could not 
have foreseen. These practical difficulties 
proved to be of a substantial character. They 

First, the construction of a conduit from 
Niles Screen Tank to Irvington, which may 
cost up to 200,000, and, 

Secondly, the payment of interest on the 
Hetch Hetchy bonds during the construction 
of the City's conduit. For the period of con- 
struction this may cost up to $300,000. 

While the Company was in no way obli- 
gated under the specific provisions of the 
Commission's decision to assume these lia- 
bilities, yet it felt obligated to approach the 
problem from the spirit of larger co-opera- 
tion upon which the decision of the Com- 

mission was based. The water supply of the 
City was at stake; therefore the future of 
the Company as well as of the City. 

The Company finally yielded to the rep- 
resentations of the City and agreed to assume 
the costs of the Niles-Irvington pipe-line and 
pay interest on the Hetch Hetchy bonds dur- 
ing the time of construction of the City's 
conduit. The City in turn agreed to continue 
the life of the agreement for twelve instead 
of ten years, which would enable the Com- 
pany in part to reimburse itself in the later 
years of the agreement for the large addi- 
tional outlays imposed on it by the City dur- 
ing its first years. 

The Railroad Commission has brought 
about a common ground of understanding 
between the City and the Company which 
assures adequate development and ample 
additional water supply for at least twelve 
years to come. We look to the future with 
confidence and trust in the upbuilding of 
San Francisco's water supply through a full 
spirit of co-operation and understanding be- 
tween the City and the Company. 

It i 



•an Francisco Witer 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I 

July, 1922 


San Francisco, the City of Promise 

By W. B. Bourn, President 

THE faith of San Franciscans in their 
city is their religion; it pervades the air 
they breathe and implies an ideal content. 
To them it is the City of Promise. A question 
may well be raised as to what they mean. 
Will the promise fulfill itself, or does it im- 
ply responsibilities ? 

One can appreciate and feel wherein Lon- 
don, Paris, Florence, Venice are unlike; 
each has a soul of its own. In America many 
cities seem identical, differing only in the 
degree of intensity with which the same pur- 
suits are followed. On the brighter side of 
life that sameness kills. American rivalries 
and contrasts are commercial rather than 
social, and it requires clear observation of a 
community to detect its soul. Not so with 
San Francisco. No stranger could come here 
without encountering habits of life and 
thought in which she differs not only from 
his own home but from every other American 

San Francisco is without a childhood. In 
1849 a trading-post; in 1850 a world center. 
With a few grains of gold she was heralded 
throughout the world as the place of oppor- 
tunity. Here rushed the flower of America's 
youth to combat with adventurers from the 
great outside world. 

The Argonauts were joined by the Pio- 
neers and master builders of our state and 
city. The magnet was gold, and all that gold 
could attract or buy entered the Golden Gate. 
With the great decline of the gold production 
ended the first period of San Francisco's 
career, and, wrapped in the glamour of her 
reign, she retired from the center of the stage 
into a youthful world of her own. 

Isolated — independent ; rich — prodigal. 

Without the training of childhood, a youth 
was in the arena of life, his first breath — 
The Joy of Living ! 

Of the three lessons of life — How to Fight. 
How to Love, and How to Die- — San Fran- 
cisco was learning her second lesson before 
the rudiments of the first dawned upon her. 
Nature's gifts were lavish. There was little 
or no struggle for existence. Mere money 
counted little, and the man who had nothing 
but money soon found his level. Social life 
compared not unfavorably with that of the 
capitals of Europe. 

In a period of serene contentment, while 
an empire was making ready to pour another 
and unlimited stream of material wealth into 
her lap, the soul of San Francisco was de- 

The student and romancer will find a 
wealth of fascinating material in these form- 
ative years of the city's character. She dis- 
covered Edwin Booth, Modjeska, Tetrazzini. 
In her atmosphere Bret Harte felt the mate- 
rial; Robert Louis Stevenson felt the spirit- 
ual; to many she was ethereal. Her charm 
was irresistible to all, and to many it was an 
inspiration. Here Sienkievicz found his Zag- 
loba, and Clarence King his Don Horatio. 

And in this atmosphere of luxury and con- 
tentment, unmoral, not immoral, San Fran- 
cisco drifted rather than grew, until the 18th 
of April, 1906, when most that was material 
of San Francisco was a City of Yesterday. 

Thomas Robins, in an article entitled 
"Epicurus in the West," closes with these 
words : 

"When her great tragedy came, it found 
San Francisco unafraid, and its results left 
her undaunted. But her courage was not 


July, 1922 

that of the Puritan — a resignation in the 
present and hope for the future; a calm, de- 
liberate appraisement of the calamity, and 
a high, stern resolve to live it down through 
the coming years. Neither was it that of the 
savage — a stubborn, unmoved, and dumb in- 
sensibility. Something was it rather between 
the two, and partaking of neither. To appre- 
ciate it, we must turn to other lands, to an 
older civilization, where life was a kingdom 
wholly of this world, in which courage had a 
different inspiration as well as a different 

"The philosopher at whose feet these peo- 
ple had been unconsciously sitting lived two 
thousand years ago in another sunlit land of 
olive, vine and laurel, of mountains and blue 
sea. Would not the genial Athenian have 
been proud of this community, this new gar- 
den of philosophy by the Golden Gate of the 
Western World ? He would have known them 
for his own — a people realizing that the true 
test of pleasure is the removal and absorp- 
tion of all that gives pain. Earthquake and 
fire, flood and drought, sunshine and rain- 
all in the day's work." 

Is there not something deeper than Robins 
found ? 

"In our flesh grows the branch of this life, 
in our soul it bears fruit." 

The great things of existence most persist- 
ently elude analysis. Who can define life? 
Who has revealed the secret of human per- 
sonality ? 

It is suffering that ennobles the soul of 
man; it is suffering that ennobles the soul of 
a city. As what we see is, so have our 
thoughts been. Who thinks as he thought in 
his childhood ? 

Have we not all had moments when others 
might reason and welcome, but we knew? 

On that memorable 18th of April an invis- 
ible multitude of spirits spoke, and the soul 
of the city was roused from its lethargy. Sons 
of Argonauts, sons of Pioneers, all who loved 
their city, built a monument to the indomi- 
table spirit of San Francisco, and inscribed 
thereon "We Will Justify Our Right to Be." 

The city of today is not the City of Yester- 
day. The youth is now learning the first les- 
son of life — How to Fight. 

It was only after our patron, Francis Ber- 
nardone of Assisi, had fought his battle to 
justify his right to be that the hidden ele- 
ments of strength and mastery of his charac- 

ter were revealed. Until the crisis of his life 
arrived, all the exterior suggested the syba- 
rite, and not the saint. 

I quote from the "Story of Assisi": 

"Her troubadour, Francis Bernardone, the 
rich merchant's son, led the young nobles 
who in their carousals named him Lord of 
Love, and placed the kingly sceptre in his 
hand as he walked at their head through the 
streets at night, rousing the sleepy Assisian 
burghers with wild bursts of song." 

The roysterer for the time but disguised 
the real character, which only waited growth 
to assert itself in all its force and fullness. 

The civic analogy is singularly suggestive. 
Our debonair, pleasure-paced, epicurean city 
contains the germs of high aims and attain- 
ments which, if given expression and inter- 
preted into action, will be like the growth of 
Saint Francis. 

The Franciscan Fathers who gave us the 
name of their founder, our own Pioneers, 
and the crises through which we have passed 
(convulsions of man and nature) should 
contribute to a nobler quality and spirit. 

The City of Promise implies responsibili- 
ties, for the fulfillment of which a serious 
purpose must awaken. A city is not made — it 
grows; and civism demands loyalty to the 
true spirit of the past and loyalty to a con- 
structive ideal. Duty demands service. To 
serve your city, do each your work and do it 

Would that it were within my power to ex- 
press the value of work well done, and the 
corruption that grows from work badly done, 
however good the intentions! Would that it 
were within my power to picture the cancer- 
ous growth that is produced from a seed 
tainted with malice or lacking in charity ! 

Our isolation and independence have pro- 
duced an intense individualism which feels 
a sense of destiny, but gives little thought to 
a sense of justification. Confidence must be 
fortified with knowledge. 

San Francisco must cease to be a city of 
indiscriminate individualism and become 
one of selected individuals who are obliged 
constantly to justify their selection. 

Consummate faith itself is no substitute 
for good work. Back of all work has been a 
long and slow process of social reorganiza- 
tion and individual emancipation; and not 
until the reorganization has been evolved to 

(Continued on Page 13) 

July, 1922 


"A thing of beauty is a joy forever: 
Its loveliness increases; it will never 
Pass into nothingness" 

The Archite&ure of the Water Temple 

By the Editor 

SPRING Valley Water Company rec- 
ognizes "the utility of beauty." This 
recognition finds distinguished expression in 
the architectural treatment of important 
structures, notably the Water Temple at 
Sunol in Alameda County. 

To assume responsibility for the water 
supply of a metropolis is to acknowledge a 
solemn obligation, and to be clothed with a 
special dignity. Whatever expresses that obli- 
gation in terms of beauty enhances the dig- 
nity of the water company in the minds of 
all, not only lifting the routine of water sup- 
ply from the plane of mere business to the 
higher level of public service, but also en- 
larging the opportunity for usefulness. 

Beautv is the handmaid of dignitv, and if 

dignity be rooted in self-respect it will com- 
mand the respect of the general public. 

Perhaps there is nowhere to be found a 
more perfect illustration of beauty as an in- 
terpretation of public utility service than in 
the Sunol Water Temple. 

Lands and structures given over to water 
supply are "dedicated to their highest use," 
and in the case of San Francisco's water sup- 
ply the Sunol Temple is the most impressive 
symbol of that dedication. 

In the Water Temple at Sunol all the 
waters from the Alameda sources of Spring 
Valley Water Company — sources that repre- 
sent control of six hundred square miles of 
watershed — meet and mingle for their long 
journey to San Francisco. The waters that 


July, 1922 

The evolution of the Water Temple, showing significant steps in the progress of design 

pour into the upper basin of the crypt flow 
to the Temple from artesian wells at Pleas- 
anton. The waters pouring directly into the 
lower basin come from the natural filter-beds 
of gravel that underlie Sunol Valley, and 
from the big Calaveras Reservoir. From the 
Water Temple the mingled waters flow 
through forty-five miles of conduit, down 
Niles Canyon, to Dumbarton Point, and 
thence, through four submarine pipes, across 
the bay to San Francisco. Half of San Fran- 
cisco's water supply flows through the Water 
Temple every day. 

Development of the Alameda sources of 
Spring Valley Water Company, begun many 
years ago and still far from exhausting the 
rich possibilities of this branch of the system, 
consists broadly in directing the water from 
its sources through many underground gal- 
leries to a central point of confluence, logi- 
cally located at Sunol. Here the mingled 
waters form a magnificent cascade, dropping 
some forty feet into the conduit that "routes" 
them to San Francisco. 

Originally this cascade was housed in a 
rude shed designed solely to protect the water 
from contamination. Display of the volume 
and crystal purity of the water was impos- 

sible except by dropping flaming newspapers 
through the trap-door of the shed. 

President Bourn appreciated the desira- 
bility of a more dignified treatment of this 
important point of water control, and the 
idea of a temple took form in his mind. 

The execution of the project was entrusted 
to Willis Polk, an architect distinguished for 
a bold originality disciplined and made deli- 
cate by a passionate devotion to Greek and 
Roman models. 

The exquisite design finally produced by 
Mr. Polk was the fruit of a year's thought 
and study. The architect rejected plan after 
plan, a lifelong habit of drastic self-criticism 
telling him that they did not encompass the 
ideal he had conceived. Here, as in all works 
of true art, the final result, though most 
laboriously achieved, had that quality of 
inevitableness that leads laymen to regard 
perfect beauty as the result of a swift and 
easy inspiration. 

Mr. Polk's first design provided a roof 
supported on twenty-four columns, with a 
balustrade as a guard-rail surrounding the 
crypt. This scheme varied but slightly in 
principle from the final design, but from first 
to last studies representing some fifty varia- 




The problem of sightly effect was solved when Mr. Polk raised the base of the Water Temple fifteen feet, bringing 
it to the general level of the Sunol valley floor 

July, 1922 


The Temple of Vesta 
Sunol, stands above a great 

like the Water Temple at 
de of crystal-pure water 

tions of the idea were evolved, only to be 

A natural obstacle to sightly effect ham- 
pered the first studies. It was not perceived 
immediately, but once recognized and sur- 
mounted, progress was more rapid. This 
obstacle was the natural depression of the 
ground at the site of the water crypt. It was 
overcome bv raising the foundation of the 

Temple some fifteen feet and filling the sur- 
rounding ground with about fifty thousand 
cubic yards of fill, in order to bring the base 
of the Temple up to the ground level of the 
valley floor. 

The most interesting problem, artistically, 
was the search for "scale" — that is, to find 
a unit of proportion that would look normal 
in contrast with nature, a stature that would 
harmonize with environment. The studies 
devoted to this element in design led through 
a series of schemes beginning with twenty- 
four columns sixteen feet in height, resting 
on a base forty-five feet in diameter, to a 
final scheme composed of twelve columns 
thirty-five feet in height, on a base thirty-six 
feet in diameter. 

A determining factor in this final decision 
was revealed — but only after many visits to 
the site — by the noble proportions of a huge 
cotton wood-tree near by. The dimensions 
and outline of this tree were measured, and 
its natural proportions suggested the mass of 
the Temple. 

In the course of study all the round 
temples in history were referred to, their pro- 
portions and details analyzed for comparison 
with those under consideration for the pro- 
jected design. 

The final design of the Temple in detail 
was inspired by the famous classic Temple 
of Vesta at Tivoli, near Hadrian's Villa. 
This temple, like the Temple at Sunol, rests 
above a magnificent cascade of crystal -pure 

The Sunol Walnut Orchard 

By F. W. Roeding, Superintendent Agricultural Department 

THE decision by the Spring Valley 
"Water Company to plant the walnut 
orchard in the Sunol Valley was very largely 
due to the recommendation of Judge S. F. 
Lieb, of San Jose. Judge Lieb, for many 
years the most prominent lawyer in San Jose, 
and therefore a very busy man, has always 
found time for horticulture. During the past 
fifteen or twenty years he has made the cul- 
ture of the walnut his special study, and with 
his youngest son is operating fine orchards 
near Berryessa and Cupertino in Santa Clara 
Valley. Quality has been his w 7 atchword in 

the selection of varieties planted on these 
properties; the crop has always commanded 
a premium, and the demand has exceeded the 
supply ever since these nuts have been on the 
market. A record of the Company's orchard 
at Sunol would be incomplete without grate- 
ful acknowledgment to Judge Lieb, not only 
on account of his first recommendation, but 
also for his kindly interest and generous ad- 
vice and assistance ever since the orchard has 
been planted. 

The first planting consisted of eighteen 
hundred trees of the Franquette variety, ob- 


July, 1922 

1st -' 

Drying yard; walnuts on trays for first drying, on canvas 
for final treatment before packing 

tained from Judge Lieb and planted in Feb- 
ruary, 19 10. The trees were spaced forty 
feet each way, and this first planting covered 
an area of approximately seventy-five acres. 

These were fine stocky trees and did re- 
markably well the first year, the loss being 
a small fraction of one per cent. The orchard 
was irrigated from the old Hadsell ditch 
during the first summer, and, although some 
difficulties were encountered on account of 
the uneven surface, breaking of dams, etc., 
all of which are common to irrigation prac- 
tice on new land, the entire surface was given 
a thorough soaking and experience was 
gained that was of value in subsequent 

In 191 1 additional area between the first 
planting and the Water Temple was added, 
consisting of four hundred and fifteen Fran- 
quette and four hundred Mayette trees, com- 
pleting the orchard as at present constituted, 
with an area of a little more than one hun- 
dred acres. 

One of the difficulties encountered at that 
time was the Sunol Nursery, which had been 
located and planted in 1909 northwesterly 
from the Sunol cottage close to Laguna 
Creek. It was necessary to take up the nur- 
sery trees and rearrange the rows so as to 
conform to the orchard planting. Another 
difficulty was a heavy infestation of morn- 
ing-glory. Two years' continuous weed-cut- 
ting and cultivation failed to eradicate this 
weed, and it still persists, though not to the 
extent of the first two years. 

The third and fourth years were the most 
disappointing, as by that time the "die-back" 
of many trees had developed, and this con- 

tinued with varying degrees of destructive- 
ness during subsequent seasons. Advice was 
sought of the Agricultural College at Berke- 
ley, and experts visited the orchard a num- 
ber of times, but no cause could be found, 
though the college was investigating similar 
conditions in many other walnut orchards 
throughout the state. Although the trees ap- 
peared healthy in the fall and during the 
winter, when spring arrived and the trees 
began to show signs of growth, many 
branches on widely scattered trees were dead 
and had to be removed. Another disease 
which also puzzled the investigators was the 
drying-up of trees and rotting of the roots of 
several fine large trees between fall and 
spring of 19 15-16. Fortunately this was 
manifested only during that season. 

The most robust trees have always been 
those near the bank of Laguna Creek, where 
they are sheltered from the strong winds 
coming through Niles Canyon by the tall 
growth of willow, Cottonwood, sycamore, 
and alder. Judging from our experience, 
therefore, it is unwise to plant walnuts where 
they are exposed to strong trade-winds. 

The year 19 16 was the first in which there 
was any product from the orchard; this 
amounted to three hundred pounds. The year 
19 1 7 was unfavorable, for, although small 
nuts appeared in profusion after the blos- 
soming, an early hot wave caused them to 
drop and resulted in a failure. In 19 18 the 
crop, amounting to 2750 pounds, was 
shipped to Judge Lieb for grading and 
bleaching. The year 19 19 was the first of 
any considerable production. Five and three- 
fourths tons were harvested, and all the 
processes to prepare them for market were 
operated by the Company. 

The question of marketing this crop to the 
best advantage was taken up when the nuts 
had advanced to a stage where the crop was 
assured. Mr. Eastman suggested offering 
them in ten-pound boxes and hundred-pound 
sacks to the stockholders of the Company. 
This proved a splendid success, not only 
from an advertising standpoint, but as a 
means of obtaining a fair price. Seven hun- 
dred and sixty ten-pound cartons and thirty- 
four hundred-pound sacks were so disposed 

Unfortunately our 1920 crop was short — 
only three and one-fourth tons — and we had 
to cancel a large number of orders. This 

July, 1922 


caused some dissatisfaction among customers 
of the previous year as well as among pros- 
pective customers. 

The production this past year amounted 
to twenty-one tons two hundred pounds, and 
taxed our drying and bleaching plant to its 
utmost. Fortunately, during the harvesting 
period the weather was ideal, so that there 
was no loss and no unusual expense. More 
than half of this crop has been disposed of, 
consisting of 1450 ten-pound boxes and sixty 
hundred-pound sacks. Sales would doubtless 
have been much larger had it not been for 
the disappointment of the previous season. 

The two varieties — Franquette and May- 
ette — are late blossomers, starting growth 
and developing blossoms several weeks after 
other varieties of English walnuts. Even so, 
there is always danger of late frost, so a 
frost-alarm system has been installed. This 
consists of a dial thermometer set up in the 
center of the orchard and connected electri- 
cally with a bell in the home of A. W. 
Ebright, the assistant Superintendent of the 
Water Division at Sunol. When the hand on 
the dial reaches 34° Fahrenheit an electric 
connection is made and the bell rings. As 
soon as spring plowing and cultivation of the 
orchard are completed, and before the trees 
have started to leaf out, pots containing 
crude oil are distributed through the orchard 
in alternate rows. With the ringing of the 
frost alarm, men with kerosene torches go 
through the orchard lighting the oil in the 
pots. A heavy blanket of smoke results, rapid 
thawing by the, early sunshine is prevented, 
and the crop is saved. It has only been neces- 
sary to smudge in this fashion on three occa- 
sions. Each time the immense cloud of smoke 
rising out of the Sunol Valley has caused 
comment in the neighboring towns of Pleas- 
anton, Livermore, and Niles. Occasional 
weed-cutting, and tillage of the orchard, fol- 
low the removal of the smudge-pots after the 
danger of frost is over. 

About the middle of September the husks 
on the nuts begin to crack and the developed 
nuts fall to the ground. This cracking of the 
husks unfortunately covers a period of from 
thirty to forty days, so that the picking up 
of the crop means going over the orchard 
several times. Where no cracking of the 
husks has occurred, the flesh of the husk 
clings to the nut and makes separation diffi- 
cult. However, after the second picking the 



ir-old Franquette walnut-tree. Sunol walnut 
:hard of Spring Valley Water Company 

nuts remaining on the trees are beaten off, 
so there are not sufficient left of the unbroken 
husks to pay for a further picking. As the 
nuts are picked up they are sacked and trans- 
ported to the drying-yard, where they arc- 
placed on trays of special slatted design to 
insure all the ventilation possible. After two 
days in the sun those still containing husks 
are culled out and the nuts are run through 
the grader which sorts them into three sizes. 
The two larger sizes are so nearly equal that 
no distinction is made in them, and they are 
all packed under the Company's "Temple 
Brand." The smaller (or No. 2) nuts and 
the culled nuts are placed in ordinary grain- 
sacks and so disposed of. 

The two larger sizes are bleached by dip- 
ping into a solution of calcium chloride and 
sodium monohydrate to which a weak solu- 
tion of sulphuric acid is added from time to 
time. This dipping bleaches the nuts to a 
uniform color, after which they are thor- 
oughly washed in running water and then 
sun-dried to a certain point. Too much dry- 
ing will cause the nuts to crack badly in 
handling, while insufficient drying leaves 
the bitter taste of the skin of the kernel. This 
gradually disappears as the nut ages; but 
some complaints are experienced always with 

(Continued on Page 16) 


July. 1022 

Pilarcitos conduit to San Francisco, outlet of Tunnel Xo. I from reservoir, and flume crossing upper end of 
Mateo Creek. A very rare picture, made by Yischer in the late sixties 


By IT". B. Lawrence, Superintendent Water Division 

SAX MATEO has fertile soil and water 
without limit; in fact, the water supply 
of San Francisco comes from a beautiful 
chain of lakes that have been linked together 
by engineering skill. These lakes are the 
property of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany, which has purchased several thousand 
acres on the mountainside so as to protect the 
water supply from pollution. 

"Winding along these lakes and through 
the preserves of the Spring Valley Water 
Company, one discovers a wealth of wild, 
natural, untamed beauty, unexpected in such 
close proximity to the great city. 

'"Here we behold conditions practically as 
they were when the Franciscan Fathers first 
came here and founded the city of San Fran- 
cisco, in the unforgettable year 1776." 

This quotation is from Elbert Hubbard's 
"Little Journey to San Mateo County," pub- 
lished after the visit of Fra Elbertus to our 
World's Fair in 19 15. The Fra was an enter- 

taining, sometimes an accurate, writer. In 
this instance he fell into the error of attribut- 
ing to nature what was done by man. 

The lakes that Fra Elbertus admired were 
Lakes Pilarcitos, San Andres, and Crystal 
Springs, from which one-half of the daily 
water supply of San Francisco is drawn. He 
mistook them for natural lakes; as a matter 
of fact, they are artificial. They were not 
merely "linked together by engineering 
skill*': they were created by engineering 
skill. Before Spring Valley went down the 
peninsula of San Mateo in search of water 
for the growing city of San Francisco, these 
lakes were valleys. The transformation of 
these valleys into lakes began sixty-two years 

The first operations of Spring Valley in 
San Mateo County were at Pilarcitos, and 
were undertaken by Colonel A. W. von 
Schmidt, the first engineer of the company. 

In September, 1S60, Colonel von Schmidt 

July, 1922 


commenced construction of a small earth 
dam across Pilarcitos Canyon. This struc- 
ture, completed in December, 1863, formed a 
reservoir impounding 65,000,000 gallons of 
water. Coincident with the commencement 
of this work, a tunnel was driven through 
the main ridge of the San Mateo hills from 
Pilarcitos Creek to San Mateo Creek. This 
work was considered a stupendous undertak- 
ing in those days. It was completed in May, 

The water from Pilarcitos Reservoir was 
carried through this tunnel, and then by 
flume, pipeline, and two small tunnels to 
Laguna Honda Reservoir in San Francisco, 
a distance of thirty-two miles. 

The route was along Sawyer Ridge to the 
neighborhood of the present San Andres 
Dam, across San Andres Valley (now San 
Andres Lake) to the northerly boundary of 
the Buri Buri Rancho, thence to Schoolhouse 
Valley (now Colma), to the west slope of the 
San Bruno Hills, to a high point near the 
county line in what is now Daly City, across 
Abbey Valley (now Ocean View), along the 

west slope of the hills between Abbey Valley 
and Ocean House Valley, to Ingleside, and, 
following the contour of the hills, to Laguna 

When Pilarcitos water was first brought 
to San Francisco, Laguna Honda Reservoir 
was not completed. So part of the supply was 
at first discharged into a small pond near 
Honda and part into Islais Creek, the origi- 
nal source of Spring Valley supply. The 
water was first stored in Laguna Honda on 
August 7, 1865. 

As early as 1863 this first Pilarcitos sup- 
ply proved inadequate to the needs of San 
Francisco, owing to the occurrence of a dry 
year, and steps were taken to provide more 
water. A steam pump installed on San Pedro 
Creek pumped 288,000 gallons a day, but 
unfortunately this water sank into the 
ground before reaching Pilarcitos Reser- 
voir. To recover it an artesian well was bored 
on the left bank of Pilarcitos Creek by ad- 
vice of a French engineer named Carpenter. 

William F. Babcock, the president of the 
company, had great hopes of this artesian 

v i^«r -^ur 2L-2"~ '." 

Pilarcitos Dam in course of construction 



July, 1922 

well. "I am glad to hear the artesian well is 
in sandstone," he wrote to the superintendent 
of the work on December 23, 1864. "It is a 
good indication, even if the stratum changes 
again. If it continues to any depth we should 
find water below it." President Babcock was 
not a "water- witch," however. The "good in- 
dication" was all that the well yielded. 

Meanwhile Calvin Brown, who had suc- 
ceeded Colonel von Schmidt as engineer for 
Spring Valley, was engaged in building the 
larger Pilarcitos Dam. He had been an Army 
engineer, and, like von Schmidt, was an able 
man. In 1867 his work was completed. The 
dam was seventy-five feet high and im- 
pounded 600,000,000 gallons of water. It 
was one of the highest earth dams in the 
world. In 1874 Hermann Schussler carried 
it to its present height of ninety-five feet, 
giving the reservoir a capacity of one billion 
gallons. Pilarcitos, of course, is very much 
smaller than either San Andres or Crystal 

That portion of Pilarcitos Valley now 
occupied by the reservoir was never devoted 
to cultivation. A good description of it is 
found in the unpublished memoirs of Calvin 
Brown : 

"The locality of my new labor lay in a 
narrow gorge among the wild and lofty 
ridges of the Coast Range of California, 
about twenty miles south of San Francisco, 
through which a mountain stream named 
Pilarcitos Creek flowed. In the winter 
months, owing to the naturally heavy rain- 
fall of the region and the extensive area of 
watershed drained into it, this creek flowed 
with a rapid and large volume in its course 

Laguna Honda was a lonely spot far beyond the city limits 

when this picture was taken in 1865. Built in 1861, the 

reservoir was remodeled and enlarged four years later 

Upper Pilcaritos Reservoir in the early sixties. The old 
artesian well and pump are at the head of the reservoir 

of more than twelve miles, and discharged 
itself into the Pacific Ocean. In the long dry 
season, however, it dwindled down to a 
feeble run. . . . 

"The scenery of the locality was exceed- 
ingly picturesque. Both sides of the gorge or 
huge ravine, as it might be called, were 
formed by lofty ridges varied in slopes and 
outlines by multifarious swelling masses of 
hills, their sides in some places clothed in 
tall trees of fir, alder, madrone, and bay, and 
in others by a lower growth of oaks and 
bushes with alternations of bare patches. . . . 

"Above the position selected for the dam, 
which was at a point where the side ridges 
approached each other, the ravine was di- 
vided in two branches by the projection be- 
tween them of a third ridge that terminated 
in a high and precipitous cliff of limestone 
that afterwards presented a bold and sightly 
feature in the middle of the reservoir where 
its two arms originated and stretched away 
among the hills. Looking down the ravine 
from the site of the dam the eye wandered 
over a long reach of forest both in the bottom 
and upon the slopes of the ridges, being ar- 
rested in its glance by the diversified hill 
forms until they became lost in the dimness 
of distance and their gradual mingling with 
the sky. 

(Continued on Page 16) 

July, 1922 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

375 Sutter Street * Phone Douglas 2562 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. I July, 1922 

No. 3 

SETH MANN, of San Francisco, is 
known as one of the great traffic experts 
of the United States. His fine legal mind con- 
trols the activities of the Traffic Bureau of 
the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce. 
His work has brought him frequently before 
the Railroad Commission of California. It 
is therefore as an authority that he speaks 
concerning Railroad Commissioner Harvey 
D. Loveland, whose death occurred in this 
city on June 11, 1922. 

In response to an editorial request, Mr. 
Mann pens the following tribute to Colonel 
Loveland : 

The State of California sustains a great 
loss in the passing of Colonel Harvey D. 
Loveland of the Railroad Commission of the 
State of California. 

Colonel Loveland's familiarity with traffic 
conditions in the state and throughout the 
Pacific Coast rendered him a highly efficient 
servant of the people. He was a lawyer, hav- 
ing been admitted to the bar in the State of 

When first he came to California he en- 
gaged in business, being connected with the 
firm of Tillman & Bendel, Inc. He was presi- 
dent of The Pacific Coast Jobbers & Manu- 
facturers Association, which was in 1900 
and the years following the leading traffic 
organization of the city, state, and coast. 
This association led in many of the great 
traffic cases before the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, such as the "Less Carload 
Differential Case," the "Toll Cases," the 
"Pacific Coast Switching Cases," and the 
"Intermountain Cases." The Pacific Coast 
Jobbers & Manufacturers Association was 
succeeded by the Traffic Bureau of the San 
Francisco Chamber of Commerce. 

Colonel Loveland was elected as a Rail- 
road Commissioner of the State of Califor- 

nia, and afterwards, when by constitutional 
amendment the Railroad Commission was 
made appointive, he was repeatedly ap- 
pointed a member of the Railroad Commis- 
sion, with which he served since 1907 until 
his death. Colonel Loveland was a highly 
competent traffic expert and, as the phrase 
goes, he spoke and understood the traffic 

* * * 

Four-fifths of the surface of the globe is 
covered with water, and four-fifths of the 
human body is composed of water. Without 
water the physiology of the body ceases. 
Without water animal life cannot exist. Few 
things in human existence are so important 
as water. It is the essence of society and the 
basis of physiology. Man may live many 
days without food, but, deprived of water, 
he perishes miserably. The romance of the 
desert and the stories of the sea alike revolve 
around the water supply. Water is the uni- 
versal solvent. — League for the Conservation 
of Public Health. 

* * * 

The California Section, American Water 
Works Association, will hold its third annual 
convention in Oakland during October. The 
program in course of preparation bids fair to 
make this the best convention of the section 
so far. The latest in water-works tools and 
appliances will be exhibited by the manufac- 
turers. The entertainment committee prom- 
ises to make the stay of members in Oakland 
not merely pleasant but memorable. 

* * * 

The Biblical quotation on the back cover of 
this issue is to be seen above the doorway of 
Spring Valley's Central Pumping Station on 
Sloat Boulevard, San Francisco. It was se- 
lected for the purpose by Mrs. W. B. Bourn 
from Proverbs v: 16. 

* * * 

The illustration for the cover of this issue 
of San Francisco Water shows the Pleas- 
anton Pumping Station of the Spring Valley 
Water Company in Alameda County. The 
photograph was made specially for this issue 
by George E. Fanning. 

* * * 

The Vischer View of Pilarcitos is from the 
great photographic collection of Charles B. 
Turrill, the eminent authority on the early 
history of California. 



July, 1922 

San Francisco Water: An Outline 

I. The Water-Wagon 

FROM 1849 to 1858 San Franciscans 
bought their water by the barrel. The 
water-wagon stopped at the door, if possible. 
If the customer lived on a height, as many 
did, his barrel of water was delivered at the 
foot of the hill and he toted the water home 
in buckets. 

Competition was so keen among the water 
men that water was "cheap" to regular cus- 
tomers — as "cheap" as one dollar per fifty- 
gallon barrel. 

(Today fifty gallons of water, not de- 
livered in a barrel, but through the faucet in 
your home, even though you live on the high- 
est hill of San Francisco, costs two cents and 
eight mills.) 

In those old days San Francisco's water 
was barreled from springs at Sausalito and 
barged across the bay. There were, besides, a 
few wells in Happy Valley. 

II. Enter John Bensley 
In 1858 an enterprising San Franciscan, 
John Bensley, went way out beyond the city 
limits to Lobos Creek, a little stream that 
flows through the Presidio to the ocean. He 
tapped the creek near its mouth, and brought 
the water by tunnel, flume, and pipe around 
Fort Point to the foot of Van Ness Avenue. 
Then he pumped it to two reservoirs on Rus- 
sian Hill, the Lombard-Street and the Fran- 
cisco-Street reservoirs. (They are still used.) 

Such was the San Francisco City Water 
Company, our first organized supply. It de- 
livered two million gallons a day. 

III. George Ensign Appears 
In i860 John Bensley began to have compe- 
tition in the water business. The Spring 
Valley Water Works was organized by 
George Ensign. The new company took its 
name from a spring in the hollow between 
Powell and Mason, Clay and Broadway. 

The spring in Spring Valley gave Ensign's 
company its name, but no water. The new 
company went even farther afield than Bens- 
ley had gone. It tapped Islais Creek at a 
point west of the present Mission-Street via- 
duct. The water was carried by flume and 
pipe-line to a reservoir at Sixteenth and 
Brannan streets. The supply amounted to 
two hundred thousand gallons per day. 


5 t m l c 1 



* \2jre r 




Little Chile and Sydney Town are gone and have left 

no trace, but Spring Valley is perpetuated in the name of 

a public school, as well as in the name of San Francisco's 

water supply 

IV. To the San Mateo Hills 

The Spring Valley Water Works had more 
initiative and foresight than the Bensley 
Company. It anticipated the growth of the 
city. It recognized that the metropolis San 
Francisco was destined to be could never be 
supplied from streams like Lobos and Islais. 
It went prospecting down the peninsula. 

In 1862 this Company built the first Pilar- 
citos Reservoir high in the hills of San Mateo 
County. The water flowed by gravity thirty- 
two miles to Laguna Honda Reservoir in San 
Francisco. Two years later, with the com- 
mencement of a new dam, Pilarcitos began 
to assume its present proportions. 
( To be continued) 

July, 1922 



San Francisco, the City of Promise 

(Continued from Page 2) 

higher standards and the individual disci- 
plined, purified, and released, will the soil 
be prepared for the crowning work of some 
democratic Saint Francis. 

Many problems must be solved afresh by 
almost every generation, and progress de- 
pends upon an invincible loyalty to a con- 
structive social ideal; but that ideal must be 
based upon a correct understanding of the 
actual experiences of the past. 

In 19 1 5 our city commemorated the fulfill- 
ment of a prophecy made by Goethe in the 
year 1827, which illustrates the power of im- 
agination when allied with judgment. From 
Goethe's conversation with Eckermann I 
quote : 

"I therefore repeat that it is absolutely in- 
dispensable for the United States to effect a 
passage from the Mexican Gulf to the Pacific 
Ocean, and I am certain that they will do 

Our commemorative Exposition, follow- 
ing the growth and development of ideas, was 
far different from any exposition the world 
had ever known, for with wise foresight the 
directors created comprehensive plans de- 
signed to be the nucleus of our future city. 
They realized that not bv immediate material 

gain would its ultimate success be measured, 
but by the greater gain that would accrue in 
the distant future if the Exposition lent 
itself to a realization of an ideal civic plan. 

Among ideals to be cherished is the win- 
ning of the press to higher standards of ex- 
pression, higher standards of judgment, and 
to a nobler development of wisdom and 
courage. The press in its higher and ultimate 
development must have a place in the limited 
company of beneficent things and must be 
above influences tending to demoralization 
of judgment and courage. 

From the spirit of our citizens grow the 
soul and ideals of our city — from the spirit 
of our cities grow the soul and ideals of our 

An invisible multitude of spirits has pro- 
duced our civilization — it is for us, the chil- 
dren of the City of Today, to help uproot the 
weeds of our city's growth, and in the light of 
knowledge, under the guidance of judgment, 
holding fast to the true spirit of the City of 
Yesterday, and strengthened with the hopes 
and ideals of the City of Tomorrow, to 
justify San Francisco, that she may stand 
anions; the cities of the world. 

Tom Gannon and His Hook 

By Tim McGrath 

The "Reminiscences of Tim McGrath as Told to 
Marion Salazar" have been the outstanding feature 
of the San Francisco Bulletin's sporting pages for 
several months past. The following chef-d'oeuvre 
of pleasantry is reprinted from the "Reminiscences" 
by permission of Mr. McGrath and Mr. Salazar. It 
celebrates one who has a distinctive record of 
twenty-five years with Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany. — The Editor. 

HE IS around again with his old hook. 
Sounds crazy, I know, and I guess 
you're going to say that you don't remember 
Tom Gannon, who, when you didn't pay 
your bill, used to come around with his old 
hook to turn your water off. 

Well, Tom called on me the other day; he 
walked in quietly, and, when I looked up 
from my desk, there he stood looking down 
at me; he gave me a little scare; I thought 

for a moment that he had come to turn my 
water off. 

But it was just a friendly visit. I hadn't 
seen him since I ran the Tip saloon many 
years ago. 

We got to chatting, and Tom told me of 
the many experiences he had in the perform- 
ance of his work. 

He related, for instance, about how one 
time he went to a house to turn off the water 
and a woman stood on the meter plate and 
dared him to put his hands on her. Tom 
didn't accept the dare. But that night, some 
time after twelve, he came back, and next 
morning the woman didn't have any water to 
cook breakfast with nor to wash her face. 

Tom, though, was ordinarily very polite 
and diplomatic; he had to be, for in the 



July, 1922 

homes where most of his work was he had to 
deal largely with women. 

"Lady," he would say, when she came to 
the door in response to his knock, "I have a 
very painful duty to perform." 

But not often were the women he dealt 
with so polite nor so diplomatic. 

One day when he was off duty and was 
standing at the corner of Third and Clemen- 
tina streets a woman approached him and 
said: "If you had the hook in your hand I 
would think you were Tom Gannon; you 
may be, for all I know, and, if so, you are 
the man who turned off my water on Natoma 
Street. May I be at your bedside when you 
are dying and ask for a drink of water." 

• Tom can laugh at those things now; but 
for years, he told me, every housewife south 
of Market knew him and either feared him 
or hated him, and all the dogs knew him, 
too, and many of them left the imprints of 
their teeth on his legs. 

The women, when the first of the month 
came around, would watch for him, and 
when they saw him come into the block 
would yell: "Fill up the tubs! He's around 
again with his old hook!" 

Tom did his work so well south of Market 
that eventually he was promoted to Nob 
Hill. There he had to be more polite than 
ever. He found, for one thing, that the women 
of "The Hill" were more inclined to find 
fault with things, particularly as to prices 
charged, and when one of them spoke to him 
on that subject, he would say: 

"Madam, remember that the Spring Val- 
ley Company does not charge for the water; 
it charges for the pumping of it." 

Tom became so good eventually that he was 
sent to Chinatown, a hard district to collect 
in, and where many other collectors had 
proven failures. There Tom encountered a 
lot of difficulties when he started. When he 
knocked on a door and asked for money the 
Chinaman would say, "No sabee." 

This sort of thing became so monotonous 
that Tom went to Turk and Webster streets, 
where he had a friend that ran a laundry, 
and learned how to talk Chinese. 

Then, when he had finished learning, he 
went back to Chinatown and his work. 

One could learn a great deal during an 
afternoon bv going with Tom on his rounds 

and hearing him speak to the Chinese in 
their native tongue. 

When a Chinaman answered his knock at 
the door Tom would say, "Suey, suey, sing," 
which, in Chinese, means: "I have come to 
collect the money for your water." 

The Chinaman would then reply: "Ooh 
yung, oong sah, ooh yum yung," which, 
translated into English, means: "How am I 
going to pay if I haven't got the money?" 

Then Tom would say: "Sung so! Sung so! 

That meant: "Go get it! Go get it! I've 
got to have the dough." 

Then the Chinaman: "Yum gow, yo O!" 

And that meant, "You can't squeeze blood 
out of a turnip." 

Then Tom would play his trump card: 
"Ee ya, 00-m ma!" 

Which means: "If you don't pay the bill 
I will shut off your water." 

That usually sent the Chinaman scurry- 
ing into the house for the money, because, as 
you know, a Chinaman must have water to 
make tea with, and to boil rice in. 

I asked Tom what he thought of prohi- 
bition. He replied: "Oom ba, van cow." 

That means: "I have seen many a party 
around a table, but never around a pump." 

Anacreon and Moore have sung of wine, 
Simonides and Byron chanted love; 

The former couple held the cup divine, 
Venus, to bless the latter, smiled above; 

I scarcely like to venture to define 

The themes on which some other poets 
throve ; 

But neither vestal chant nor vinous sally 

Has touched, that I remember, on Spring 

Bosomed in hills the lucid liquid lies, 
The trackless mountain by its pipes is 
pathed ; 
It washes sleep from out the housewife's 
And helps to blend her goodman's morn- 
ing draught. 
The various needs of water it supplies 
Here, where cold water is so rarely 
quaffed ; 
It serves to put out fires and wash the face — 
Water is very useful, in its place. 

— "Spring Valley," 

from The Argonaut of April 1, 1877. 

July, 1922 



'Beneficent, Benign, Beautiful, But- 

A Story by Irvin S. Cobb 


DURING Irvin S. Cobb's visit to San 
Francisco in 1920 to report the Demo- 
cratic National Convention, he made a tour 
of the San Mateo County branch of the 
Spring Valley system in the company of 
Harry Leon Wilson, the distinguished novel- 
ist, and two officials of the water company. 

America's foremost humorist has a keen 
appreciation of nature, and he was enchanted 
with the beauty of the region that embraces 
San Andres, Pilarcitos, and Crystal Springs. 

It was a day of splendid sunshine, a day 
of rest in the midst of the political hurly- 
burly, and Mr. Cobb's spirits overflowed in 
an exuberance of wit and fun. Sitting on the 
porch of the cottage at Crystal Springs and 
admiring that beautiful sheet of water, Mr. 
Cobb was reminded of the following: 

A distinguished member of the Little Rock 
bar was notable for two things : His capacity 
for chambering good, red liquor, and his 
ability to speak eloquently at short notice 
upon any conceivable subject. Oratorically, 
he was even as the rock which Moses smote — 
one invitation, and from him there would 
pour a glittering, noble stream of language. 

One night at a banquet in his home city 
the toastmaster conspired with certain of the 
guests to play a trick upon this talented 
gentleman; in fact, I believe a wager was 
laid. The plot was launched early in the 
evening, when he was informed that, con- 
trary to the local custom, he would not be 
called upon for any remarks. Then, privily, 
a waiter was instructed to station himself be- 
hind the chair of Colonel Doolove — that be- 
ing the orator's name — with orders to see to 
it that the colonel's toddy glass was replen- 
ished as often as he might empty it. So well 
did the waiter obey his orders that by the 
time the hour for the speech-making rolled 
around the colonel appeared to be almost in 
a state of coma. The toastmaster felt that the 
moment had come for springing his surprise. 
Perhaps I should have stated earlier that the 
bet was to the effect that there was at least 
one toast to which the colonel, drunk or 
sober, could never fittingly respond. 

With a confident smile he arose and said: 

"In view of the fact that one of the guests 
of honor has disappointed us tonight, I am 

going to take the liberty of calling upon one 
whose name does not appear on the post- 
prandial program. I shall ask our distin- 
guished friend, Colonel Doolove, to favor us. 
I ask him now to speak to the toast — water." 

Groggily the colonel rose in his place. 
With difficulty he fixed his wavering vision 
upon the company and then without further 
hesitation delivered himself of the following: 

"Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen, I speak 
tonight of water. What visions does that 
word conjure up! What delectable thoughts 
does it bring to the contemplative mind! 
Water, I maintain, is the most beneficent, the 
most benign, and the most beautiful of all 
the elements with which a generous Creator 
has endowed this mundane sphere. 

"Is water beneficent? I ask of the rolling 
tides which, in obedience to the command of 
the Almighty, ebb and flow at their ordained 
times, now retreating, now advancing, upon 
the wave-kissed beach. I ask of the oceans 
which bring to us the freighted argosies of 
other climes. I ask of the rivers which bear 
upon their currents the commerce of nations, 
making possible communication between 
peoples. Yea, verily, water is beneficent. 

"Is water benign? Consider the dews 
which freshen the flowers of the field and 
make glad and glorious the summer morn. 
Consider the rains which descend upon the 
parched and arid desert, causing fragrant 
blossoms to burgeon where before there was 
but sand and waste. Consider the harnessed 
power of dashing streams. Then dare to say 
water is not benign! 

"Is water beautiful? The answer is found 
in impetuous Niagara. It is found in the 
roaring cataract, in the purling brook, in the 
racing mountain torrent, and upon the bosom 
of the sheltered lake, illumined with the 
glorious colors of the sinking sun and reflect- 
ing, as a mirror, every shifting play of radi- 
ance from the skies, every dancing frond of 
the lofty evergreen caressed by the breezes of 
the evening. It is found in the teardrop of the 
mother as she bids her son go forth to war. 

"Never, while man has speech, is it to be 
gainsaid that water is beneficent, that it is 
benign, that it is beautiful. But, gentlemen, 
as a beverage, it is a tee-total failure!" 



July, 1922 

The Sunol Walnut Orchard 

(Continued from Page 7) 

the first shipment, as it is impossible to dry 
all the nuts uniformly, on account of the ir- 
regularity in ripening. As soon as we have a 
considerable quantity on hand, shipping 

This is a time of fast work, on account of 
the limited shipping facilities at Sunol. But 
so carefully is this work watched by Mr. C. 
H. Schween and Mr. Frank Peters that mis- 
takes are so few as to be negligible. 

This article started with a tribute to 
Judge Lieb, and it must end with a tribute 
to Mr. Schween, for the care and watchful- 

ness which he has given this enterprise dur- 
ing the years he has been in the Company's 
service; to Mr. Peters, for careful handling 
of the crop and his study of the bleaching 
and drying processes; and to Miss May 
Campbell, for the proper checking and sys- 
tematizing of orders and shipping instruc- 

The orchard has now reached a stage 
where, with favorable weather conditions, it 
should produce a paying crop and reward 
the Company after the long years of care and 


(Continued from Page 10) 

"Deeply shut in by the mountains and 
beyond the presence of human habitations, 
this almost savage glen seemed fit only for 
outcasts who might seek it as a hiding-place, 
or for hunters who might resort to it for the 
sake of the various game large and small that 
inhabited it. Until its discovery as a promis- 
ing water source it had remained a secluded 
and safe retreat for coyotes, pumas, big wild- 
cats, and the formidable grizzly bears, and 
even now remnants of this diverse company 
of ferae naturae were known to keep near 
their former haunts and occasionally to 
demonstrate their marauding presence by 
attacks upon the cattle, hogs, and sheep of 
distant ranchos that wandered too closely to 
their coverts. Deer also had abounded in 
this region, and occasionally were still to be 
seen, as well as smaller game, its whole 
native fauna in variety and abundance testi- 
fying to the wild solitude of the locality, 
although so near to the largest city of the 

The first settlers in this wild country came 
in 1856 to what is known as Cahill Ridge. 
They were Anthony Cahill and Joseph 
Mogan, the father of Edmond P. Mogan, 
who is a distinguished judge of the Superior 
Court in San Francisco. The grizzlies killed 
so many of "Joe" Mogan's cattle that he 
moved away in disgust. 

The depredations of the grizzlies bulk 
large in the traditions of the place. On one 

occasion Anthony Cahill, Montgomery 
Diggs, and James Mee built a platform over 
a half-eaten cow, and, armed with axes and 
shotguns, awaited the return of the bears. 
But when the awful silence of night was 
broken by the coming of the grizzlies, James 
Mee became alarmed and would not permit 
his companions to attack. The grizzlies made 
their meal in comfort, and the unused arsenal 
was carried back to Cahill Ridge long after 
the bears had retired. 

Hiram Ebright, foreman on Pilarcitos 
Dam, kept bees, but he rarely kept his honey, 
the grizzly's greatest weakness being a sweet 

The largest grizzly in the region was cap- 
tured by a trapper in the employ of Wood- 
ward's Gardens and the Cobweb Palace. It 
was placed on exhibition at the Gardens. 

In the late fifties there were fifty or sixty 
Indians in this region, and in the sixties 
there were some Mexican desperadoes. Two 
of these attacked Charles Brown, a patrol- 
man employed by Spring Valley, in his cabin 
on Sweeney Ridge, tied him to stakes, built 
a fire at his feet and tortured him until he 
divulged the place where he hid his money. 
They dug up $400 from his cache and then 
released him. The experience was too much 
for Brown. He moved from Sweeney Ridge 
to the vicinity of Pine Trees in Fifield Val- 
ley, and gave the rest of his savings to my 
father, W. H. Lawrence, for investment. 

§iM H1MM€E§€ 

'AN Francisco 'Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I 



The Agricultural Department of Spring Valley 

By F. W. Roeding, Superintendent, Agricultural Department 

TO the uninitiated the name Spring 
Valley Water Company conveys the 
dea of pipe systems, reservoirs, and pump- 
ng plants, but few realize that there is a 
-err large area of land to protect the water- 
sheds and artesian water-rights. 

Prior to 1908 little attention was paid to 
his large area of agricultural land, much of 
vhich was idle and paid no revenue outside 
)f its water uses. With the change in man- 
agement at about that time the possibilities 
)f developing the agricultural revenues were 
onsidered, and when the writer took charge 
)f that department in December, 1909, the 
vork of organization was completed, and the 
ecord shows that since its organization the 
lepartment has grown into quite an import- 
tnt factor. 

In 1908 the Company owned, in round 
lumbers, 80,000 acres, and the rents for that 
•ear were $29,593. 

In 19 10, or the first year after complete 
)rganization, these had increased to $58,463. 

To the area above mentioned were added 
>y purchase up to 19 13 about 19,500 acres, 
tnd the rentals were increased in that year 
a total of $108,606. 

Each year thereafter showed an increase 
intil 1920, when, due to high prices for all 
gricultural products, the revenues reached 

maximum of $190,319. This in spite of 
he fact that revenue-producing properties 
ad been sold to the extent of 15,000 acres. 

Due to the great fall in prices in 192 1, 
hich affected all share-crop leases, and 
lso to several sales of property in that and 
le preceding year, the revenues in 192 1 de- 
reased to $174,201. 

The area owned has now been reduced to, 

approximately, the same as in 1908, but due 
to the improved conditions of the lands 
farmed and leases now covering the entire 
usable area, the revenues in the future 
should approximate the total for 1921. 

In 19 10 there were 180 leases which, with 
the exception of ten, were new leases — 120 
oeing new tenants and fifty renewals of pre- 
vious leases — since which time the leases 
have increased to a maximum of 310 in 
19 14, and are now 289. 

The large increase in 1910 was due to 
subdividing the Pleasanton lands into smal- 
ler areas and restricting the planting to al- 
falfa, many new farming leases at Sunol 
and Lake Merced, and the use of large areas 
of hill land in Alameda and Santa Clara 
counties for grazing purposes. 

On the Lake Merced Ranch there were at 
that time about 1600 acres suitable for agri- 
culture, of which 120 acres were occupied 
by the San Francisco Golf and Country 
Club and 350 acres were under lease to 
Italian vegetable gardeners. 

This land, on account of its proximity to 
the city of San Francisco and the sandy 
character of its soil, was an ideal location 
for the raising of vegetables, and as soon as 
it became known that the Company would 
consider agricultural leases, many applica- 
tions were received from the Italians who 
specialize in vegetable-growing and who 
were being crowded out of the Islais Creek 
lands and other city property by its improve- 
ment for residence purposes. The result was 
that within the year 19 10 all lands on this 
ranch not reserved were under lease and 
planted to the great variety of vegetables 
needed by a large metropolitan population. 


October, [92 


Second cutting of 

and Orlol'f. Thi 

land at Pleasanton leased by Spring Valley Wate 
is the former Pleasanton Hop Company land 

Rentals amounted in that year to $14,000, 
the first year of the lease being at a lower 
rate in order to assist tenants to become es- 
tablished. In 1920 the rentals from this 
property had increased to $38,500. 

Prior to 19 10 the tenants at Sunol had 
been operating on a year-to-year basis and 
planting their entire holdings each year to 
crop, under share-crop leases, with the re- 
sult that returns per acre were very light, 
and it was a mystery how the tenants paid 
for their seed, labor, and rent out of the 
poor crops grown. 

The policy was immediately adopted of 
giving three-year leases, providing that one- 

half of the area should be farmed each year 
and the other half lie fallow, the fallow land 
to be planted the succeeding year and the 
farmed area to be summer-fallowed. 

It was remarkable to note the large in- 
crease in crops due to this method. In several 
instances the results were six times as great 
on the area farmed over the previous meth- 
ods of continual cropping, and the returns 
were in no case less than four times as 

The planting of alfalfa on the Pleasanton 
lands was also an uphill fight, as the crop 
was new in that section. Morning-glory had 
covered this property to such an extent at 

on land leased by Spring Valley Water 
Konan property. The view is southeas 

C. F. Mello. This is 
lutherly bank of Ta: 

October, IQ22 



Potato crop, June, 1022, on land leased by Spring Valley Water Company to J. Delucchi. This was formerly tin 
Lilienthal property. The view is to the northwest from Santa Rita County Read 

that time that summer crops, principally 
beets, hardly paid for their care, while grain 
also suffered. Alfalfa, as is well known, will 
control morning-glory, although it does not 
eradicate it. By refusing to lease these lands 
for any other purpose, and making the terms 
quite reasonable, all of the area, with the 
exception of the high, sandy land in the 
northwest portion and the hill land in the 
southeast corner, was covered by alfalfa 
leases in 19 10, since which time a goodly 
portion of this old property has been con- 
tinuously in this crop, and it has become, 
on land where irrigation water is obtainable, 
one of the best-paying crops in the district. 

With the acquisition of the large area of 
additional lands at Pleasanton, we were 
confronted with a serious drainage problem. 
Although the former owners had spent large 
sums in installing ditches and drains, the 
land was still very wet in depressions and 
there were also considerable areas of swamp 
land which were fit only for pasturage in the 
summer and fall. Furthermore, during and 
after severe rains, the water flooded a large 
portion of the property and remained stand- 
ing for so long a period that no farming could 
be done, and the only return was a poor 
quality of stock hay. 

A plan for the drainage of this area was 

outlined and carried out from 19 16 to 19 18 
at a cost of about $35,000. This expense has 
been fully repaid by very largely increased 
returns and the increased value of the prop- 

At the present writing all swamp areas 
have been eliminated and practically the en- 
tire acreage is now farmed. The proposed 
drainage system did not contemplate the 
prevention of floods, as these are too exten- 
sive to be controlled, but by the rapid re- 
moval of flood-waters it is possible to save 
planted crops and to render unplanted land 
fit for cultivation before the season is too far 

Another factor which has greatly in- 
creased returns to the Company is the chang- 
ing of cash leases to share-crop leases. This 
has worked out fairer to the Company as 
well as to the tenant, although it has re- 
quired more supervision. 

(Jnder the able management of Mr. C. H. 
Schween, under whose direction the share 
crops are, these crops have been fairly di- 
vided and cared for at the proper time, so 
that the Company has suffered practically no 

For the past few seasons the returns have 
consisted of from 2500 to 3000 tons of hay, 
7000 to 12,000 sacks of grain, and from 


October, 1022 

Q22, on land leased by Spring Valley Water Company to F. C. Mello. 
-land on the Alameda Sugar Company property 

1500 to 2500 tons of sugar-beets, besides 
smaller amounts of potatoes, corn, beans, 
prunes, grapes, and straw. 

All such crops are carefully recorded, giv- 
ing the total amount harvested by each ten- 
ant, the share received by the Company, and 
the manner of disposal. 

Their increase in value is shown bv the 

report for 19 13, when a considerable area 
was first leased under these conditions and 
amounted to $19,211, compared with 1920, 
when the returns were $95,322, and in 192 1, 
a year of much lower prices, $73,127. 

To compare the effect of the drainage sys- 
tem installed, the returns for 19 16 amounted 

(Continued on Page 11) 

Crop of young broccoli on Lake Merced Rancho. Many carloads of this and its close relative, caulif 
at Lake Merced and shipped East during the late winter and early spring months 

October, 19; 


The Locality of the Broderick-Terry Duel 

By the Editor 

THE Broderick-Terry duel! 
Romance breathes from the very 
words, and this romance is all the more ap- 
pealing because it is the true romance of 
historical fact. The writers of the West never 
tire of retelling the story of that meeting, the 
last affair on the field of honor in Califor- 
nia. Two political giants faced each other on 
that memorable thirteenth of September, 
1859, and when the greater of the two fell 
with a mortal wound the politics of Califor- 
nia was wrenched violently from its accus- 
tomed course. The death of United States 

This granite post was set by the Native Sons to mark 

the spot where Broderick stood during the duel. But 

Broderick actually faced west, whereas the 

post faces north 

L nuking down from the seventh tee of the San Fra 

Golf Course, one beholds these monuments that designati 

the site of the Broderick-Terry duel in accordance with 

Hermann Schussier's findings 

Senator David C. Broderick marked an 
epoch in the history of this state. 

The historic duel between Senator Brod- 
erick and Judge David S. Terry was fought 
on the Laguna de la Merced Rancho, whose 
broad acres cross the boundary-line of San 
Francisco and San Mateo counties. Near the 
spot where the combatants met, the waters 
of beautiful Lake Merced lap gently at the 
sands, and a short distance away booms the 
surf of the Pacific Ocean. California's last 
"field of honor" was at the extreme western 
verge of civilization. 

Lake Merced with its surrounding water- 
shed is today an integral part of the water 
supply of San Francisco, yielding some three 
and one-half million gallons of water to 
supplement the large supplies from the San 
Mateo and Alameda County sources of the 
Spring Valley system. 

Spring Valley first acquired a substantial 
foothold at Lake Merced in 1877, some 
eighteen years after the Broderick-Terry 
duel. Through the years that have passed 
since '77, Spring Valley employees have 
realized very keenly, perhaps more keenly 
than any other San Franciscans, how deep 
and abiding is the interest of men and 
women in that tragic encounter. Almost every 
day in the year sightseers journey to the spot 
where the Historic Landmarks Committee 
of the Native Sons of the Golden West has 


October, 192 

Terry is supposed to have stood here. Had he done so, 

he would have been facing south. Actually, he faced 

the rising sun 

commemorated the tragic event. These sight- 
seers come from the four corners of the 
world, for the Broderick-Terry meeting is 
known everywhere as one of the "classics" 
of the Code Duello. 

Just where on the Rancho de la Merced 
did the duel take place ? 

"Obviously," answers the sightseer who 
has trudged across the rancho to the place 
of commemoration, "the duel must have 
been fought at the spot marked by the His- 
toric Landmarks Committee of the Native 

"Not so," says John Dalton, who has been 
employed by the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany at Lake Merced for thirty-six years. 
"That is not the correct spot. The correct 
spot was pointed out to me by Peter Quin- 

lan, and Peter Quinlan was present at the 

So there you are! The difficulty of mark- 
ing with finality a historic spot off the beaten 
path of travel was never more strikingly 
exemplified. The locality accepted and 
marked by the Landmarks Committee of the 
Native Sons may be the correct locality, but 
there are old-timers who will not admit as 
much, and John Dalton is one of them. 

In any historical controversy most persons 
are willing to accept as final the word spoken 
by an acknowledged authority. As it hap- 
pens, the authority upon whom the Native 
Sons relied for the final word on this inter- 
esting subject was Hermann Schussler, for 
many years Chief Engineer of the Spring 
Valley Water Company. 

After profound study of all the written 
accounts of the duel (and more particularly 
of the contemporaneous accounts in the San 
Francisco newspapers), and after interview- 
ing at least one man who had received infor- 
mation from a spectator, Mr. Schussler con- 
cluded that the duel had been fought "in 
the lower or westerly end of the first small 
ravine, which connects with the easterly 
shore of Lake Merced, just south of the 
county line between San Francisco and San 

Mr. Schussler described the careful steps 
by which he arrived at this conclusion in a 
brochure entitled "The Locality of the Brod- 
erick-Terry Duel," printed in 19 16 "for dis- 
tribution by the Historic Landmarks Com- 
mittee of the Native Sons of the Golden 

This tablet commemorating the Broderick-Terry duel fixes 

the position of the eighty spectators, placing them in the 

direct line of Senator Broderick's fire 

October. 1922 


On the authority of Peter Quinlan. who witnessed the duel, John Dalton of the Spring Valley Water Company savs 
that the duelists faced each other on the spots marked by crosses. This is the present site of "the Lakeside pumping 

plant, Lake Merced Rancho 

West." This important brochure appears to 
be rather scarce. 

Spring Valley's Chief Engineer under- 
took what to him was a most appealing task 
at the request of the Hon. John F. Davis, 
Grand President of the Native Sons. Judge 
Davis is erudite in the history of California, 
has done a great deal to make California 
history a vital and fruitful study, and has 
played an important part in the admirable 
activities of the Historic Landmarks Com- 
mittee, perhaps the most significant activities 
ever undertaken by the Native Sons. 

Those who saw a good deal of Mr. Schuss- 
ler at the time he plunged into this historical 
investigation of the terrain of the Broderick- 
Terry duel testify to the thoroughness with 
which he exhausted every source of informa- 
tion, and to the scientific carefulness that 
disciplined the enthusiasm of his quest. 
Nevertheless, there are those (John Dalton 
being one of them) who do not regard his 
findings as final. 

"I personally," Mr. Schussler wrote in the 
brochure already mentioned, "knew only 
one of the witnesses to the duel — Mr. Peter 
Quinlan — (for several years in the early 
sixties the Registrar of the old Bensley 
Water Company, and thereafter, up to the 
time of his death, on July 7, 1903, Registrar 
of the Spring Valley Water Works"). 

It would appear, however, that Mr. Quin- 

lan did not designate for Mr. Schussler's 
benefit the exact spot where he thought the 
duel had been fought, for Mr. Schussler thus 
reports the information he obtained from 
Mr. Quinlan: 

"Mr. Quinlan maintained that it took 
place near the shore of the southerly end of 
Lake Merced, just south of the county line." 

That is a broad statement, and Mr. 
Schussler's investigations were directed to 
locating the spot more definitely. It is un- 
necessary to follow here the steps of his 
painstaking exploration. He satisfied him- 
self that the duel was fought (to repeat his 
finding) "in the lower or westerly end of 
the first small ravine, which connects with 
the easterly shore of Lake Merced, just south 
of the county line between San Francisco 
and San Mateo." 

A golfer standing on the seventh tee of 
the San Francisco Golf and Country Club 
course (one of the several golf courses on the 
Lake Merced Rancho) has only to turn his 
eyes to the south to look down upon the spot 
thus designated by Mr. Schussler. From the 
seventh tee it takes only a minute or two to 
scramble down the hillside to the spot. There 
is no chance of missing it. for it is marked 
by a tablet and two granite posts. 

On the bronze tablet (set in a handsome 
granite slab) is inscribed the following: 

(Continued on Page 13) 


October, 102 

JVhat Calaveras Means to San Francisco 

By George A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

THE Calaveras Reservoir is one of the 
units of the Alameda System, contem- 
plated in the complete development of the 
resources of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany. It is located about nine miles south- 
east of Sunol in Calaveras Valley, a favorite 
hunting-ground of the Indians. 

It was first projected as a part of a water 
supply for San Francisco in 1870. The first 
piece of property was purchased in that year, 
and the acquisition of reservoir and water- 
shed lands necessary to the project has gone 
on steadily, until at the present time the 
Company owns all of the area that is re- 
quired to control both the quantity and the 
quality of the water. 

The unusual geology of the narrow outlet 
of the valley in which the dam is located has 
resulted in more extensive preliminary in- 
vestigation than is usually undertaken prior 
to construction of such structures. Many 
geologists and engineers have investigated 
and reported upon various dam-sites, and in 
a distance of about three-quarters of a mile 
no less than six sites have been recom- 
mended for as many different types of dams. 
The location finally chosen was well above 
all the questionable foundation and abut- 
ment difficulties that appeared to exist at 
the other sites, and although the structure 

requires a greater volume of material, this 
feature is offset by greater security. 

The reservoir will impound the run-off 
from a drainage area of one hundred square 
miles, which includes Mt. Hamilton near its 
southern boundary. Later, as the needs of 
San Francisco demand it, the water from an 
additional forty square miles drained by 
Upper Alameda Creek will be diverted into 
the reservoir through a tunnel about nine 
thousand feet long. 

At the present time construction has been 
carried to a point where eight billion gallons 
can be stored, a quantity one-third more 
than the capacity of the San Andres Reser- 
voir of the Company in San Mateo County. 
The completion of the first unit, which is 
now under way, will result in a dam 175 
feet high, containing in all about 2,800,000 
cubic yards of material, and will create a 
reservoir which will hold thirty-two billion 
gallons of water. This quantity is two and 
one-half times the annual use in San Fran- 
cisco. Provision has been made to raise the 
dam thirty-five feet at some future time in 
order to provide adequate regulation for the 
additional flow that will be secured through 
the diversion of Upper Alameda Creek. 

Reference to the cross-section will illus- 
trate the plan of construction. 

»miw/»www(w»m/wwrww»i>'>>»'>* '"' r - 

Cut Off *""" Trend- 

Cross section of Calaveras Dam, showing outline as it will be when work now under way carries the dam t 
will impound thirty-two billion gallons of water, adding twenty-four million galloi 



The outline of the construction now under 
way is shown in the blank space in the cross- 
section lying within and below the sloped 
lines ending at the horizontal line entitled 
"Elevation 775." 

The first step was to excavate a trench 
ten feet wide across the axis of the dam. 
This trench was sunk until impervious clay 
was encountered, and the loose material 
which had been removed was replaced 
with clay tamped into place. This clay core 
serves the purpose of a water-tight dia- 
phragm to eliminate any leakage from the 
lake. As indicated in the section, the clay 
cut-off was carried up in the space marked 
"Rolled Core." The portion of the dam 
marked "Embankment" will be made from 
a sandstone and shale deposit in the vicinity 
of the dam. This material will be excavated 
by a large electrically operated shovel 
capable of digging two and one-half cubic 
yards with each operation of the dipper, and 
transported to the dam in twelve-yard cars 
hauled by a locomotive. That portion of the 
core above that already described will be 
made by washing the finer particles from the 
fill placed by the shovel and cars. Altogether 
it will be necessary to place about eight 
hundred thousand cubic yards of material to 
finish the structure to elevation 775 feet. 

At the west end of the dam a deep cut will 
be made through the hill to carry off the 
flood-waters after the reservoir is full. The 
floor of the cut will be twentv feet below the 

crest of the dam and the spillway will be 
lined with concrete for its entire length. It 
will have a discharge capacity of twenty 
thousand cubic feet of water per second, or 
more than three times the intensity of flow 
in the maximum flood of which there is a 

To enable the withdrawal of water for use 
in San Francisco, a tunnel eight feet high 
and fourteen hundred feet long, with a 
horseshoe shape, has been driven from the 
floor of the valley through the west abutment 
of the dam to the creek below. A concrete- 
lined shaft 127 feet deep and twelve feet in 
diameter, which will be surmounted by a 
tower forty-five feet high, has been sunk to 
intersect the tunnel. The shaft and tower 
will be connected to the reservoir by open- 
ings at appropriate elevations, which will 
be controlled by duplicate sets of gate-valve.-. 
By the operation of these valves water will 
be admitted to a pipe located in the interior 
of the outlet tower and tunnel, which will, 
during the first few years of operation, dis- 
charge into the creek below the dam. Follow- 
ing the creek channel to Sunol, the water 
will percolate through the sand and gravel 
into the infiltration galleries, and thence 
through flumes, tunnels, and pipes to San 

Beginning at the infiltration galleries at 
Sunol, the water, which has been sterilized 
by passing through the sand and gravel be- 
tween the creek and the subterranean jailer- 

£00 300 



600 700 830 







" r ~7~- °"^^_ 

>%iB^f\ Soft Moteriol to = 
6^r-U_N be Replaced _^ 


] 9teom Shovel Fill that has been mared ;^ 
. Solid and nearly! impervious . a - ■_' ' . 

^^ ^=^ ~^t> -^ " I^ 7 * V7V* ~*~ 

;-H3K>: .?."= 

. --:■'■--. 



Natural Material rem 

ominq under fill is often grovel 



5 feet; also, outline of final construction to elevation of Sio ftet. At elevation of 775 feet Calaveras Reserve 
Francisco supply. At elevation of Sio feet, it will impound fifty-one billion gallons. 



October, 1922 


Calaveras Reservoir as of Jur 

, 1922, when the work of raising the dam to 775 feet was in its initial stage. Before the 
end of October this work will be actively progressing 

ies, is conducted down Niles Canyon through 
flumes and tunnels. The tunnels in the con- 
duit line, about fourteen thousand feet long, 
are all large enough to carry about seventy 
million gallons per day. The twelve thou- 
sand feet of flume, however, will carry about 
half this amount. 

A new concrete flume with a capacity in 
excess of fifty million gallons per day will 
be constructed to carry not only the present 
daily supply of twenty-one million gallons, 
but also the additional twenty-four million 
gallons which the Company has agreed to 

From Niles to Irvington a pipe not less 
than forty inches in diameter will be laid 
to connect with the first unit of the Hetch 
Hetchy aqueduct, a sixty-inch pipe, which 
is to be constructed by the city of San Fran- 
cisco under the supervision of Mr. O'Shaugh- 
nessy, City Engineer. This pipe carries the 
water from Irvington to a point in the hilis 
west of Redwood City, where it enters a 
tunnel eighty-five hundred feet long and ten 
feet in diameter, which will deliver it into 
Crystal Springs Reservoir. The "Pulgas 
Tunnel," which is now under construction, 

is also being built by the city, and, together 
with the pipe, will be leased to the Company. 
The construction briefly outlined will in- 
volve a total expenditure of seven million 
dollars and will result in an increase in the 
water supply estimated to last for about fif- 
teen years. It is an economical method of 
increasing the water supply, and has the 
further advantage that as the need arises a 
comparatively small additional expenditure 
will still further augment the quantity. 

"All public service utility employees should 
realize that no small portion of the public 
they serve only knows the utility through 
business contact with a limited number of 

"The viewpoint of this large class of cus- 
tomers toward the utility in general is pre- 
dicated almost entirely upon the impression 
made upon them by these particular em- 
ployees. The work of these employees oft- 
times spans the gap of favorable or unfavor- 
able feeling toward the company on the part 
of these consumers." — N. W. Simpson, Mis- 
souri Public Service Commission. 

October, 1922 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

375 Suiter Street * Phone Douglas 2562 
Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. I October, 1922 No. 4 

THE California Section, American 
Water Works Association, will hold its 
third annual convention in Oakland on 
October 26, 27, and 28, convening in the 
East Bay Water Company Building, 512 
Sixteenth Street. 

A program calculated to make the strong- 
est appeal to water-works men has been pre- 
pared, including a series of five-minute 
talks. A committee of the East Bay Water 
Company promises that on its social side 
the convention will live up to the best tradi- 
tions of Oakland hospitality. 

A complete exhibit of down-to-date water- 
works material and appliances will be shown 
by the various manufacturers. 

The American Water Works Association 
embraces a large number of sections in this 
country and Canada. It is doing important 
work for the standardization of water-works 
material and for the advancement of water- 
works operators. The California section has 
grown in three years to a membership of 
sixty. George A. Elliott is President, and 
George W. Pracy Secretary. 

All who are interested in water-works 
problems, whether or not they are members 
of the section, are cordially invited to attend 
and take part in the October convention. 
Further information may be had by address- 
ing the Secretary of the California Section, 
American Water Works Association, 375 
Sutter Street, San Francisco. 

Among the papers to be read at the con- 
vention are the following: 

"Pumping Machinery" — B. R. Vanleer, 
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, University of California. 

"Purchasing" — P. W. Stamps, President, 
Purchasing Agents' Association of Northern 

"Microscopic Animalculae" — Professor 

C. A. Kofoid, University of California. 

"The East Bay Water Company System" 
— E. O. Edgerton, President East Bay 
Water Company. 

"Standards of Water Bacteria" — Profes- 
sor C. G. Hyde, University of California. 

"Valuations and Rates" — Chester Love- 
land, Consulting Engineer. 

"East Bay Filter Plant"— W. F. Lange- 
lier, East Bay Water Company. 

"Underground Waters" — C. H. Lee, Con- 
sulting Engineer. 

"Publicity" — Edward F. O'Day, Spring 
Valley Water Company. 

The quotation on the back cover of this 
issue is taken from the celebrated work 
entitled "The Water Supply of the City of 
Rome" by Sextus Julius Frontinus, who was 
Roman Water Commissioner in A. d. 97. The 
translation is by Clemens Herschel, the 
eminent hydraulic engineer. That the stu- 
dent of the classics may note how happily a 
hydraulic engineer renders the Latin of the 
post-Augustan era, the original is here 
given : 

"Tot aquarum tarn multis necessariis 
molibus pyramidas videlicet otiosas con- 
pares aut cetera inertia set fama celebrata 
opera Graecorum?" 

* * * 

The illustration for the cover of this issue of 
San Francisco Water shows the doorway to 
Central Pumps on the Sloat Boulevard, San 
Francisco. The photograph was made spec- 
ially for this issue by George E. Fanning. 
The Biblical quotation carved over the 
doorway was selected for the purpose by 
Mrs. W. B. Bourn. It is from Proverbs v:i6. 

Agricultural Department 

(Continued from Page 4) 

to $40,655, while the above returns for 192 1 
show an increase of $32,500 on about the 
same acreage. 

Needless to say, on account of the limited 
space many details of this development must 
be omitted, but with the coming years im- 
provement in these drained areas will con- 
tinue, and when these Pleasanton properties 
are placed on the market their value will be 
considerably greater than at the time of 
their purchase. 



October, 1922 

San Francisco Jl^ater: An Outline 

V. The First Chief Engineer 

THE first office of the Spring Valley 
Water Works was at No. 2 Bolton & 
Barron's Building, corner Merchant and 
Montgomery streets. 

In August, i860, the company took offices 
at the southeast corner of Montgomery and 
Jackson streets, leasing from Messrs. Pioche 
& Bayerque at a rental of $720 per annum. 

There George H. Ensign, Henry Baker, 
Edward Jones, W. H. Tillinghast, J. W. 
Mandeville, Edward Mickle, R. C. Mat- 
thewson, S. W. Holladay, Eugene Lies, and 
other stockholders who took an active inter- 
est in the project, transacted business of great 
moment to the city's future. 

The pioneering for San Francisco's great 
water supply was done under their direction 
by A. W. Von Schmidt, who had left the San 
Francisco City Water Company (popularly 
called the "Bensley company") and had 
been chosen Chief Engineer of the more 
vigorously administered concern in April, 

VI. Two Distributing Reservoirs 

Like the Bensley company, Spring Valley 
began with two distributing reservoirs. The 
first was the so-called Brannan-Street Reser- 
voir, situated, says a newspaper of i860, 
"on an elevated plateau beyond Butcher- 
ville, on the Potrero." It received water from 
Islais Creek as long as that source of supply 
continued in use, and Laguna Honda water 
until 1879. That old reservoir is still to be 
traced in the block bounded by Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth, Hampshire and Potrero Ave- 
nue. The cinder-path of the Wilmerding 
School runs round it. 

Pilarcitos water was stored in Laguna 
Honda and was conveyed thence to the 
Market- or Buchanan-Street Reservoir, 
which had a capacity of two million gallons. 
When the city, in 1893, began cutting 
through Ridley Street (now Duboce Ave- 
nue), the survey ran through the center of 
this reservoir, so it had to be abandoned. 

VII. Exit the Bensley Company 

The Bensley company had the cream of the 
water business in San Francisco, but un- 
fortunately its supply was unequal to the 

Beginning August, 1S60, Spring Valley Water Works estab- 
lished offices in the building here shown in the fore- 
ground, at the southeast corner of Montgomery and Jack- 
son streets. This building survived the fire of 1906 

demand. Lobos Creek could supply so much 
water and no more. 

Where to get more water? The problem 
was solved along the line of least resistance. 
The Bensley company tapped a Spring Val- 
ley main and sold the water to its customers ! 

This irregularity was discovered and ex- 
posed by the press with a good deal of face- 
tious writing. The ridicule hastened the in- 
evitable end of the Bensley company. It was 
absorbed by Spring Valley in 1865. 

Ever since 1865 Spring Valley alone has 
borne the responsibility of supplying San 
Francisco with water. 

VIII. Hermann Schussler 

In 1864 a young man employed as a 
draughtsman at the Vulcan Iron Works was 
offered a position with Spring Valley, and 
gladly accepted. He had been graduated in 
engineering at Zurich, Switzerland. 

President Babcock sent him, in October, 
1864, to Pilarcitos, where Calvin Brown, suc- 
cessor to A. W. Von Schmidt, was in charge 
of the construction of the dam. The young 
man's salary at the start was $50 a month. 

In March, 1866, the young man left Pilar- 
citos to work in the city office of the water 
company. His salary was fixed at $175 a 
month. This young man was destined to 
stamp his personality indelibly on the water 
supply of San Francisco. His name was Her- 
mann Schussler. 

(To be continued) 

October, 19.2 



The Locality of the Broderick-Terry Duel 

(Continued from Pagf 

"United States Senator David C. Broder- 
ick and Judge David S. Terry fought a duel 
on this ground in the early morning of Tues- 
day, September 13, 1859. Senator Broderick 
received a wound from which he died three 
days later. The affair marked the end of 
dueling in California. 

"Senator Broderick, facing west, occupied 
the position marked by the shaft farthest to 
the south, while Judge Terry, facing east, 
stood in the position designated by the shaft 
in the foreground. Spectators occupied this 

"Erected by the Historic Landmarks 
Committee, Native Sons of the Golden 
West, 1917.'' 

Quite close to this tablet are the two 
granite shafts or posts, one marked "Broder- 
ick," the other "Terry." 

While these commemorative monuments 
were placed by the Native Sons in the local- 
ity selected by Mr. Schussler, it is difficult 
to believe that Mr. Schussler took an active 
hand in setting them, and this for a very 
peculiar reason. 

The bronze tablet is historically correct in 
saying that Senator Broderick faced west 
and Judge Terry east when they confronted 
each other, pistol in hand. But the two posts 
marked "Broderick" and "Terry" tell an- 
other story. These posts represent Broderick 
as facing north, and Terry as facing south ! 
In other words, the two posts are incorrectly 

"Spectators occupied this eminence," says 
the bronze tablet which is set on the side of 
the hill immediately above the two posts. 

There were, according to historical ac- 
counts, some eighty spectators of the duel. 
If the two posts had been set east and west, 
those eighty spectators would be placed in a 
perfectly safe position, but with the two 
posts set, as they are, north and south, the 
eighty spectators, or at least a great many of 
them, would be standing immediately behind 
Judge Terry and in the direct line of the 
bullet from Senator Broderick's pistol! 

Had the spectators been foolhardy enough 
to take up such a position with reference to 
the duelists, Broderick's bullet, missing 
Terrv, would have found its billet in the 

John Dalton, who refuses to approve the accepted site of 
the Broderick-Terry duel. He stands beside the remains of 
a brick horse-trough, all that remains of the famous old 
"Original Ocean House," which stood on a neck of land 
between the two branches of Lake Merced 

body of an innocent bystander. Supposing 
the spectators to have stood, as designated 
on the tablet, directly behind Terry, one of 
them was saved from death by the accident 
that Broderick's pistol, discharging too soon, 
sent its bullet into the ground in front of 
Terry. But, of course, it is inconceivable that 
the spectators would stand in the line of fire. 
The anomaly arises from the incorrect set- 
ting of the two shafts. 

While the two posts have been incorrectly 
set, it does not follow, of course, that the 
locality of the duel as picked by Mr. Schuss- 
ler is the wrong one. But controversv dis- 



October, 19: 

putes Mr. Schussler's conclusion, and this 
brings us to John Dalton. 

Thirty-six years ago John Dalton came 
to San Francisco from County Monahan, 
Ireland, and immediately found employment 
with the Spring Valley Water Company at 
Lake Merced. He has been employed there 
ever since. 

Many years ago John Dalton heard the 
duel described by Peter Quinlan, who had 
witnessed it. And to John Dalton Peter 
Quinlan described the locality of the duel 
much more definitely than he seems to have 
described it to Mr. Schussler. 

"Stand on the county line just west of the 
scrub oaks," is the way John Dalton repeats 
the description of Peter Quinlan; "then step 
two hundred and fifty feet south, and you 
are standing on the spot where the duel was 

Peter Quinlan took John Dalton to this 
locality, showed him how he fixed it with 
reference to the old fence at the county line 
(where many of the dueling party tied their 
horses) and the scrub oaks, and measured 
off the distance two hundred and fifty feet 

John Dalton took a party there a few days 

ago. The scrub oaks are still there (there are 
none on the Schussler site), and there are 
also pines and cypresses so placed as to make 
this look an unlikely dueling spot. But these 
were planted in the nineties, well within the 
memory of John Dalton. The ground has 
changed a great deal since the time of the 
duel, and indeed since John Dalton first saw 
it. What used to be a little swale has been 
filled in, making the ground quite level. The 
duelists faced each other in this swale, 
standing east and west, of course, and the 
spectators occupied the eminence to the 
north. Such is John Dalton's story, given on 
the authority of Peter Quinlan and supple- 
mented by his own knowledge of the ground. 

This spot is distant from the Schussler 
site about one quarter of a mile. The Schuss- 
ler site is immediately east of the Lake Mer- 
ced settling basin. This spot is immediately 
west of the settling basin, and therefore 
nearer the Pacific Ocean. It is the present 
site of the pumping plant of the Lakeside 
Golf Club. 

Was Mr. Schussler correct ? Or does John 
Dalton designate the true locality of the 
great meeting? Here is indeed a sweet bone 
for historical controversialists to srnaw on. 

" TVater Supply Problems" 

A Discussion at a Commonwealth Club Meeting 


VV the subject of discussion at a recent 
meeting of the Commonwealth Club of Cali- 
fornia, and in the course of his remarks on 
the "Present Status of the Hetch Hetchy 
System" M. M. O'Shaughnessy, Chief En- 
gineer of the city of San Francisco, gave an 
admirable summary of the arrangements 
whereby the city of San Francisco and 
the Spring Valley Water Company are co- 
operating to increase the water supply. 

"Due to a period of dry years," said the 
City Engineer, "the local storage in the 
peninsular reservoirs of the Spring Valley 
Water Company has been seriously depleted. 
It was therefore urgent, to avoid a water 
famine in San Francisco, that water from 
Calaveras Reservoir be promptlv brought 

After thus briefly stating the problem to 
be solved, the City Engineer set forth the 

manner of its solution in the following state- 
ment : 

"The original intention of the Spring 
Valley Water Company was to bring this 
water to San Francisco through an entirely 
new high-level conduit, which would deliver 
the water by gravity to San Andres Reservoir 
and thence by gravity to Lake Honda in San 
Francisco. This aqueduct was estimated to 
cost $12,000,000, and could not have been 
used for any but Calaveras water, starting 
at the six-hundred- foot level — two hundred 
feet higher than the Hetch Hetchy grade 
line. As Hetch Hetchy will ultimately be the 
city's principal source of water supply, and 
the Spring Valley works will assume a sec- 
ondary position, the city authorities felt that 
the construction of such a costly independent 
conduit line from Calaveras would impose 
an unwarranted burden upon the water rate- 
payers of San Francisco, and that the proper 

October, 192 


expedient for getting Calaveras water into 
the city would be to immediately build the 
section of the Hetch Hetchy aqueduct west 
of Calaveras and carry Calaveras water 
through it, providing sufficient capacity, 
however, so that when the first installment 
of Hetch Hetchy water becomes available it 
can be brought through the same conduit 
line. This link will consist of about nineteen 
miles of five-foot steel pipe, having a capac- 
ity of forty-five million gallons daily, and 
about one and two-thirds miles of tunnel 
through the Crystal Springs Ridge of the 
full size necessary for an ultimate flow of 
two hundred million gallons daily. 

"In connection with this aqueduct, the 
Spring Valley is to make a temporary con- 
nection, about three miles in length, from its 
existing aqueduct near Niles to Irvington, 
and is to enlarge the conduit from Sunol 
through which water is brought to the neigh- 
borhood of Niles. This work will be at the 
expense of the water company. 

"The conduit from Irvington to Crystal 
Springs will be paid for out of Hetch Hetchy 
bond funds, and the total cost will be ap- 
proximately $5,000,000. The Spring Valley 
Water Company is to pay interest on this 
cost at the rate of five per cent per annum, 
so that the construction of this section of the 
aqueduct will not impose any burden upon 
the taxpayers of San Francisco. 

"The present pipe-lines of the Spring Val- 
ley Water Company between Crystal Springs 
and San Francisco have a capacity for some- 
what more water than is now carried through 
them, so that a large part of the additional 
water made available by the new aqueduct 
can be brought into the city without addi- 
tional pipe construction north of Crystal 

Another speaker on this occasion was 
Robert M. Searls, Special Counsel, Hetch 
Hetchy Water Supply. His subject was "Le- 
gal Aspects of the Hetch Hetchy Project," 
and in the course of an illuminating address 
he said : 

"The contract which we have just made 
with the Spring Valley Water Company 
assures us of our ability to construct the Bay 
Division of the conduit without costing the 
taxpayers a cent, as the company will pay 
the interest charges from the time construc- 
tion starts. It will also assure us an imme- 
diate needed increment to our water supply. 

"Our friends from the Niles cone section 
may disagree with us as to the amount of 
water we shall get, but there will be plenty 
for our needs and theirs when Hetch Hetchy 
is completed." 

The reference by Mr. Searls to "our 
friends from the Niles cone section" was 
clarified later on in the evening when War- 
ren Olney, Jr., spoke briefly concerning the 
controversy between the Spring Valley Water 
Company and the Alameda County Water 
District. From his clear, simple statement 
the following excerpt is taken : 

"In 19 1 6 the Alameda County Water 
District and the Spring Valley entered into 
an agreement whereby they left to determi- 
nation by the State Water Commission the 
terms and conditions upon which the Spring 
Valley Water Company could store the water 
of Calaveras Creek, the upper Alameda and 
the other tributaries of Alameda Creek, in 
such a manner as not to detract from the 
percolating waters of the Niles cone. That 
was the expressed agreement between the 

"The State Water Commission spent three- 
years in the most careful investigation into 
the physical situation. At the end of those 
three years, in 1920, it made its final report, 
and fixed by its award the terms and condi- 
tions upon which, in its judgment, the Spring 
Valley Water Company could store and di- 
vert the additional water from Alameda 
Creek without injuring the farmers of Niles 
cone so far as their underground waters are 

"That award did not meet entirely with 
the views of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany, but it had entered into the agreement 
to abide by the award, and it has always 
abided by it and expressed its intention of 
so doing. 

"The Alameda County Water District, on 
the contrary, although it had positively- 
agreed to abide by the award, which was to 
be made for the purpose of settling the dis- 
pute between the parties, immediately stated 
it would not abide by the award, and has re- 
fused to recognize it since. 

"This is the present condition of the con- 
troversy with regard to the Calaveras Dam." 

Continuing, Mr. Olney adverted to an- 
other subject that had bulked large in the 
evening's discussion. 

"The Niles cone situation," he said, "is, 



October, 1922 

however, a comparatively unimportant mat- 
ter, as compared with the general situation 
that faces the communities both on this side 
and the other side of the bay, with regards 
to water." 

And he outlined that general situation as 
follows : 

"There are certain factors which enter 
into that problem which, it seems to me, are 
very certain and lead to a very certain re- 
sult. We are faced, in the first place, on both 
sides of the bay, with the probability of a 
water shortage at the end of ten years. That 
is agreed upon. It is also beyond dispute 
that these communities must arrange in ad- 
vance to meet that shortage. It is also agreed 
that the shortage cannot be met by the de- 
velopment of supplies that are close at hand 
— the water must be brought from a distance. 

"As a result of these factors, and particu- 
larly of the factor that water must be brought 
from a distance, it follows also, and I think 
there is a general agreement upon it, that 
the problem is the same for the communities 
on both sides of the bay and that the best 
thing that can be done is that the communi- 
ties on both sides of the bay should unite in 
a proposition of bringing in the water to 
serve them. I see no escape whatever from 
that conclusion. They should unite. 

"Now, when we come to the consideration 

of the scheme upon which they should unite, 
there we have this factor which, it seems, is 
well nigh a determining factor in the case: 

"The largest and most important of all 
these communities is the city of San Fran- 
cisco, and we find that particular community 
irretrievably committed, financially and 
otherwise, to a certain scheme, to wit, the 
Hetch Hetchy scheme. 

"Under those circumstances, it seems to 
me that the only wise thing for the East Bay 
communities to do is to join hands with the 
city of San Francisco in this scheme, and 
the city of San Francisco practically invites 
them to come in. 

"Now, the situation being one where the 
cities on both sides should unite, and the 
situation being further that the large city on 
this side of the bay is irretrievably com- 
mitted to a certain proposition, it would 
seem to follow almost axiomatically that, 
unless there is something very serious the 
matter with the Hetch Hetchy scheme to 
which San Francisco is committed, there is 
but one thing for the East Bay communities 
to do, and that is to get together through 
some proper governmental organization, 
such as a water district, and unite with the 
city of San Francisco and go ahead with the 
development so that all may be served from 
the common source." 

City Pipe Extensions 

By George W. Pracy, Superintendent, City Distribution 

ONE part of water-works construction 
that comes prominently before the resi- 
dents of any city is the extension of the pipe 
system in the streets. At first a city is sup- 
plied with water through small temporary 
pipes, some as small as three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter. As each district builds up, 
larger mains of cast iron must be substituted 
for adequate supply and fire protection. 

The development of a city, however, al- 
ways results in some districts outgrowing 
the pipe thus laid, with the result that the 
original pipe must be taken up and larger 
pipe put down. Cast-iron pipe does not have 
to be changed because it is worn out, at least 
not yet in San Francisco, as the oldest pipe 
is only about sixty years old. It still has a 
hundred years or so to go. 

In 1922 some 50,000 feet, nearly ten 
miles, of new cast-iron pipe has been laid by 
Spring Valley. The Market Street Extension 
Boulevard was the largest single job, taking 
4000 feet of pipe eight inches in diameter. 

In Larkin from McAllister to Ellis re- 
placement became necessary. The tremen- 
dous growth of the apartment-house district 
east of Van Ness Avenue made it necessary 
to replace a six-inch main with a sixteen- 
inch pipe. The six-inch pipe was laid in 
1870 and had been in service for fifty-two 
years. When taken up it was as good as new 
and will be relaid elsewhere. 

The rest of the pipe laid has been spread 
around the city where necessary, from the 
Golden Gate Valley district to Ingleside and 
from the ocean beach to the Potrero. 

1 / 

• / 4 

Eli Bn[ 





S^NG^ Sf? 


vVAitR ;-jmpa/, ■< 

Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I I 

January, i 923 


A Good Old Security 

Bx F . L. Lipman, President, Wells Fargo Nevada National Bunk 

TO the present generation the bond is- The general-mortgage 4s were dated Decern - 

sues of the Spring Valley Water Com- ber 1, 1903, and there were sold for cash and 

pan\- have always been known as a sound exchanged for the preceding issues by Sep- 

and well-secured investment. tember 1, 1906, $17,859,000, which is the 

In the early '80s, Spring Valley first-mort- amount still held by the public, to mature 

gage 6-per-cent bonds constituted one of the December 1, 1923. 

highest-grade investments available — so good In the midst of this refinancing of 1906 

and strong, in fact, that the Company was came the great conflagration of that year, 

able to put out second- and third-mortgage which destroyed a large part of the city; but 

bonds bearing interest at 4 per cent. The flue- the financing went through without interrup- 

tuations in market price of the 6s were: tion, the new general 4s being distributed to 

si 15 to $120— from 18S2 to 1885, strong holders. 

120 to 129 — from 1886 to 1 89 1, and In fact, these securities have always 

about 120— for the next several years. ranked so high that their market price has 

The 6s matured and were paid in 1906. been relatively unaffected by the immediate 

These variations in price were based upon position of the Company's affairs through 

the changes from time to time in the general water-rate fixing by public authority or by 

interest rates obtainable on investments, for earthquake and fire. Their strength has been 

the security itself was considered beyond based upon the broad equity underlying 

question. In those days the Company had a them, an equity created by wise foresight 

capital of $8,000,000 to $10,000,000, the during the past in selecting and acquiring 

shares of $100 par value selling on the mar- locations valuable to the Company for the 

ket at from $100 in 1880 to nearly $120 in catchment and distribution of water on a 

1882. Influenced by unfavorable water rates large scale, and by the prudent policy of 

fixed by the city, the stock occasionally fell management in putting earnings back into 

in price, as in 1884, when it was quoted at the property. Thus in 1888 the Company 

86, but by 1886 it had gone back to par. had outstanding — 

While the stock has thus fluctuated in market First-mortgage 6s $4,975,000 

price as the city authorities dealt with the Second-mortgage 4s 5.000.000 

rates, the bonds have been unaffected. 

In 1906, the first-mortgage 6s and the Total S9.975.000 

second- and third-mortgage 4s were paid underlying which was their capital stock, 

through the sale of the general-mortgage 4s, $10,000,000, the shares of which were sell- 

the issue now about to mature. At that time [ n g a t par. 

there were outstanding — Today the new 5s are being issued to the 

First-mortgage 6s S 4,975,000 extent of $22,000,000, secured by the Com- 

Second-mortgage 4s 5,000.000 panv's operative properties valued by the 

Third-mortgage A s 4,000,000 California Railroad Commission in 1920 at 

Total Si 3.975,000 $37,000,000, and since improved by capital 


January, 1923 

expenditures of about $585,000, making a 
total of $37,585,000. 

This $37,585,000 is approximately the fig- 
ure the city would pay today if it exercised 
its option to purchase the property, thus leav- 
ing a margin of over $15,000,000 above 
the amount necessary to provide for the 

With these remarkably large margins of 
security, the issues should be quoted here- 
after, as heretofore, in accordance with the 
prevailing rates for money, like United States 
bonds. When the old second- and third-mort- 
gage 4s and the present general 4s were 
issued, interest rates were so low as to jus- 
tify a 4-per-cent rate, and, as has been shown, 
the 6-per-cent bonds of the Company then 
sold at heavy premiums. From about 1905 
on to the beginning of the world war, inter- 
est rates ranged considerably higher. It is 
now believed that the tendency of rates is 
again downward, so as to make 5 per cent on 

a bond of this high grade very favorable 
indeed to the investor. It may turn out that 
the new bonds will be prevented from reach- 
ing any high premium through the provision 
that, in the event of the sale of the property 
to the city, they may be called at par. But if 
market rates of interest should decline to the 
point reached in the '90s — say to a 4-per- 
cent, or even a 4^-per-cent basis — a bond 
of the highest grade which was kept by its 
provisions to about a 5-per-cent basis would 
be extremely attractive and in heavy demand 
at that rate. On the other hand, should the 
city decide to take over the property in the 
near future, paying the holder 100 for a bond 
that now costs him 98^, such holder would 
have a substantial profit in addition, which 
would make the net return to him perceptibly 
greater; for illustration, if the bonds should 
be called at par at the end of the first year, 
the net rate to the holder would be better than 
(f/2 per cent. 

d/fs Others See Us 

By John J. Sharon, Assistant to Manager 

THE properties of Spring Valley Water 
Company have been appraised a num- 
ber of times within the last twenty years for 
rate and sale purposes by competent apprais- 
ers employed by the city, by the Railroad 
Commission, and by the Company. During 
that period the books of the Company have 
been open to the inspection of the public 
authorities, and upon different occasions have 
been thoroughly audited by expert account- 
ants employed by the city, the Railroad Com- 
mission, and the Company, and their reports 
have been available to and were used by the 
different appraisers. Also the maps and rec- 
ords of the Company have been placed at the 
disposal of and were freely used by the dif- 
ferent appraisers. From these investigations 
all the experts have collected for their re- 
ports and exhibits, all of the information 
necessary to compile the physical and finan- 
cial history of the Company since the incep- 
tion of its predecessor companies, San Fran- 
cisco City Water Company in 1857 and 
Spring Valley Water Works in 1858. These 
reports and exhibits are on file in the Federal 
Court in San Francisco, in the offices of the 

City Attorney of the City and County of San 
Francisco and the Railroad Commission, as 
well as in the office of the Company. 

The condition of the structures of the 
Company, including its underground pipes, 
has been inspected and rated for valuation 
purposes by competent hydraulic engineers. 

In the latest appraisal of the Company's 
property, that of the Railroad Commission in 
1920, the Commission says in its report with 
respect to the data necessary to determine the 
fair value of the property: "It may be fairly 
stated that there has been as exhaustive an 
investigation of the properties of this Com- 
pany as of any public utility in California 
and we feel that we have before us informa- 
tion in as great detail as might reasonably be 

J. Waldo Smith, Chief Engineer of the 
New York Water Supply, one of the fore- 
most hydraulic engineers of the United 
States, who was retained by the Chamber of 
Commerce, at the time of the Spring Valley 
purchase election in 192 1, to advise it with 
respect to the water supply of the city, says : 

"After the most careful inquiry I have 

January, 1923 


every reason to believe that the Railroad 
Commission has gone into this matter with 
the most painstaking care, without prejudice, 
seeking only to arrive at a valuation which 
the city would approve and the company 
could accept, thus ending a very prejudicial 
division of authority, and giving San Fran- 
cisco what she has so long desired, a munic- 
ipally owned and operated water supply. In 
reaching its decision, I am satisfied that it 
has taken into consideration all conflicting 
elements, the valuations and agreements 
which have been previously made, present 
and past conditions, and has recommended a 
price which is exceedingly favorable to the 
city, and one which it should have no hesita- 
tion to accept." 

City officials who prepared a pamphlet 
containing information for the citizens of 
San Francisco at the time of the election in 
March, 192 1, for the purchase of the Spring 
Valley Water Company's properties, after re- 
viewing the evidence before the Railroad 
Commission say: 

"There is not the slightest evidence, there- 
fore, for challenging the statement that the 
Commission arrived at its valuation after a 
careful, thorough, and painstaking investi- 
gation, based upon months of study of the 
most voluminous and comprehensive record 
probably ever submitted to a judicial tribu- 
nal in a valuation case. If anything, the evi- 
dence before it was more favorable to the city 
than would have been the case if this had 
been a contested condemnation suit, for in 
such a suit, under the principles of law, the 
valuation would have to be based on prices 
outstanding at the date at which it was made. 
This would certainly have justified a much 
higher figure for the valuation of structures 
than the Commission's price indicates." 

And again : 

"Finally, it may be said that nothing in 
the present situation indicates that any valu- 
ation made at a future date would be less 
than the one we submit. . . . The Spring Val- 
ley is not in the position of a utility which 
depends upon the life of a franchise for its 
ability to carry on its business. All of the 
Spring Valley franchises are of unlimited 
life, although none of them have been valued 
by any of the witnesses, nor has any attempt 
been made to capitalize this advantage." 

The properties of the Spring Valley Water 
Company are unique in that water-bearing 
lands in close proximity to the city constitute 

a large percentage of the value of the system, 
and also because of the fact that a large per- 
centage of the value of the structural prop- 
erties consists of well-designed and durable 
structures, such as dams, tunnels, and large 

The chief purpose of the ownership of the 
extensive areas of watershed lands is to pro- 
tect the quality of the water by preventing 
the encroachment of human habitation upon 
the supply areas. 

The land included in the operative proper- 
ties is 62,000 acres, or over twice the landed 
area of the City and County of San Fran- 
cisco. The Railroad Commission in its report 
says with reference to the storage sites in the 
close neighborhood of the city: "The only 
suitable reservoirs actually in existence, to- 
gether with the potential reservoir sites, are 
the property of Spring Valley Water Com- 

With respect to the design and construc- 
tion of the system, Master in Chancery H. 
M. Wright, in his report to the District Court 
of the United States in the Spring Valley 
rate case, quotes with approval the testimony 
of Allen Hazen of New York, one of the 
leading engineers in this country in water- 
works and sanitary practice, as follows : 

"The design of the structures of the com- 
pany is good. I do not think I have ever ex- 
amined an old system of water-works which 
showed such continuity of purpose as is 
shown by the works of this company. The 
design is good; the metal was well arranged 
in the pipes; the riveting was good; the 
thicknesses were closely calculated ; they were 
strong enough to do the required work, as is 
demonstrated by the very small number of 
breaks that have occurred. The figuring was 
very close; the metal was stretched about as 
far on the lines as it was safe to go. The res- 
ervoirs and dams were well built, tight. The 
tunnels are of good workmanship. The dis- 
tribution system is well designed and of good 
material and appears to be remarkably tight. 
The whole system reflects great credit on 
those who have been responsible for its ex- 
tension through a long term of years. The 
works were laid out with a view to future 
development, and the whole system has been 
planned so that added units could be built 
and worked into the system as required from 
time to time. The number of structures which 
have been discarded during the years gone by 
I think is low. That has been due partly to 

4 SAN FRANCISCO WATER January, 1923 

the fact that the structures have been very with care and conscientious attention to de- 

durable ones, and in part to the fact that the tail. The physical structures have been well 

design has been carefully arranged to antici- maintained.'' 

pate growth and to serve for a long period. The operative properties have a potential 

The works are capable of long future serv- capacity in excess of the present develop- 

ice; they are, for the most part, in very good ment, and when fully developed will take 

order. The depreciation has been rather low care of the needs of the city for many years 

for an old plant.'' to come. 

J. Waldo Smith says: "The Spring Valley J. Waldo Smith says with reference to the 

Water Company is a going concern, capable undeveloped sources of the Alameda System : 

of rendering good service, and its properties "The Alameda sources, when developed to 

can be developed sufficiently to provide the their capacity and operated as a unit with the 

city with water for many years. The system peninsular sources, will, in my judgment, at 

has been designed with skill, constructed least double the supply now used by the city.'' 

The Buying Group 

Spring Valley Re-financing 

Mercantile Trust Company, San Francisco, Berkeley, Richmond, San Jose, California. 
Security Trust and Savings Bank, Los Angeles, California. 

First National Bank, Los Angeles, California. 

The Equitable Trust Company or New York, New York. 

Wells Fargo Nevada National Bank, San Francisco, California. 

Union Trust Company of San Francisco, San Francisco, California. 

Blair & Co., Inc., New York; San Francisco, California. 

Bond & Goodwin & Tucker, Inc., San Francisco, Los Angeles, California; 

Seattle, Washington; Portland, Oregon. 

Security Savings and Trust Company, Portland, Oregon. 

Anglo & London Paris National Bank, San Francisco, California. 

American National Company, San Francisco, California. 

First National Bank, Boston, Massachusetts. 

First National Bank, Portland, Oregon. 

Humboldt Savings Bank, San Francisco, California. 

First National Bank, Oakland, California. 

Union Bank and Trust Company, Los Angeles, California. 

Security Bank and Trust Company, San Francisco, California. 

Union Trust Company, Chicago, Illinois. 

January, 1923 


1858 $22,000,000 1923 

Spring Valley TVater Company 

First Mortgage 5% Gold Bonds 

Dated May I, 1923. Due May 1, 1943. Interest payable May 1 and November 1 at the office of the Union 
Trust Company of San Francisco in San Francisco and at the office of The Equitable Trust Company of New 
York, in New York, without deduction of Normal Federal Income Tax up to 2' ', . Callable as a whole or in 
part on any interest date at 102}^ during the first ten years and thereafter at y>'7 r less each year, but at not 
less than par. In the event of the purchase of the Company's operative properties by the City of San Fran- 
cisco, the bonds may be called at par, provided the municipality does not desire to assume, as a municipal 
obligation, the then outstanding bonds. Coupon bonds of $1000 denomination with privilege of registration 
as to principal only. 
Exempt from Personal Property Taxes in the State of California 
Application has been filed to have these bonds certified as a legal investment for Cal- 
ifornia Savings Banks, and bonds are offered subject to the issuance of this certificate 
History. The Spring Yalley Water Company, or its predecessor in interest, has supplied 
the City of San Francisco with water for municipal and domestic purposes since 1858. It is the 
largest privately owned water company in the United States. 

Properties. The operative properties of the Company consist of 62,119 acres of land 
owned in fee, and riparian rights to 33,343 acres, together with reservoirs, dams, pipe lines and 
distribution mains, forming a complete water system which supplies the City and County of 
San Francisco, a population of approximately 650,000. 

Yalue of Property. The operative properties of the Company were appraised as of 
March 1, 1920, by the Railroad Commission of the State of California, at $37,000,000, since 
which date there has been added approximately $585,000 in improvements, extensions and addi- 
tions, making a total valuation of $37,585,000. 

Franchises. The Company's franchises are perpetual under the provisions of the consti- 
tution of the State of California, but no monetary value has been placed upon them in the ap- 
praisal made by the California Railroad Commission. 

Security. These bonds will, upon retirement of the present outstanding bonds on Decem- 
ber 1, 1923, be secured by a first mortgage on all of the Company's operative properties. 

Purpose of Issue. The proceeds of this issue will be used to extinguish approximately 
$21,000,000 of funded indebtedness, and to provide for additions and extensions to the Com- 
pany's properties. 

Earnings. The Company's earnings have been steady and dependable. For the past six- 
years, after providing for all operating expenses, depreciation and all taxes, the available earn- 
ings have been 2.1 1 times the annual interest requirement of $1,100,000 on the bonds to be 
issued. For the year 1922, with the month of December estimated, the available earnings have 
been 2.47 times this interest requirement. 

Market Equity. On basis of present quotations, the Company's outstanding common 
stock represents a market equity of some $20,000,000, junior to the bonds to be issued. 

Legality. All proceedings in connection with the creation and issuance of these bonds 
will be approved by Messrs. McCutchen, Olney, Mannon & Greene of San Francisco. 

Relations with the City and County of San Francisco. An agreement has been en- 
tered into with the City and County of San Francisco, under the provisions of which the Com- 
pany will, upon completion, utilize the Bay Division of the City's Hetchy Hetchy conduit to 
convey water from the Calaveras Reservoir to San Francisco. The City has been given a twelve- 
year option to purchase the Company's operative properties at the California Railroad Com- 
mission's valuation, plus certain additions, referred to above. 

Application will be made to list these bonds on the New York Stock Exchange 


Price g8y 2 to Tie Id j.I2°fo 


Mercantile Securities Company 

Affiliated with Mercantile Trust Company of California 

California Offices 464 California Street Eastern Offices 

Berkeley, Richmond, San Jose San Francisco New York, Chicagi 

All statements made herein are derived from official sources and. while not guaranteed, 
are believed by us to be correct. 

Spring Yalley Prospectus, Mercantile Securities Company 



January, 1923 

1858 IC)2 3 

Spring Valley IVater Company 

San Francisco, California, 
Mercantile Trust Company of California, January 2, 1923. 

San Francisco, California. 
Security Trust and Savings Bank, 

Los Angeles, California. 
First National Bank of Los Angeles, 

Los Angeles, California. 
Sirs: — 

In connection with the new issue of $22,000,000 First Mortgage, Twenty-year 5% Gold 
Bonds of the Spring Valley Water Company, I take pleasure in giving you the following in- 
formation: HISTORY 

Spring Valley Water Company and its predecessor in interest, Spring Valley Water Works, 
have furnished the City and County of San Francisco with water for domestic and municipal 
purposes since 1858. Immediately after its incorporation in 1858, the water works commenced 
acquiring lands and water rights in San Francisco and on the San Mateo peninsula and con- 
structing its water supply system. The Pilarcitos Reservoir was built in 1862; the San Andres 
Reservoir in 1871 ; Lake Merced and Upper Crystal Springs Reservoirs in 1877 ; and the Lower 
Crystal Springs Reservoir in 1888. 

The development of the Alameda County unit of the Company's system began as early as 
1888, when water was diverted from Alameda Creek at Niles Dam and was brought across the 
Bay through submarine pipes. Twelve years later the Sunol Filter Beds and the Pleasanton 
Wells were constructed and additional submarine pipes were laid so as to increase the supply 
from this unit. In 1913 the Company commenced building the Calaveras Reservoir, the capacity 
of which is now being increased from 8,000,000,000 gallons to 32,000,000,000 gallons. This stor- 
age capacity is greater than all of the present combined storage capacity of the water supply. 

In meeting the increasing needs of the City and County of San Francisco, the growth of the 
Company has been steady. The Spring Valley Water Company is the largest privately owned 
public utility water company in the United States. 

The Company's operative properties, all of which will be covered by the mortgage securing 
the new bonds, are located in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Alameda Counties, 
and are all within a radius of 45 miles of the center of San Francisco. These consist of 62,119 
acres of land owned by the Company in fee, and riparian rights to 33,343 acres additional, to- 
gether with reservoirs, dams, pipe lines and distribution mains, serving the City and County 
of San Francisco. The system is composed of 19 pumping plants, 4 large catchment reservoirs 
in San Mateo County and 1 in Alameda County, with a combined capacity of 40,500,000,000 
gallons; and 6 city distributing reservoirs and 11 tanks with a capacity of 103,000,000 gallons. 
Water is transmitted and distributed through 460 miles of pipe line between 6 inches and 54 
inches in diameter, and 253 miles of pipe line less than 6 inches in diameter. There are 77,322 
active service connections. The Company controls all the desirable storage sites in the vicinity 
of San Francisco. The Spring Valley Water Company at present supplies water to an estimated 
population of 650,000 and, upon the completion of construction already undertaken, will be able 
to serve 1,000,000 people. A ready market for this increased supply is afforded by the rapidly 
growing suburban towns of San Mateo County, where most of the Company's reservoirs have 
been built, and through which many of its transmission lines run. 

Under the provisions of the constitution of the State of California the Company's franchises 
are perpetual. No monetary value has been placed upon them in the Railroad Commission's 
appraisal of the Company's operative properties. 

Spring Valley Prospectus, Mercantile Securities Company Page 2 

January, 1923 


The Company's average earnings for the past six years, after providing for all operating ex- 
penses, depreciation and taxes, including Federal Income taxes, have been 2.1 1 times the annual 
interest requirement of Si, 100,000 on the new $22,000,000 issue of bonds. For the year 1922, 
with the month of December estimated, the available earnings have been equal to 2.47 times this 
interest requirement. The following table shows the earnings available for bond interest for the 
past six years : 

Earnings Available 
Year for Bond Interest 

1917 S2.144.317 

I9I8 2,231,550 

1919 2,280,476 

1920 2,184,708 

1921 2,372,474 

1922 (December estimated) 2,727000 

Average 2,323.421 


Dividends have been paid by this Company and its predecessor, Spring Valley Water Works, 
without interruption, since 1863, except for the period April, 1906, to November, 1908. Present 
dividends are being paid at the rate of 5% per annum on the $28,000,000 outstanding common 


The decision handed down by the Railroad Commission of the State of California upon 
August 12, 1921, contemplates that the City and County of San Francisco shall construct imme- 
diately the so-called Bay Division of the Hetch Hetchy conduit and permit it to be used by the 
Spring Valley Water Company for the transmission of its increased water supply. In con- 
formity with that suggestion, the City is now engaged in the construction of a conduit from 
Irvington, Alameda County, to Crystal Springs Reservoir in San Mateo County, which will 
have a capacity of not less than 45,000,000 gallons daily. The City and the Company have en- 
tered into a formal agreement providing that, upon the completion of the conduit, it will be 
utilized by the Company for the conveyance of water from Calaveras Reservoir to San Fran- 
cisco. The total available water supply of San Francisco will thereby be increased by 24,000,000 
gallons daily, or to the aggregate amount of 66,000,000 gallons daily. 

The decision of the Railroad Commission above referred to contained a recommendation 
that the Spring Valley Water Company should give an option to the City and County of San 
Francisco for the purchase of the Company's operative properties at the price fixed by the Com- 
mission in its Report of November 24, 1920, increased by the amount of the Company's expendi- 
tures for capital purposes between March 1, 1920, and July 1, 192 1, and other expenditures 
required of the Company under the terms of the Commission's order. The sale price fixed by 
the Commission as of March I, 1920, was $37,000,000, to which must be added capital expend- 
itures between that date and July 1, 192 1, approximating $585,000. 

The Company has assented to the Commission's recommendation and has granted to the 
city a twelve-year option for the purchase of its operative properties upon the terms specified 
in the Commission's decision. 

Very truly yours, 


S. P. Eastmax. 
Vice-President and Manager. 

Spring Valley Prospectus, Mercantile Securities Company 

Page 3 


January, 1923 

San Francisco JVater: <iAn Outline 

IX. Schussler's "Old Notes" 

THE discovery of the reservoir possibili- 
ties of the San Andres Valley in San 
Mateo County was one of Hermann Schuss- 
ler's earliest achievements for Spring Valley 
Water Company. Years later he told the 
story : 

"While making the survey for the Pilarci- 
tos pipe-line, I noticed, in running one trial 
line up the San Andres Valley, some level 
ground, and I changed the route of the pipe- 
line and laid it on the hill, towards town, and 
we built the pipe-line on this second line. 

"But I kept my old notes of the valley line, 
and found for a distance of nearly three 
miles that this valley raised but very little, 
perhaps ten or fifteen feet. 

"So I kept this in mind, and when, gradu- 
ally, the daily demand for water increased, I 
asked the executive committee of our board to 
go out with me and take a look at this valley, 
privately, in such a way that we would not 
be recognized by those eagle-eyed farmers. 

"I showed it to these gentlemen: William 
F. Babcock, Lloyd Tevis, and John Parrott. 
They made up their minds that there was 
something in it. So they set an agent to work, 
and bought up this valley, with most of the 
watershed — another four or five square 

X. Collecting Silk Hats 

The damming of San Andres Valley began in 
April, 1868. 

What was regarded at that time as a great 
engineering feat was the driving of a tunnel 

Andres Dam, showing picket fence long since removed 

2800 feet long, extending from the reservoir 
through Bald Hill in the Buri Buri Ridge to 
a gulch back of the Seventeen-Mile House 

"Work on the tunnel,'' said the San Fran- 
cisco Alta of November 26, 1870, "was com- 
menced at both ends, crews of men working 
day and night, and it took ten months to com- 
plete it. 

"The survey made from the reservoir end 
of the tunnel was effected in a shaft seventy 
feet below the surface. On driving the two 
ends of the tunnel together in the center of 
the hill, they struck inside of half an inch on 
the line and grade. 

"As the ends approached a good deal of 
interest was manifested among engineers as 
to the result — the distance being 160 feet over 
half a mile. A number of engineers and other 
friends offered to wager silk hats and other 
trifles that the variation would not be less 
than a foot, all of which were taken by Mr. 

"It proved a remarkable victory in an en- 
gineering point of view, and shows that Mr. 
Schussler's survey was made with wonderful 

XI. The San Andres Line 

The San Andres Reservoir was brought into 
use in November, 1870. 

At the Millbrae outlet of the tunnel the 
water entered a thirty-inch pipe that carried 
it to the neighborhood of the present College 
Hill Reservoir. There the thirty-inch line 
connected with a twenty-two-inch main that 
carried the water to Twenty-fifth and Valen- 
cia streets, where it joined "the mesh-work 
of city pipes." 

XII. The City System, 1876 

At this time Spring Valley had the following 
city reservoirs: Lake Honda, upper and 
lower Russian Hill, Clay-Street Hill, Mar- 
ket-Street and Brannan-Street reservoirs, 
with a total capacity of 46 million gallons. 

The city was using seven million gallons 
of water daily before San Andres Reservoir 
was brought into use, one-third of the daily 
supply coming from Lobos Creek and the re- 
mainder from Pilarcitos. 

(To be continued) 

[anuary, 1923 


California Water- TVorks Men Convene 

By George W. Pracy, Superintendent, City Distribution 

"Not even scientific thought can dispense with the 
suggestions, the instruction, the stimulus, the sym- 
pathy, the intercourse with mankind on a large 
scale, which such meetings secure. A fine time of 
year is chosen, when days are long, skies arc bright, 
the earth smiles, and all nature rejoices; a city or 
town is taken by turns, of ancient name or modem 
opulence, where buildings are spacious and hospi- 
tality hearty. The novelty of place and circum- 
stance, the excitement of strange, or the refresh- 
ment of "well-known faces, the majesty of rank or 
of genius, the amiable charities of men pleased both 
with themselves and with each other; the elevated 
spirits, the circulation of thought, the curiosity; the 
morning sections, the outdoor exercise, the well- 
fumished, well-earned board, the not ungraceful hi- 
larity, the evening circle; the brilliant lecture, the 
discussions or collisions or guesses of great men one 
with another, the narrative of scientific processes, 
of hopes, disappointments, conflicts, and successes, 
the splendid eulogistic orations; these and the like 
constituents of the annual celebration, are consid- 
ered to do something real and substantial for the 
advance of knoivledge which can be done in no 
other way." — John Henry Newman. 

THE third annual convention of the 
California Section, American Water 
Works Association, has gone down in the 
memory of those who attended as auguring 
well for the 1923 convention, which will 
be held in Fresno in the fall of next year. If 
the Fresno meeting is as successful as the one 
just held, these meetings will quickly become 
the Mecca of all water-works men on the Pa- 
cific Coast. 

The American Water Works Association 
is a national organization of all men inter- 
ested in the construction and operation of 
domestic water supplies. It was organized in 
1880, and for forty-two years has been doing 
good work. A national convention is held 
each year and is well attended, but owing to 
the great majority of the members residing 
in the eastern part of the United States the 
meeting rarely comes west of Chicago. This 
has always kept down the attendance of men 
from the Pacific Coast. 

The constitution of the American Water 
Works Association provides for the forma- 
tion of sections in the various parts of the 
country. In 19 16 a group of men in this state 
started to form a California Section, but it 
was not until the fall of 19 19 that eleven men 
met in San Francisco and made the section a 
"going concern." A local constitution was 

adopted and a chairman and other officers 

The first convention was held in San 
Francisco in the fall of 1920, and the at- 
tendance left no doubt that these meetings 
would be popular affairs. This meeting led to 
a better one, held in Los Angeles in 192 1. 

In 1922 the convention was held in Oak- 
land, October 26, 27, and 28, the East Bay 
Water Company acting as host. 

The record which the genial heads of that 
company made in hospitality is an enviable 
one that it will be hard to surpass. Every- 
thing was provided for the comfort and con- 
venience of the guests. The banquet in which 
East Bay entertainment culminated was thor- 
oughly and heartily enjoyed. The San Pablo 
filter plant furnished a unique and appropri- 
ate setting for the dinner. There was a dance 

L. M. Anderson, Controller of the Los Angeles Department 

of Public Service, was elected president of the California 

Section, American Water Works Association, at the 

Oakland convention 



January. 1923 

after dinner. On the following day there was 
an automobile ride around the East Bay 
works. The trip was educational, but not too 
academically so for easy good fellowship. 
Altogether, the social features of the conven- 
tion went off splendidly. 

As for the more serious meetings, the pa- 
pers presented were timely and all prepared 
by experts. They covered the field of the wa- 
ter-works man thoroughly, from microscopic 
and bacterial examination of water to the se- 
lection of pumping machinery. The readers 
of papers deserve high credit for making the 
meeting the success it was. 

Professor C. A. Kofoid, of the University 
of California, spoke on the microscopic ani- 
malculae content of water, drawing a parallel 
between the food value of the crop of growth 
in a lake and the food value of a crop of 
wheat or oats grown on land, which values, 
he said, were practically equal. He admitted, 
however, that human taste had not as yet 
been cultivated to an appreciation of such 
sea-food, and that the company selling water 

S. B. Morris, superintendent and chief engineer of the 

Pasadena Water Department, is the new secretary of the 

California Section, American Water Works Association 

had to destroy this crop before its customers 

Edward F. O'Day told about the value of 
publicity to a water company, emphasizing 
the fact that water-consumers are prone to 
underestimate the value of the service ren- 
dered, and that effective advertising is neces- 
sary to produce mutual friendship. 

Professor B. R. Vanleer, of the University 
of California, spoke on pumping machinery, 
stating the advantages and disadvantages of 
the various types of pumps and outlining the 
conditions under which each type should be 
used. His discussion covered plunger, cen- 
trifugal, and screw pumps, as well as air- 

Perry W. Stamps, of the Purchasing 
Agents Association, presented the subject of 
buying in an interesting way. He brought out 
that price was not all — that the quality 
counted in every purchase, and that on dif- 
ferent occasions different stress should be 
laid on quality and price. 

Professor C. G. Hyde, of the University of 
California, ably commented on the work 
done recently by a committee appointed by 
the Treasury Department, of which he was a 
member, in formulating a standard for the 
purity of public water supplies. He told of 
the care with which the matter was handled 
and clearly explained what the various 
standards would probably be. 

Chester Loveland, formerly with the Cali- 
fornia Railroad Commission, described the 
various phases of the water-works business 
that a regulating body took note of in fixing 

J. D. Galloway told of the design of the 
distributing system for the town of Davis, 
showing how local conditions affected the 

C. H. Lee spoke on underground water 
supplies, their extent, and their relation to 
geological formation. He also spoke of the 
possibilities of pollution of underground 

W. F. Langelier gave an interesting talk 
on the new filter plant of the East Bay Wa- 
ter Company. This talk was given as a pre- 
liminary to the visit to the filter plant, which 
was a feature of the trip next day. 

The discussions of the papers were not so 
good. A water-works man hasn't been trained 
much in public talking, nor does he usually 
have time to do much in that line. Mostly he 

I Continued on Page 11) 

January, 1923 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 
San Francisco, California 

375 Sutter Street < Phone Douglas 2562 
Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol II 

January, 1923 

No. 1 

In the hurry-scurry journalism of today the 
exchange editor plays an insignificant role. 
Editors are not as keen as they used to be 
about quoting the views of their contempora- 
ries; so the scissors and the paste-pot of the 
exchange editor concern themselves mostly 
with "human interest stories" selected more 
or less hurriedly to "plug holes" in early 
editions that must be rushed to press while 
the important news for the later editions is 
still being written or received by wire. 

Step by step with the obscuration of the 
exchange editor, the pleasant custom of ex- 
changing papers has fallen upon indifferent 
days, and this applies not only to daily news- 
papers, but also to periodicals. 

Nevertheless, there are periodicals that 
continue to observe this "amenity of litera- 
ture," and San Francisco Water having 
now completed a year of life, the editor de- 
sires to extend its thanks to those other edi- 
tors who have been kind enough to send their 
publications to his desk. Most appreciatively 
he acknowledges receipt of the following : 

Bankltaly Life, 

Bubbles (East Bay Water Company), 

Bulletin Business Builder (S. F. Bulletin), 

Commercial Artist, San Francisco, 

H. K. McCann Company Quarterly, New York, 

Northwestern Pacific Headlight, 

Pacific Retail Advertiser, 

San Francisco Realtor, 

San Joaquin Power Magazine, 

The Informant (Zellerbach Paper Company), 

The Inside Track (Market St. Railway Co.), 

The Volt (California-Oregon Power Co.), 

Union Oil Company Bulletin, 

Water Works Journal, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

There is not one of these from which the 
editor does not learn something vital, and the 
studied care that goes into the "make-up" of 
all of them inspires him with a spirit of 

May one word be added, even though it 
seem to qualify the editorial gratitude? Not 

all of these interesting journals come with 
perfect regularity. But perhaps Sax Fran- 
cisco Water should not fling the first stone. 

* * * 
The quotation on the back cover of this is- 
sue was taken from that curious old volume, 
"The Anatomy of Melancholy," by Robert 
Burton. The Ye,<,'etius to whom Burton refers 
was Flavius Yegetius Renatus, a Roman 
military writer who flourished in the fourth 
century of our era. 

For the rare photograph of the first Califor- 
nia automobile run, Sax Francisco Water 
is indebted to William J. Richardson and 
William B. Movie, of the Chester N. Weaver 

Water-Works Men Convene 

(Continued from Page 10) 

just works. But the discussions will improve 
at each succeeding meeting as the members 
come to realize more and more that the profit 
in the meetings comes from an interchange 
of ideas and experiences. 

After the dinner and business meeting 
held October 26 at the Hotel Oakland, the 
convention was addressed by E. O. Edgerton,. 
president of the East Bay Water Company 
and formerly president of the California 
Railroad Commission, a man eminently qual- 
ified to address a gathering of water-works 

Mr. Edgerton spoke of the general prob- 
lems of water supply confronting the cities 
in the State of California, with particular 
reference to East Bay cities. 

One new feature of this convention was 
an exhibit of water-works materials and sup- 
plies by the water- works manufacturers. This 
exhibit was very complete and attractive, 
and during the intermissions the booths were 
always crowded. 

The section elected the following officers: 
President, L. M. Anderson, Controller De- 
partment of Public Service, City of Los An- 
geles; Vice-President, Fred Klaus, Assistant 
Chief Engineer, East Bay Water Company, 
Oakland; Secretary, S. B. Morris, Chief En- 
gineer, Pasadena Water Department; Mem- 
bers of Executive Committee — C. B. Jack- 
son, Superintendent Fresno City Water 
Works; Geo. W. Pracy, Superintendent 
Spring Valley Water Company, San Fran- 



January, 1923 

Spring Valley's New Building 

HAVING purchased the site for an office 
building on the west side of Mason 
Street, corner of Derby, between Geary and 
Post, Spring Valley Water Company has 
started work on a seven-story structure to 
house the city departments of the Company. 
Willis Polk is the architect and builder. 

The lease on Spring Valley's present head- 
quarters in Sutter Street between Grant Ave- 
nue and Stockton, expires on the first of 
August this year, and the new structure will 
be ready shortly thereafter. 

The Mason-Street lot has a frontage of 
sixty and a depth of seventy-seven feet, pro- 
viding a floor-space suitable to the needs of 
the Company. The location is regarded as 
ideal on account of its convenience for rate- 

Willis Polk is a specialist in public-utility 
architecture. For Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany he has heretofore designed the Central 
Pumps building on Sloat Boulevard, the 
Crystal Springs Pumps building, and the 
Water Temple at Sunol, which is considered 
by architects and hydraulic engineers the 
most beautiful water structure in the country. 

The plans for the new building show a 
structure in which the note of simplicity is 
strongly emphasized. It will be of reinforced 
concrete, with foundation, walls, and columns 
capable of carrying two stories more in the 
event the Company outgrows the seven stories 
now planned. 

The first two stories and part of the third 

will be devoted to the Water Sales Depart- 
ment. The fourth story will house the Agri- 
cultural, Photographic, Publicity, Purchas- 
ing, and Real Estate departments. The fifth 
will be occupied by the executive offices of 
the president and vice-president and man- 
ager. The sixth will be given over to the 

Excavation for Spring Valley's new building bega 
December 19, 1922 

offices of the secretary and auditor. The top 
floor will accommodate the Engineering De- 

On the roof there will be a girls' rest-room, 
with a kitchen, set in the midst of a garden 
planted to grass and flowers, the latter being 
an unusual feature for an office building. 

The distinctive feature of the main floor 
will be a fountain designed by the distin- 
guished sculptor, Arthur Putnam. 

The public spaces in the building will 
have marble floors and wainscotings. The 
woodwork throughout will be oak. An inter- 
communicating Dictograph system will be 
installed to relieve the pressure on the tele- 
phone exchange. 

Excavation for the new building started 
on December iq, 1922. 

Lot on west side of Mason, corner of Derby, between 
Geary and Post streets, where Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany is about to erect a seven-story building to house its 
city departments. 

The cover of this issue 


San Francisco 

Water shoivs a drawing 


the new Spring 

Valley Building made in 


offices of Willis 

Polk and Company. 

January, 192.} 



"The Dutch Nick Massacre" 

A Hoax by Mark Twain 

Sail!] Opening Bulletin. 

The "Bulletin" to-day consists of Six Page6- 


The Latent Stntntion. 

\. Victim to Jeremy Diddling Trn atooc — H e 

Cuts his Throat from ilar to Ear, Scalps hie 
Wile; and Dashes out tho Brains of Six 
Helpless Children! 

From tbe "Territorial Enterprise" of 38th October.] 
From Abram Curry, who arrived here yesterday 
ifteruoon from Carson, we have learned tbo following 
particulars concerning a bloody massacre which was 
jouimltted in Orinsby rounty night before Last. It 
seems that during the past bix months a man named 
P. Hopkins, or Philip Hopkins, has been residing with 
Lis family in the old P.g house just at the edge of the 
great pine forest which he* between Empire Uiiy'and 
Dutch Kick's. The family consisted ot u children— 6 
girls and 4 hoys— tho oldest < f the group, Mary, being 
19 >cars old, and the youngest, Tommy, about a year 
and a half. Twice iu the past two months Mrs. Hop- 
kins, while visiting in Carson, expressed tears concern- 
ing tbe sanity of her husband, remarking of late 
he had been subject to flis of violence, and that during 
the prevalence of vw of these he had threaten d I 
take her life. It was Mrs. Hopkins's misfortune to be 
given to exaggeration, however, and bi.t little ettent 1 d 
was paid to what «he sa.d. 

About 10 o'clock on Monday evening Hopkins da '■ I 
into Carson on horseback, with his throat cut from eat 
to ear, and bearing in his hand a reeking scalp rV 
which the warm, smoking blood was still drip] lag, 
tell in aiiyiug condition iu trout of the Magnolia >a 
loon. Hopkins expired »u the course of live mi!:;. ;<• . 
without speaking. The long red hair of the scalp ho 
bore marked it as that of Mrs. Hopkins. A numb, r ot 
citizens, headed by Sheriff Oaahena, mounted at once 
and lode down to Hopkins' house, where a ghastly 
ecenc met their gaze. The s ta i nles s, corpse of Mrv. 
Hopkins lay across the throshholu, with her bead split 
open and her ri^'ht banda;znost aavared :r >m tbe wrist. 
Now tier lav the ax with which tha murderous, deed 

IN the palmy daws of the Comstock Lode, 
Nevada journalism was reckless, happy- 
go-lucky, and brilliant. No paper expressed 
the wild genius, the undisciplined high spir- 
its of that journalism like the Territorial 
Enterprise of Virginia City. If a file of the 
Enterprise could be found — and it is thought 
that none remains — the columns would en- 
gage the attention of every student of Ameri- 
can journalism who would eagerly seek to 
identify the contributions of Mark Twain, 
Joe Goodman, Dan DeQuille, Arthur Mc- 

had Deen comuiltiwi. in one or lut) iiuurumi^ six o» 

the children were found, one In bed and tt»<; otbets 
scattered aboutthe Boor. They were all dead. Th* r 
brains hud evidently betn dashed out With B • 
and eviry mark about them accrued to ha,, 
made with a blunt instrument. Tbe >.uil<lr. n must 
nave struggled hard 101 their lives, us articles «ri 
clothing and broken turuiture were s rewa about 
ibe room in the utmost coutu-iou. Julia and Emma, 
ag. d lespectively Is and 17, wen louud in the 
k.t hen, bruif-ed und insensible, but it is thought 
their recovery is po»»ible. The eldest girl, Mary, mu.t 
havo sought refuge 111 her torror iu the gair. t. es her 
body was found there frightfully mutilated, a;iu tuc 
knife with which h- r wounds had been Inflicted still 
sticking In be* Bide. The.two girls Julia and tmnu, 
„ ... . bad recovered sufficiently to he able to talk jm tb '• 
da\ morning, »U'.e that their father knocked i' cm 
down with a billet ot wood and -tami ed on Ihem. 1 1 ej 
think they wire the hi»t attacked. Th* y fnrtbex state 
that Hopkins had Shown ot derangem-ut all 
Oay.buxhad exhibited no Tiolenoe. He flew is 
si 11 and attempted lo murder them beoaute they i.d- 
vised nim to go to bed and < ompuse hB mind. 

cui ry saj 1 li'j k!i>» was ai> iUI 41! years of a^e, nnd a 
unlive ot western Pennsylvania; bewssal 
and poht >, and until very recently we bad never hard 
if hta ill treating his family. He had been ■ 
owner in the beat mines of Virgimaaud Gold lliil, but 
when tne San Francisco papers exposed the game ol 
cooking divuh nds i;< order to bolsi. 1 up our »t ,<ks he 
grew afraid and s'jid out, tnd invested loan Immense 
amount in the Spring Valley Water Company >f tsau 
Francisco. He was auvisud to do ibis by a relative of 
nu, one of ttie editors 01 the San Francisco Bulletin, 
who had suffered pecuniarily by tbe dividend-oooking 
system a* applied to th.; Daney Mining Company re- 
cently. Hopkins had net 1 >ug cessed toown in Ibe 
various claims on the Comstock lead, however, when 
several dividends were cooked on hid Dewly acquired 
property, tin ur water totally diied up, and Spring VaUej 
stock went down lo nothing. It is presumed ths 
misfortune drove him mad and resulted in bis titling 
himself and tiie greater portion o;' his family. The 
new scalers of Ban Francisco permit: ed this water 
company 10 i,o on borrowing money and cocking dr i- 
deuds, auder cover of which cuanim; tluan'.-jers crept 

out of the tottering concern, 1< siring the crash I 
upou vooi anu nnsuspecting stockholders, without ofr 
lerlng to expose tbe villainy at work. We hope the 
fearful nias»acr<- deuik ■• above may prove tb; saddtst 
rusultof siUnc*. 

[From the "Territorial Enterprise" of 29th October.] 
I take U aUtack. •#.**.« iubk 'Iwajh. 

Ewen, and other newspapermen of the West, 
who were much more picturesque (and who 
therefore remain much more interesting) 
than the Greeleys, the Danas, the Raymonds, 
and the Bennetts of the East. 

Mark Twain, of course, was the star of 
stars among the sagebrush journalists. It is 
principally to unearth his lost writings that 
collectors still search in out of the way places 
for a file of the Territorial Enterprise. And 
who knows? The treasure may some day be 



January, 1923 

A few of Mark Twain's Enterprise arti- 
cles have been preserved. Of these none is 
more famous than "The Dutch Nick Massa- 
cre" with which he hoaxed the entire Pacific 

In a Spring Valley scrapbook of the six- 
ties that was fortunately saved from the Fire 
•of 1906, there has been preserved a clipping 
from the San Francisco Bulletin of October 
31, 1863, in which the entire account of 
"The Dutch Nick Massacre" was reprinted. 
And not only that, the Bulletin added the 
•characteristic retraction that Mark Twain 
wrote for the Enterprise the day after the ac- 
count of the massacre was published. It was, 
of course, the mention of the Spring Valley 
Water Company in Mark Twain's account 
that caused the custodian of the Spring Val- 
ley scrapbook to preserve the clipping. It is 
reproduced here as a literary curiosity. 

Styles change in humor as in other things. 
Such a hoax as this of Mark Twain's would 
be unpalatable today. It would not be thought 
funny. It would be censured as unnecessarily 
shocking. Supposing — and it is a far-fetched 
assumption — that a reporter conceived such a 
hoax and succeeded in having it printed, the 
paper on which he worked would have no 
more use for his services. 

But in the madcap sixties of Nevada and 
California men were not so squeamish. Ani- 
mal spirits had a freer range. It was the era 
of the practical joke. 

It was a time, too, when readers were read- 
ier than they are now to believe what they 
found in their favorite newspapers. Perhaps 
newspaper readers were more naive than 
they are today. Certainly they accepted a 
great deal of misinformation. Not that the 
editors were trying to mislead them (except 
with an occasional hoax), but the facilities 
for gathering accurate information were 
sadly lacking. The mechanics of transporta- 
tion and communication were in their in- 

All this is by way of explaining why "The 
Dutch Nick Massacre" was such a thorough- 
going success in hoaxing western readers. 
The lines that Mark Twain wrote into his 
account for the purpose of betraying his joke 
to the knowing reader would accomplish their 
result nowadays, but they failed of their 
purpose then. 

The best account of this celebrated Mark 
Twain hoax is given by Albert Bigelow 
Paine in his exhaustive biography of Mark 

Twain. Mr. Paine related the incident as 
follows : 

There was a point on the Carson River, four 
miles from Carson City, known as "Dutch Nick's," 
and also as Empire City, the two being identical. 
There was no forest there of any sort — nothing but 
sage-brush. In the one cabin there lived a bachelor 
with no household. Everybody in Virginia and 
Carson, of course, knew these things. Mark Twain 
now prepared a most lurid and graphic account of 
how one Philip Hopkins, living "just at the edge of 
the great pine forest which lies between Empire 
City and Dutch Nick's," had suddenly gone insane 
and murderously assaulted his entire family con- 
sisting of his wife and their nine children, ranging 
in ages from one to nineteen years. The wife had 
been slain outright, also seven of the children; the 
other two might recover. The murder had been 
committed in the most brutal and ghastly fashion, 
after which Hopkins had scalped his wife, leaped 
on a horse, cut his own throat from ear to ear, and 
ridden four miles into Carson City, dropping dead 
at last in front of the Magnolia saloon, the red- 
haired scalp of his wife still clutched in his gory 
hand. The article further stated that the cause of 
Mr. Hopkins' insanity was pecuniary loss, he hav- 
ing withdrawn his savings from safe Comstock in- 
vestment and, through the advice of a relative, one 
of the editors of the San Francisco Bulletin, in- 
vested them in the Spring Valley Water Company. 
This absurd tale with startling head-lines appeared 
in the Enterprise, in its issue of October 28, 1863. 

It was not expected that any one in Virginia City 
or Carson City would for a moment take any stock 
in the wild invention, yet so graphic was it that 
nine out of ten on first reading never stopped to 
consider the entire impossibility of the locality and 
circumstance. Even when these things were pointed 
out many readers at first refused to confess them- 
selves sold. As for the Bulletin and other California 
papers, they were taken in completely, and were 
furious. Many of them wrote and demanded the 
immediate discharge of its author, announcing that 
they would never copy another line from the Enter- 
prise, or exchange with it, or have further relations 
with a paper that had Mark Twain on the staff. 
Citizens were mad, too, and cut off their subscrip- 
tions. The joker was in despair. 

"Oh, Joe," he said, "I have ruined your business, 
and the only reparation I can make is to resign. 
You can never recover from this blow while I am 
on the paper." 

"Nonsense," replied Goodman. "We can furnish 
the people with news, but we can't supply them 
with sense. Only time can do that. The flurry will 
pass. You just go ahead. We'll win out in the long 

But the offender was in torture ; he could not 
sleep. "Dan, Dan," he said, "I am being burned 
alive on both sides of the mountains." 

"Mark," said Dan, "it will all blow over. This 
item of yours will be remembered and talked about 
when the rest of your Enterprise work is forgot- 

Both Goodman and De Quille were right. In a 
month papers and people had forgotten their hu- 
miliation and laughed. "The Dutch Nick Massa- 
cre" gave to its perpetrator and to the Enterprise 
added vogue. 



Twenty years ago the first automobile meet was held in California, the run of "the 1 
pioneer motorists from San Francisco to Crystal Springs 


juggies" taking these 

It Was Twenty Years Ago" 

By W. B. Lawrence, Superintendent, Water Division 

TWENTY years ago — in the summer of 
1902, to be accurate — the vogue of the 
"horseless buggy" had taken such a hold 
upon the more daring spirits of San Fran- 
cisco that an automobile meet was deemed a 
perfectly feasible undertaking. All who had 
discarded their bicycles and had possessed 
themselves of the very latest thing in rapid 
transportation were thrilled at the idea. And 
those who had friends that owned "horseless 
buggies'' and were fortunate enough to be 
invited to make the run went about for days 
before the Great Day casually mentioning 
the coming event with very poorly concealed 

Rennie P. Schwerin, of the Pacific Mail, 
was the master spirit of the innovation, and 
such was his enthusiasm that some thirty-odd 
motorists — only we didn't have that dignified 
word in 1902 — were signed up to make the 
run. The papers published the names of the 
automobilists who promised to take part, and 
everybody regarded them as heroes and supe- 
rior beings. 

It was decided that a fifty-mile run would 
be about right for a day's sport, and the 
Crystal Springs Dam of the Spring Valley 
Water Company in San Mateo County was 
fixed as the objective. Of course, Hermann 
Schussler, our Chief Engineer, was asked to 
participate, and he in turn invited me. Need- 
less to say, I was glad to go. Did it not mean 
taking part in a Historic Event? 

The "horseless buggies" left San Fran- 
cisco amid great excitement on a beautiful 
sunshiny Sunday morning, making the run 
to the Hotel Mateo in San Mateo — a distance 
of twenty-one miles — in time for lunch. It 
was a gala lunch that Mine Host John Lee 
provided, and everybody was happy because, 
as everybody exclaimed to everybody else : 

"Just think of it ! In our whole party we've 
only had one flat tire!" 

Mr. Schussler joined the party at San 
Mateo, where he was then living, and under 
his guidance the run to Crystal Springs Dam 
— a distance of four and one-half miles — 
was triumphantly completed. The run from 



January, IQ2J 

the Hotel Mateo to the down-stream toe of 
the dam was made over unpaved roads in the 
very respectable time of twenty minutes. It 
is a curving road, and even today it takes 
at least twelve minutes. The whole country- 
side was out to see the "horseless buggies'" go 
whizzing by, and quite a few human beings, 
as well as all the horses passed en route, 
were frightened almost to death. 

In the picture taken to immortalize the 
epoch-making occasion, the machines were 
all lined up against the background of the 
concrete dam. To the left is seen the flume 
carrying the forty-four-inch Crystal Springs 
pipe-line over San Mateo Creek. The cottage 
in the middle background was occupied by the 
company's pump engineer. The cone-shaped 
structure next to it was the brick tower of 
the reservoir outlet housing the regulating- 
gate. To the right was the keeper's cottage. 
The engineer's cottage was afterwards moved 
to the east, and the keeper's cottage and the 
brick tower were torn down. On the site now 
stands the beautiful white building housing 
the Crystal Springs electrically-driven pump 
that pumps water from Crystal Springs Res- 

ervoir to San Andres Reservoir with a ca- 
pacity of fifteen million gallons daily. 

After a rest at the dam the automobilists 
sped back to San Francisco with the proud 
consciousness that they had taken part in the 
first automobile meet of California. 

Needless to say, it was considered a very 
swagger party. The ladies were in holiday 
dresses and bonnets, and most of the men 
sported the blue cloth caps with leather visors 
that were considered "the very smartest wear" 
for drivers of "horseless buggies.'' It is only 
fair to add that the owners of four-passenger 
cars looked down a little on those who drove 
the two-passenger kind. I rode in a four-pas- 
senger car. 

Among those who took part in the run 
were Byron Jackson, E. P. Brinegar, Andrew 
Smith of San Mateo, Dr. Lilly of Oakland, 
John Brisben Walker of New York. E. 
Courtenay Ford, R. P. Schwerin, Dr. Wil- 
frid Kellogg, J. Dalzell Brown, Count Wil- 
liam von Voss, Lyman Trumbull, Dr. 
Hirschler, George Whitney, C. C. Moore. 
George P. Moore, Dr. Payne, Arthur Inkers- 
ley, and William Hunt of San Jose. 

Spring Valley Water Company 


F. B. Anderson Benjamin Bangs 

John E. Behan W. B. Bourn S. P. Eastman 

E. L. Eyre E. S. Heller C. Osgood Hooker Frank B. King E. J. McCutchen 

Louis F. Monteagle Captain A. H. Payson 

Arthur R. Vincent 

Officers and Departments 

Vice-President and Manager 
Secretary and Assistant 

Assistant Secretary and 
Assistant to Manager 
Assistant Secretary- 


Chief Accountant 

Chief Engineer 
Construction Engineer 
Chief Draftsman 

superinteniient, clty dlstribution 
Assistant, City Distribution . 
Foreman, Service and Meter 
Foreman, City Distribution 


W. B. Bourn 
i A. H. Payson 
S. P. Eastman 

John E. Behan 

John J. Sharon 

H. M. Kinsey 

Benjamin Bangs 

F. P. Muhlner 
D. W. Cooper 

G. A. Elliott 

T. W. Espy 

I. E. Flaa 

George W. Pracy 

O. Goldman 

Joseph Kappeler 

P. D. Rice 

Superintendent Water Division \v. b. Lawrence 

Assistant Superintendent G. J. Davis 

Assistant Superintendent A. W. Ebright 

Hydrog^apher S. M. Millinl 

Manager Water Sales Department o. e. Clemens 

Assistant Manager 

Chief, Inspection and Service 

Chief Adjuster 

Chief, Collection 

Manager, Docks and Shipping 

Superintendent Agricultural 

Assistant Superintendent 
Assistant to Superintendent 

Director of Publicity 
Manager Real Estate 

Purchasing Agent 

V. E. Perry 

H. Starcke 

Frank P. Clark 

C. I. Gavin 
H. Templeman 

F. W. Roeding 

C. H. Schween 

Frank Peters 

Edward F. O'Day 

Theodore J. Wilder 
J. H. Le Pla 

Between the Golden Gate and the peninsular city of San Mateo, nine splendid courses divide the interest^ of 
»olfers They are, as numbered on the map-l. Presidio Golf and Country Club; 2. Lincoln Park Municipal 
Course'" V California Golf Club; 4. San F.ancisco Golf and Country Club; 5. Lake Merced Golf and Coun- 
try Clubt ^ Lake Merced Municipal Course; 7. Olympic Golf and Country Club; 8. Burl.ngarnc ^Country 
Club; 9. Crvstal Springs Country Club. Fixe of these are on the Lake Merced watershed and one on the 
Crystal Springs watershed of Spring Valley Water Company. 

an Francisco IA&ter 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I I 

April, i 923 

Number 2 

Lake Merced, the Golfer's Paradise 

Bx the Editor 


EARLY one hundred and fifty years 
ago — to be accurate, on September 24, 
1775 — Don Bruno de Heceta, who had but 
recently returned from a northern explora- 
tion and the discovery of the Columbia 
River, encamped with his followers on the 
shore of a beautiful lake just within what is 
today the southern boundary line of the City 
and County of San Francisco. 

Don Bruno was looking for Don Juan 
Manuel de Ayala, who, he had reason to be- 
lieve, was engaged in a survey of the port of 
San Francisco. 

It was the feast day of Our Lady of 
Mercy, so, in accordance with the pious 
Spanish custom, Fathers Palou and Campa, 
who were in the party, named the lake La 
Laguna de Nuestra Senora de la Merced 
(the Lake of Our Lady of Mercy). 

Lake Merced is today, and has been for 
forty-six years, a unit of the Spring Valley 
system, an integral part of the water supply 
of San Francisco. As such it is of interest to 
all San Franciscans. 

During the last few years it has taken on 
an importance and attractiveness not related 
to its utilitarian value. It is very much in the 
thoughts and has taken a strong hold on the 
affections of thousands young and old. The 
reason is simply stated. One part of the Lake 
Merced property is being developed into a 
magnificent municipal playground. Lake 
Merced will, in the near future, provide the 
youngsters of San Francisco with amuse- 
ment facilities unrivaled anywhere. And 
several of its wide expanses have been con- 
verted to tin purposes of golf. Lake Merced 
is today, and will be increasingly in the 
years to come, "the San Francisco golfer's 

I. Its Romantic History 
The very earliest explorers of the peninsula 
of San Francisco did not discover Lake Mer- 
ced. The Portola expedition camped not far 
away, but missed it. Don Gaspar de Portola 
seems to have been a singularly unobserving 
explorer. He had passed the Bay of Mon- 
terey without seeing it, although to find it 
was the object of his expedition; small won- 
der, then, that he overlooked a much smaller 
body of water. 

Even that acute and experienced explorer, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, 
failed to see Lake Merced, though he was 
quite close to it just six months after de He- 
ceta had christened it. 

Indeed, Zoeth S. Eldredge, in his "Begin- 
nings of San Francisco," states that Anza 
examined the lake on March 29, 1776; but 
Eldredge, usually very accurate, in this in- 
stance misread the geography of the region 
as carefully set down in the Diary of Father 
Pedro Font, who accompanied Anza. The 
arroyo 6 laguna larga y angosta (the long 
narrow stream or lake) mentioned by Font, 
which Eldredge says was Lake Merced, was 
in reality San Andres Creek. This has been 
determined beyond the peradventure of a 
doubt through studies and measurement- 
made by I. E. Flaa, Chief Draftsman of 
Spring Valley Water Company. 

The Merced Rancho was granted, Septem- 
ber 27, 1835, by Jose Jesus Castro, Gov- 
ernor of California, to Jose Antonio Ga- 
lindo. This grant was confirmed on July 24, 
1854, by the Board of Commissioners to 
Ascertain and Settle Private Land Claims in 
the State of California. 

In the early days of our city life, romance 
claimed Lake Merced for its own. Here, on 


April, 192J 


: new municipal links at Lake Merced, t 
Beyond the eucalyptus trees in the distan 
Pacific Ocean 

rdering the 

September 13, 1859, United States Senator 
David C. Broderick and Judge David S. 
Terry, two giants of California's turbulent 
politics, faced each other in a duel that 
ranks among the classic encounters of the 
field of honor. Senator Broderick fell mor- 
tally wounded. The bullet of Judge Terry, 
in cutting him down, also destroyed forever 
the hold of the code duello on the Pacific 
Coast. A golfer standing at the seventh tee 
of the San Francisco Golf and Country Club 
course may look down upon the monuments 
commemorating this epochal duel. The hor- 
ror inspired by the tragic meeting has passed 
away, as is always the case with antique and 
courtly manners of bloodshed, but the glam- 
our of the affair will never cease to exert 
its influence upon those that visit Lake 


11. Fifty 1 ears Ago 

What Lake Merced was like fifty years ago 
may be gathered from an article in the Daily 
Alt a California of November 22, 1872, de- 
scribing, as quite an event, a visit to the lake. 

"Lake Merced," says this newspaper, "is 
about seven miles from the city, and is lo- 
cated not far from the Ocean House track. 
The day was as charming and pleasant as 
could be desired, and the drive was exhil- 
arating and cheerful. The dusty streets were 
soon left behind, and the fresh invigorating 
breeze from the ocean hailed with delight. 

"The party passed through Golden Gate 

Park, whose broad, serpentine and well-laid- 
out avenues are marvels of industry and en- 
terprise. They have been pronounced equal 
to any in Central Park, New York, and 
when the other improvements in progress 
and contemplated will be completed, Golden 
Gate Park on the shores of the Pacific will 
be the peer of Central Park on the shores of 
the Atlantic. 

"The drive from the Park to the Ocean 
View House is well known as one of the 
pleasantest in the country. The road is, in 
one or two places, covered with drift sand, 
but it is only for a few yards. 

"The Ocean View House, this favorite 
place of resort, was leased about five months 
ago by Mr. Mahony to Mr. C. Stagg, a gen- 
tleman of energy and enterprise, who has 
within this short time made many elegant 
improvements. The approaches to the house 
have been altered and improved, the accom- 
modations have been increased and made 
much more desirable than they ever were, 
and many other improvements are in prog- 
ress which will add very much to the pleas- 
ure and comfort of visitors. . . . 

"After an examination of the improve- 
ments, the party proceeded to the lake. It is 
only a short distance from the house. It con- 
sists of two bodies of water, connected by a 
narrow stream. One is known as the upper 
lake and the other as the lower lake. . . . 

"The two lakes compose a vast body of 

April, 1923 


water which, in the event of a conflagration 
in the city, would flood it completely. The 
water was tasted and pronounced excellent 
for drinking purposes and general use. . . . 

"The outlet from the lake is a narrow, 
rapid stream which runs over the sands into 
the ocean. The quantity of outflowing water 
was variously estimated at from 800,000 to 
1,000,000 gallons per day, but this quantity 
could be increased. If the depth of the water 
in the lake was decreased the inflow would 
be greater." 

In the party that made this visit to Lake 
Merced and the Ocean View House were 
Richard T. Carroll, General H. A. Cobb, 
R. H. Sinton, Samuel Purdy, Numa Duperu, 
and Colonel Buckley, all well known in the 
San Francisco of their day. 

III. A Unit of Our Water Supply 
Spring Valley's first acquisition of water- 
rights on the Laguna de la Merced was in 
August of 1868, from the Lake Merced 
and Clear Lake water companies. In 1877 
Spring Valley began to purchase land encir- 
cling and tributary to the lakes, eventually 
acquiring some 2800 acres. 

The Alt a reporter wrote of Lake Merced 
as "two bodies of water, connected by a nar- 
row stream.'' There actually are two bodies 
of water at present, known as the North and 
South lakes. This division was accomplished 
by extending a narrow strip of land which 
ran part way across, thus damming the South 

These two Merced lakes are situated in 
the southwest corner of the City and County 
of San Francisco, crossing the boundary line 
into San Mateo County. They have a water 
surface of 336 acres, with a total lake shore 
of about 38,000 feet. They are surrounded 
by the watershed lands of the Merced 
Rancho, some 2 1 00 acres of which ( a very 
large part) are the property of the water 

The lakes are fed by innumerable springs 
in the bottom and around the shores, whose 
waters are filtered through the sandy water- 
shed of some eight square miles. An elabo- 
rate protective system has been installed, by 
means of which the surface waters from the 
unowned watershed are diverted and carried 
into the ocean. Additional safeguard of Mer- 
ced's purity was provided by acquiring all 
the land around the lakes and a great part of 
the watershed. 

The construction of a dam at the outlet 
of each lake has served to provide a storage 
capacity of two billion 659 million gallons of 
water. As this large water storage is all with- 
in the limits of the city, San Francisco is 
practically safe from a water famine in case 
the outside supplies should be temporarily 
cut off by such causes as earthquake or war. 

Lake Merced contributes three and one- 
half million gallons to the daily water sup- 
ply of San Francisco. 

IV. In April, iqo6 
The part played by Lake Merced water dur- 
ing the earthquake and fire of 1906 was 
thus described by Hermann Schussler, in his 
brochure "The Water Supply of San Fran- 
cisco, Before, During and After the Earth- 
quake of April 1 8th, 1906, and the Subse- 
quent Conflagration" : 

"The southern, or San Mateo County, 
portion of the 30-inch Pilarcitos pipe-line 
being destroyed, but the northerly portion, 
near San Francisco, being but slightly dam- 
aged, the latter was immediately repaired, 
and, by starting the Lake Merced Pumping 
Station to pumping from Lake Merced Res- 
ervoir, in San Francisco County, where there 
was over a thousand million gallons of water 
on hand at the time of the earthquake, we 
were able, at nine o'clock on the evening of 
April 18, or 16 hours after the earthquake, 
to send a stream of between six and seven 
million gallons of water per twenty- four 
hours past Lake Honda Reservoir (at 365 
feet elevation) into and through the Western 
Addition. This regular daily supply, added 
to the 31,000,000 gallons stored in Lake 
Honda Reservoir, at 7 a.m. of April 18, 
largely assisted in keeping a water supply 
passing through the Western Addition dur- 
ing the entire progress of the fire and there- 

The pumping plant of which Mr. Schuss- 
ler wrote is on the easterly shore of the South 
Lake. It was built in 1891, and is known as 
the City Pumps. 

V. Twenty Minutes from Lotta's Fountain 
The Lake Merced Rancho occupies a posi- 
tion almost unique in San Francisco. Here is 
a very large body of land, lying for the most 
part in its original condition, within twenty 
minutes of the business district of the city. 
It is susceptible of development for resi- 
dential purposes according to the most mod- 


April, 1923 

From the tenth fairway of the new municipal links, the 
view is across the North Lake Merced. This hole lies be- 
tween the projected caddies' playground 
and the tennis-courts 

ern methods of engineering and landscape 
architecture. With the exception of one part 
of the San Miguel Rancho — the Sutro prop- 
erties — there is no other large holding in 
San Francisco of which this can be said. 

The topography, considered with refer- 
ence to the uses to which the rancho may be 
put, is nearly perfect. The land slopes al- 
most uniformly from Junipero Serra Boule- 
vard on the east to the two lakes, dropping 
about 190 or 200 feet in that distance, which 
gives a gradient of three to four per cent. 
On the other side of the lakes the hills rise 
to an elevation of 200 feet, somewhat more 
rapidly than on the east side. The land on 
the east side is cut into by three or four main 
gullies that add to its variety and pictur- 

Master in Chancery Harry M. Wright, in 
his Spring Valley report of 19 17 (before the 
completion of the municipal railway tunnel 
through Twin Peaks), admirably summed 
up the advantages of the Merced Rancho. 
He wrote: 

"It is separated from the thickly popu- 
lated parts of the city by the range of hills 
dominated by the Twin Peaks, about 900 

feet high, and is distant from ^]/ 2 to 7 miles 
from the Civic Center. The city is now con- 
structing a tunnel under these hills which 
will bring the nearer portions of this prop- 
erty within twenty minutes' ride of the busi- 
ness center. 

"Prior to 191 1, the only adjacent resi- 
dential development was east of the south- 
ern half of the Merced tract, several sub- 
divisions of low-priced property, with scat- 
tered dwellings of a cheap class. 

"About 191 1, there began a series of resi- 
dential subdivisions, northeast of this tract 
and adjacent to it, of high type, character- 
ized by fine landscape architecture and pro- 
tected by restrictive covenants suitable to 
residences of the best kind. There ensued a 
quick rise in values. The Merced tract com- 
mands beautiful views of the ocean, the 
lakes and the easterly hills; its topography 
lends itself readily to economical subdivi- 
sion; and though exposed to the westerly 
winds and fogs, it is no different in that re- 
spect from the high-priced residence lands 
along the Golden Gate." 

VI. The Skyline Boulevard 
Three boulevards bound the rancho — Sloat 
Boulevard on the north, Junipero Serra 
Boulevard on the east, and on the west the 
magnificent Skyline Boulevard along the 
hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Right of 
way for this boulevard for two miles in San 
Francisco and for nine miles in San Mateo 
County (to the summit of the Half Moon 
Bay road) was the gift of Spring Valley 
Water Company. 

Writing in the San Francisco Call of 
March 14, 1923, William F. Kilcline said: 

"The first completed unit of the seventy- 
five-mile Skyline Boulevard from San Fran- 
cisco to Santa Cruz will be opened to traffic 
within the next thirty days, . . . 

"In addition to providing an additional 
five-mile unit for San Francisco's world- 
famed scenic boulevard system, the opening 
of the first stretch of the new coast and 
mountain highway gives to local motorists a 
little more than a promise that actual prog- 
ress is being made in the hard-fought battle 
for another road down the peninsula. . . . 

"Five or ten miles more will be added to 
this unit within the next few months. . . . 
And if the State Highway Commission con- 
tinues to allocate the funds to this work, mile 
after mile of this broad ribbon of concrete 

April, 1923 


Looking northeast over practice greens 4 
which bounds the M< 

ed Rancho, with Mount Davidson 

will wind its way along the crest of the 
peninsula foothills and coast ranges, through 
redwood forests, over open plateaus and 
amid wonderlands of wild flowers, revealing 
sweeping vistas of shore line and ocean, 
beautiful valleys and broad lowlands — one 
of the most magnificent scenic drives in 

VII. "The Kiddies 1 Country Club" 

At the northwest corner of the rancho, 
where the Great Highway meets Sloat Boule- 
vard, the city has leased from Spring Valley, 
with option of purchase, sixty acres of land, 
ideally situated for recreation purposes. 
Here the city, at the instance of a progressive 
Park Commission and under the wise super- 
vision of Park Superintendent John Mc- 
Laren, is constructing a park, a children's 
playground, and a huge open-air swimming- 

The influence that these improvements 
will exert upon our outdoor community life 
cannot be overestimated. It has been freely 
stated, and with justice, that when this work 
is completed, the children of San Francisco 
will have the greatest playground in the 

The central feature will be the swimming- 
pool, one thousand feet long, one hundred 
feet wide, containing 4,500,000 gallons of 
water. This pool will accommodate ten thou- 
sand swimmers at one time. The possibili- 
ties for aquatic carnivals and all sorts of 

water sports need not be pointed out. No- 
where else is there, existing or projected, 
a swimming-pool such as this. There will be 
a baseball field with five diamonds, "and 
room enough," as has been said, "for home 
runs on every one of them at one and the 
same time." There will also be tennis- 
courts, athletic and gymnastic apparatus, 
and a clubhouse. Truly, this is to be "tht j 
San Francisco kiddies' country club." 

Golf at Lake Merced 

By Mark Daniels, Landscape Engineer 

IS there a golf course in existence that any 
golf architect would not gladly tear to 
pieces and make over? 

No matter how fine the course may be, 
the golf architect can demonstrate that even- 
hole is wrong; that it is a course for wooden- 
legged golfers; that the bunkers are im- 
properly placed, the traps upside down, and 
so on. There is hardly a course in California, 
five years old, that has not begun the process 
of alteration. 

This is the result of a narrowed vision 
of the game. With its curious fascination, 
golf draws nearly every player into the 
struggle for perfection of form and score to 
the neglect of other, and perhaps greater, 

In California you seldom hear anyone 
say, "Did you see the deep reflections on 


April. 1923 

Golfers who cannot find room on 
the crowded municipal course at 
Lincoln Park hail with delight the 
approaching completion of this 
new municipal course between the 
North and South Merced lakes. 
These 170 acres have been leased 
by the city from Spring Valley. 
What other course can boast nine 
holes bordering on water? 

the lake at the third?" or, "What a glorious 
sunset we had from the fourteenth!" It is, 
generally, "If I hadn't gotten into that 
darned bunch of wild cucumber back of the 
fifth green I'd have broken ninety." 

Not that golf should be played only as a 
medium for studying botany or the pictur- 
esque. But neither should it be played, nor 
the courses laid out, on lines calculated to 
make indignation, spleen, mendacity, envy, 
and profanity the outstanding traits of 

There are courses in this country, not 
trapped and bunkered to look like the Ypres 
salient, that a large majority of all golfers 
who have played them will pronounce great 
courses. When asked why they think so, the 
answer is, generally, "Well, that seventh is 

one of the greatest holes I ever played; the 
second has a wonderful green built up right 
in front of a beautiful grove of pines that 
outline the green ; the tenth is out in the open 
where you get a wonderful view and a fine 
shot over a bit of pond for your second to 
the green," and so on. 

In other words, there is always a definite 
something unconnected with traps and score 
that governs their estimate of the course. 
This something is charm of location and 
landscape beauty as exhibited on an intelli- 
gently planned course. 

Henry S. Colt, who is considered by many 
as the best designer of golf courses in Eng- 
land, has said that the planning of a golf 
course is as much a matter of landscape 
architecture as of golf. His theory is that the 

April, 1923 


To replace its present rS- 
hole course at Lakeside on 
the Merced Rancho. the 
Olympic Club is construct- 
ing 36 holes that will be 
known as the "Lake 
Course" and the "Ocean 
Links." The former will be 
a sheltered course, beauti- 
ful with eucalyptus, pine, 
and cypress. The Ocean 
Links will be rugged and 
sporty, affording real sea- 
side golf 

vistas, the pictures, the background for 
greens, the colors of surrounding foliage, 
should all be carefully considered, and that 
the golf course should be planned to fit nat- 
urally into these. 

It is the problem of the designer to avail 
himself of the natural hazards, the slopes, 
the groves of trees, in such a way that there 
will be a minimum of artificial hazards. 
When this is skillfully done it will be found 
that such a course will be popular with a 
greater majority than any course built arti- 
ficially and with the sole object of trapping 
every player from the twenty-handicap man 
to the par golfer. If you have beautiful 
surroundings, natural hazards, variety of 
topography, and develop these to their best 
landscape advantage with a well-planned 
course, you will be as near perfection in your 

golf course as you need be, and everlasting 
alterations will be unnecessary. 

All this is found at Lake Merced. For 
landscape beauty the region is hard to sur- 
pass. On one side is the sparkling sea, a 
western sea that gives you white surf and 
cooling blues in the morning and regal sun- 
sets in the evening. On the other side are 
the lakes reflecting the dark shadows of for- 
ests that stand with their toes in the water. 
Natural hazards are plentiful. The drainage 
is excellent. The sandy soil means dryness 
under foot all year round, and the assurance 
that you will not break your mashie if you 
take too much turf. 

The picture on the cover shows the Lakeside club- 
house of the Olympic golfers. The photo is by 
George E. Fanning. 


April, 1923 

The Lake Merced Municipal Links 

By Herbert Fleishhacker, President, 
Park Commission 

SO popular is the municipal golf course 
at Lincoln Park that half the golfers 
who would like to play there cannot be ac- 
commodated. To relieve this congestion, the 
Park Commission has leased from Spring 
Valley Water Company 170 acres of the 
Merced Rancho, between the North and 
South lakes, and is putting in an eighteen- 
hole municipal course which will be ready 
for play by the end of October. 

A clubhouse will be built overlooking the 
North Lake, and there will be tennis-courts, 
a playground for caddies, ample parking 
space for motor-cars, capacious areas for 
driving and putting practice, and six prac- 
tice holes. 

The site chosen for the new municipal 
course is an excellent one, and for com- 
pleteness of equipment the course will be 

unique in America. It will be a full-length 
championship course, with every variety in 
scenery, distance, and hazards. There are 
two dog-legs. Par is 72. The total playing 
length is about 6500 yards. 

The first nine holes are all on inside lines. 
The second nine circumscribe the first nine, 
skirting both lakes. No other course in the 
world can boast nine holes bordering on the 
water. The two nines are well balanced. Full 
advantage has been taken of the irregulari- 
ties of contour. The course is well bunkered, 
and there are lots of traps — the twelfth hole 
has eleven. Fairways are 180 feet wide. The 
piping system surpasses anything ever in- 

The Lincoln Park is a "baby" course com- 
pared to this new municipal course at Lake 
Merced. It is, without question, the finest 
municipal course in the United States. It 
was laid out by William Watson, a golf 
architect of international repute, who super- 
vises all details of construction. 

This view eastward from the third tee of the Olympic Club's Lakeside course is justly regarded as one of the most 

superb on the Lake Merced Rancho. Nestled in the trees across the lake are Spring Valley's City Pumps. In the 

distance are some of San Francisco's "seven times seven hills" 

The Two Olympic Club Courses 

By Louis C. Stewart, Chairman 
Golf Committee 

THE Olympic Club has now under con- 
struction at Lake Merced two eighteen- 
hole golf courses, both of championship 

length and character and possessing most 
distinctive features. These will replace the 
present eighteen-hole course at Lakeside. 

The property on which these courses are 
being constructed all lends itself most ad- 
mirably to very attractive golf architecture 
and embraces all desirable features making 
up a variety of golfing holes — from the most 

April, 1923 


This, the fourteenth hole of the present Lakeside course, shows the character of the Ocean Link 
structed by the Olympic Club. Along this western verge of Merced Rancho the Skyline Boulevar 
body terms with the Pacific Ocean 

rugged and natural type to the gently rolling, 
and in a few spots to the other extreme of 
long, fiat golf holes requiring accuracy and 
distance in play. The soil is of a sandy na- 
ture, thus assuring splendid drainage and 
velvet-like fairways, which have already 
been proven possible on the Olympic Club 

The "Lake Course,'' commanding at all 
times magnificent vistas of beautiful Lake 
Merced, starts along the divide and works 
gradually down into the lower east country, 
where the foresight of the Spring Valley 
Water Company in planting trees has given 
us matured eucalypts, a variety of pines, 
and magnificent cypresses, for which we can 
thank the directors of the water company of 
thirty or forty years ago. A large portion 
of this course will be practically at all times 
sheltered from the prevailing northwest 
winds and fogs, and the sun playing down 
on this sheltered ground will carry one al- 
most to another clime. 

Quite in contrast will be the "Ocean 
Links" — rugged, sporty, and, to the true 
golfer, real seaside golf. The first six holes 
are on the top bench, each one distinctive; 
the seventh takes us lower down toward the 
ocean, and gradually to the twelfth, where 
one is within a mashie shot of the ever-beau- 
tiful surf. The thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth take us gradually back to the upper 
ground, and the last three holes will afford 
as fine a finish to any course as exists. 

Notwithstanding the parklike qualities of 
the "Lake Course," and even its splendid 
architecture, the "Ocean Links" will prob- 
ably be more popular, although there are no 
apologies to be made for either. 

There are many institutions and clubs 
that enjoy thirty-six holes of golf; but those 
who have examined and criticized the plans 
and conditions at Lakeside have all been si- 
lent in admiration, and many have predicted 
that Lakeside when completed will be the 
"St. Andrews of America." A higher com- 
pliment could not be paid. 

In the opinion of those who have watched 
President Humphrey and the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Olympic Club consummate the 
Olympic Club golfing plans, those who have 
yet to make acquaintance with the project 
should prepare themselves for a revelation. 

California Golf Club Course 

By James K. Polk, President of the Club 

THE course of the California Golf Club, 
situated on the Junipero Serra Boule- 
vard side of the Lake Merced Rancho, is the 
historic battleground of great California 
matches. The world's championship matches 
of the Panama-Pacific Exposition were 
played here, and it was during those won- 
derful matches that Walter Hagen first came 
into national prominence. 

It is the oldest of the Merced courses. 



April, [923 

California is properly trapped, having at 
least seventy-five full grown sand traps. 
This develops straight play. 

The gully on the ninth hole is usually 
mistaken by beginners for the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado. It is an excellent mental 

"Old Ingleside," the famed battleground of San I-'rancisco matches, is the 
pioneer course of the Lake Merced Rancho. It was constructed by the San 
Francisco Golf and Country Club, and was taken over by the California 
Golf Club. The profusion of wild flowers on this course fixed it specially 
in the memory of Chick Evans 

and is popularly known as the "Old Ingle- 
side Course.'' Our club took it over when 
the San Francisco Golf and Country Club, 
which had laid it out, moved to their present 

San Francisco Golf and Country Club 
spent some $30,000 on the greens of this 
course, and they are today the finest on the 
Pacific Coast, as soft under foot as a Per- 
sian carpet, and true for putting. Experience 
of man}- years has taught us how to keep out 
gophers, worms, and dandelion. 

Asked what courses were most pleasantly 
fixed in his memory. Chick Evans named 
ours as one of them, speaking with enthusi- 
asm of its profusion of wild flowers. He 
played it in the spring, when the poppies, 
pansies, bluebells, buttercups, iris, and lupin 
were in bloom. It is no wonder this course is 
so well known for its wild flowers, for the 
women golfers who played it when it was 
new scattered wild-flower seeds over the 
rough not once but several times. 

This course was laid out at a period be- 
fore it was customary to spend large sums 
on fairways, and iron shots were considered 
"the thing." The course has some real cleek 
shots and many other lies that call for iron 
play. Hence the beginner can develop a bet- 
ter game here than on any of our later 
courses. There is no temptation and no op- 
portunity for a golfer to "baby himself 

And it is a course you can play over in the 
morning and again after luncheon without 
feeling as though you had climbed Mount 

hazard and an attractive feature for good 

The sixteenth hole has a plateau green. 
This is a par 4 and most attractive. 

Of our seventeenth hole Harry Vardon 
said that it was "the sportiest hole in the en- 
tire San Francisco district." 

We have one continuous lake view, and 
glimpses of the Pacific Ocean, where, in the 
earl}- evening, we can see the Los Angeles 
steamers passing. Our sunsets are magnifi- 

San Francisco is growing so fasi that 
some day we shall have to surrender this 
course, but we hope to be prepared so that 
when it is needed for residential purposes 
we shall be able to buy another golf prop- 
erty, either on the Merced Rancho or else- 

San Francisco Golf and Country 
Club Course 

By R. J. Woods, Secretary of lite Club 

LOCATED near the county line on the 
j Lake Merced Rancho, this course is one 
of eighteen holes so laid out that players 
may start either at the first or the ninth hole, 
in either case starting at the clubhouse. 

The first nine holes are more or less hilly, 
with long deep gullies. The second nine are 
more level, with features to give them spe- 
cially attractive character. 

The characteristics of the holes may be 
summed up in this way: 

(Continued on Page 12) 

April, 1923 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Franxisco, California 

375 Sutter Street t Phone Douglas 2562 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. II. 

April, 1923 


THE following article appeared as an 
editorial in the February, 1923, issue 
of The Olympian, the official organ of the 
Olympic Club of San Francisco: 

Great Golf Future 

The Olympic Club is entering on a great new 
golfing era. 

On February 1 the winner of the competition 
among architect members for the best design of a 
new $200,000 golf clubhouse at Lakeside will be 
announced by Lewis P. Hobart, the Club's advi- 
sory architect. 

The new "lake course" of eighteen holes has 
been completed, and will be playable this fall. 
Work has commenced on the new eighteen-hole 
"ocean course." 

A new well has been put down, and by March 
15 the danger of water shortage at Lakeside will 
be eliminated. 

Finally, the Club now owns the wonderful golf- 
ing property at Lake Merced, which has proven 
such an asset to us all. A deed of conveyance has 
been executed to the Olympic Club by the Spring 
Valley Water Company and W. B. Bourn, whereby 
the Club comes into possession of 321 acres at a 
cost of $350,000. Payment is to be completed by 

Negotiations for the purchase of this splendid 
golfing tract were begun early in 1921, when the 
Olympic Club initiated the matter with the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany and with Mr. Bourn. Both the Spring Valley 
Water Company and Mr. Bourn took the position 
that the welfare of the Olympic Club should be 
considered from the viewpoint of civic progress, 
and the negotiations proceeded on this basis, with 
the result that the Club has acquired a bargain. 
W T e are paying $1200 an acre to Spring Valley for 
1 87 acres and are getting the Bourn holding of 134 
acres at cost. 

In the early stages of the negotiations Spring 
Valley Water Company asked for an interest rate 
of six per cent on deferred payments and insisted 
on reserving the right to extract silica from a mine 
on the property which the Water Company has 
worked profitably for a number of years. The Com- 
pany took the position that this reservation was a 
reasonable term of the purchase agreement in view 
of the low price at which it was selling its acreage. 
In the finals, however, the Water Company waived 

its right to mine silica when it was plain that min- 
ing operations would interfere with the use of the 
Lakeside golf course. It also agreed, as did Mr. 
Bourn, to reduce the interest rate on certain de- 
ferred payments from six to five per cent. 

Members will be interested in the method by 
which the low price was arrived at. The Directors 
of the Club, led by President Humphrey, had 
formulated estimates providing for additions to the 
Lakeside clubhouse and for construction of addi- 
tional links on the land sought, also for installa- 
tion of amusement features for club members not 
interested in golf. The amount of money the Club 
could afford for these purposes was carefully esti- 
mated. This left a remainder for the purchase — a 
sum far less than the property was worth. Never- 
theless, the Water Company and Mr. Bourn were 
urged to make a sacrifice for civic considerations. 
After some discussion the figure of $350,000 was 
arrived at. Mr. Bourn agreed to put his land in at 
the actual cost to him, the remainder to be com- 
pensation for the Water Company. 

Shortly before the Olympic Club negotiation, 
the San Francisco Golf and Country Club pur- 
chased their golf course of 144 acres from Spring 
Valley. The price was arrived at by the usual pro- 
ceeding in arbitration. Philip Paschel represented 
the Club, Duncan McDuffie the Water Company, 
and H. M. Wright, former Master in Chancery to 
the Federal Courts, acted as umpire. The price 
fixed was approximately $2720 per acre. This land, 
as real estate, is worth something more than the 
Olympic Club land, but the latter is more valuable 
for golf purposes. 

Many months after the negotiations with the 
Olympic Club started the Water Company sold to 
the Lake Merced Club a course of 150 acres at the 
extreme southeasterly corner of the Lake Merced 
Rancho for $1850 per acre upon terms of payment 
considerably more attractive to the Water Com- 
pany. Although this Club purchased at a reason- 
able price, the land is less valuable as real estate 
than our property. 

The United States Government bought from 
Spring Valley in 191 7 a tract of 150 acres adjoin- 
ing our property for $1504 an acre. As a great deal 
of this Fort Funston property is waste land, it is 
less valuable as real estate than the Olympic Club 

It is quite safe to say that any time during the 
negotiations between our Club and Spring Valley 
the latter could have sold the property we have 
acquired for a price in excess of $2000 per acre. 

Contrast these figures with the average price of 
$1115 per acre which we are paying. Great credit 
is due to President Humphrey and the Directors 
who co-operated with him in the negotiations. 

The quotation in Spanish on the back cover of 
this issue is from the "Noticias de la Nueva Cali- 
fornia" of Padre Fr. Francisco Palou. It is the con- 
temporary account of the naming of Lake Merced. 
Father Palou writes: 

"We returned to the road that we had left at the 
bank of a great lake which empties into the Bay of 
the Farallones, which was called Our Lady of 



April, 1923 

The first nine holes of the San Francisco Golf and Country Club course on 

the Lake Merced Rancho are more or less hilly, with long deep gullies; the 

second nine are more level, but they have other features calculated to make 

the most confident player watch his every stroke 

San Francisco Golf and Country 
Club Course 

(Continued from Page 10) 

First. — Starts from the clubhouse and 
faces the prevailing westerly winds. With a 
heavy wind even the long driver will have 
difficulty in reaching the green in two. One 
must keep straight; a slice is apt to be badly 

Second. — The drive must be straight, 
down and up the center of a deep swale. 
The long driver has no difficulty in reaching 
the green in two; but the putting is difficult, 
as the green slopes considerably. 

Third. — No feature here if one is straight. 
On the right is a heavy growth of timber and 
on the left deep sand bunkers. The second to 
the green is not difficult, though there are 
traps on both sides. 

Fourth. — A straight shot to the green, 
with little punishment except for the slicer. 

Fifth. — There are bunkers on both sides 
of the fairway, but plenty of room for the 
fairly straight. One is supposed to reach the 
green in two; but many of the fairly long 
drivers are short on their seconds. 

Sixth. — This hole has been called by some 
of the leading professionals the best on the 
course. The driver faces an ample fairway, 
but an effort to get a long drive frequently 
pulls the ball and it runs down a brushy 
slope. With the wind generally against one, 
many of the long drivers fail to get home 
in two. The green is well protected by rough 
ground if one goes over. 

Seventh. — A one-shot down to the bottom 
of a long gully, with a sloping green diffi- 
cult to stay on and to put on. 

Eighth. — An uphill shot. The hole is only 
320 yards, yet many good drivers are short 
with their seconds. This is a blind hole, and 
somewhat difficult on that account. 

Ninth.- — A straight open fairway, with no 
difficulties except yardage. 

Tenth. — There are bunkers on either side, 
so that a pull or slice has no chance to reach 
the green in two. The green is well guarded 
by bunkers, so that a long second is not 

Eleventh. — The green is not large and 
completely surrounded by bunkers, making 
it difficult to drop on the green and stay 

April, 1923 



iew northwest over the San Francisco Golf and Country Club Course shows the suave curves of the road to 
the Lakeside clubhouse of the Olympic Club and of the Lake Merced flume 

Twelfth. — Here a very long drive is essen- 
tial in order to get a four. The second must 
be well lofted over a big fill and two care- 
ful puts made on a sloping and fast green. 

Thirteenth. — An easy pitch to a green 
that, owing to its convex surface, is hard to 
stay on. It is encircled by deep sandy bunk- 

Fourteenth. — The long driver has little 
difficulty here; but the moderate driver must 
be very careful to be straight and avoid the 
bunkers on both sides of the fairway. The 
short driver will find it impossible to get on 
the well-guarded green in two. 

Fifteenth. — Here again the long driver 
has only to be careful not to pull. For him 
the green, not particularly protected, can 
easily be reached in two. 

Sixteenth. — The short 
driver will find it very 
difficult to avoid the traps 
and must be content to 
reach home in three. The 
long driver must carefully 
place his second, as the 
green is well protected. 

Seventeenth. — A dog's- 
leg hole that calls for a 
carefully placed driver and 
a long iron. There are no 
difficulties for the short 
driver who must be content 
with a five. 

Eighteenth. — Perfectly straight and no 
difficulties until the green is reached. Some 
of the fine drivers can reach the green in two, 
except against a heavy wind; but usually a 
five is satisfactory. 

Lake Merced Golf and Country 
Club Course 

By Louis E. Goodman, Secretary of the Club 

THE Lake Merced Golf and Country 
Club course is located on 150 acres of 
the Rancho de la Merced, about one-half 
mile south of the county line, and has a 
frontage of about one-quarter of a mile on 
the Junipero Serra Boulevard, at a point 

San Francisco Golf and Country club 



April, 1923 

Lake Merced Golf and Country Club is rapidly completing 
this new course, the most southerly of the courses on the 
Lake Merced Rancho. Golfers are eagerly awaiting the day 
when they may tee off just below one of the most charm- 
ing clubhouses ever dedicated to golf 


just before the boulevard turns to the east, 
toward Colma. 

The clubhouse is located on a knoll at the 
northeast corner of the property, and is the 
highest point of the club's land. It overlooks 
the entire course, and almost every putting 
green and fairway can be seen from the 

The course is an eighteen-hole course, 
6575 yards in length, and has grass tees, 
grass fairways, and grass greens, which can 
be watered and kept in shape the entire year, 
due to the fact that the club maintains and 
operates its own water- works system, con- 
sisting of three wells, two 100,000-gallon 
tanks, and electrically driven pumps which 
distribute the water through all the fairways 
and greens. 

The first hole is 500 yards long, and is a 
get-away hole, practically level, and runs 
along the boulevard. A ball sliced from the 
tee will land the player in a ditch, formerly 

the old Ocean Shore right of way, which sep- 
arates the first and ninth fairways. The 
green is thoroughly trapped. 

The second hole runs along the south 
boundary, and is 365 yards in length — a 
drive and a mashie. The left of the fairway 
is out of bounds, the right being protected 
by part of the embankment of the old Ocean 
Shore right of way. 

No. 3 is 425 yards long, the fairways be- 
ing trapped against a ball sliced or hooked 
from the tee, and other traps from the fair- 
ways catch the second shot to the green. 

No. 4 is a mashie pitch to an elevated 
green, surrounded on all sides by traps. 

No. 5 is 385 yards, par 4. The shot is 
made from an elevated tee across a gully, 
which must be carried on the drive. 

No. 6 is 365 yards, and parallels No. 5. 
The drive should bring the player to the 
edge of the gully, and there is left a mashie 
pitch to the green. 

April, 1923 



No. 7 is a beautiful 425- 
vard hole, par 4. The shot 
is from an elevated tee, 
and the drive should land 
the player in the long 
swale, with a good iron or 
wood shot to the green. 
Grass hollows surround 
the green to the left, and 
traps protect it on the 

No. 8 is a 200-yard shot 
to an elevated green. It is 
a stiff spoon shot. 

No. 9 is 465 yards, par- 
alleling No. 1, with traps 
on the left and the Ocean 
Shore right-of-way ditch to the right. The 
ninth green is located at the clubhouse. 

No. 10 is a dog's-leg hole, 460 yard-, par 
5. The shot is from an elevated tee, down 
through a long swale. The green is banked 
up, and an overshot will leave the player in 
serious difficulty. 

No. 1 1 is another dog's-leg hole, coming 
back, 425 yards in length to a thoroughly 
trapped green. 

No. 12 is 435 yards in length, requiring 
two good wooden shots against the wind, 
to a green protected by mounds planted in 
sagebrush on all sides. 

No. 13 is another dog's-leg hole, 475 
yards in length, par 5, from an elevated tee, 
up through a swale to a green banked up and 

fe^ffej ' " ■ 

I* -M4<V^ f ± t JL*i'v - "... a 1 — 

HR-'lff*^ M Jl-i "" "■ ::* 

ng completion at the southei 

Merced Rancho 

trapped on all sides, leaving the player in 
difficulty from an overshot. 

No. 14 is 225 yards long, and is a stiff par 
3, requiring a good wooden shot against the 

The next four holes are the most spectac- 
ular ones on the course. 

No. 15 is 345 yards, par 4. The drive 
should leave the player on a plateau from 
which he shoots down on the green, set up in 
a gully. The ball must land on the green, or 
the player is in serious difficult}-. 

No. 16 is the most difficult hole on the 
course — 385 yards. The drive must carry a 
gully, and the second shot leaves one on a 
plateau from which a full iron shot must 

In the middle distance is the course of the Lake Merced Golf and Country Club, now under construction. This 
characteristic view of the Merced Rancho is from the hills that bound it on the south 



April, 1023 

be made across a gully to a green cut into 
the other side of the gully. 

No. 1 7 is a one-shot hole from one side of 
the gully, to a green cut into the other side 
of the gully. The pitch must land on the 
green, otherwise the player will have wasted 
his shot. 

No. 18 is 400 yards in length, and is on a 
ridge. The ball must be played along a pla- 
teau where either a slice or a hook at any 
stage of the play will lose the hole, the eight- 
eenth green being directly opposite the club- 
house and surrounded by a ditch. 

Crystal Springs Country Club 


By Oscar Boldemann, President of the Club 

THE golf course of the Crystal Springs 
Country Club is situated on San Mateo 
County watershed property of the Spring 
Valley Water Company. High between two 
ranges of hills, it gives one the impression 
of playing golf on the rim of the world. 

The course is free from the summer fogs, 
yet not so warm as to make it uncomfortable 
playing. The links are high enough to be 
above the fall tule or land fog. Going up the 
road to the clubhouse and coming out of the 
dense fog, one seems to emerge into a dif- 
ferent world. From the top of the hill, the 
fog looks like a vast expanse of sea. 

While one may require an overcoat in go- 

ing up to the links, the player will get along 
very nicely without even a sweater. 

The range forming the background of the 
links proper is perpetually green. At the foot 
of this range are the San Andres and Crystal 
Springs lakes. These form a picture prob- 
ably not equaled in the world — surely not on 
any other links. 

It is not an uncommon thing to see deer 
walking leisurely across the course. Three or 
four will stop in the middle of a fairway, 
look around, and at the first noise scamper 
into the oaks and underbrush. 

There are several oak groves skirting the 
links, some of which are used as picnic 
grounds by the members. 

While all golfers are, of course, vitally 
interested in good fairways and greens, nev- 
ertheless the natural beauties of Crystal 
Springs Country Club cannot escape the eye 
of the most ardent golfer. You may play this 
course three times in one day and each time 
on every tee a different picture presents 

When the Skyline Boulevard is completed 
it will take but twenty minutes to get to the 
Crystal Springs Country Club from the in- 
tersection of the Ocean Boulevard and the 

Last year a well-known Scotch golfer who 
was making a tour of the world visited the 
Crystal Springs course and made the asser- 
tion that it was the best golf land he had seen 
in America. 

From the Crystal Springs clubhouse one looks north past the twelfth and thirteenth greens to Lake San Andres of 
the Spring Valley system. The Skyline Boulevard will follow the general direction of the road to the right 





-.. Jfra 






I think that I shall never see 

A poem lovely as a tree — 

A tree whose hungry mouth is 


Against the earth's sweet flowing breast; 

A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 

A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair; 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain: 
Who intimately lives with rain. 

Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only God can make a tree. 

Joyce Kilm 

and other forms" bv Joyce Kilmer. Copyright, /QI-j, by George H. Do 

•an Francisco I^ater 


Spring Valley Water Company 
san francisco, california 

Volume 1 1 

July, 1923 

Number 3 

Thoughts on CharaSJer 

By W. B. Bourn, Chairman of the Board 

IR E C A L L an imaginary conversation 
when Wamba asked Touchstone what was 
the most wonderful thing within his ken. 
Touchstone replied: " 'Tis easily answered. 
It is the great difference there is 'twixt men." 
After a moment's thoughtful pause, Wam- 
ba made query: "What is the next most won- 
derful thing within your ken ?" 

"Still easier answered,'' Touchstone re- 
plied. " 'Tis the little difference there is 
'twixt men." 

Browning expresses Touchstone's thought 
in a deeper way: 

"Oh the little more, and how much it is; 
And the little less, and what worlds away." 

Let us not hope to do away with differ- 
ences. All true men glory in them. The} - de- 
velop our strength ; they strengthen our man- 
"Difference is the soul of life and love, 

And not the barren oneness weak souls prize ; 
Rest springs from strife, and dissonant chords 
Ofttimes beget divinest harmonies." 

We of San Francisco have been partici- 
pants in a turbulent arena — participants in 
accentuated differences between nature and 

The world has heard of our differences; 
the world has not heard of the heart of our 

We must fight our battles; defeat is noth- 

It is not the joys of life that upbuild 
character. Sorrow, or the appreciation of re- 
sponsibility, chastens character and lifts hu- 
man nature to higher levels of thought and 

The appeal of unscrupulous emotionalism 
to the passions is very, very different to that 
conservatism which endeavors to raise the 
lower stratum of a communitv to a higher 

level, and to appeal, not to the worst, but 
to the best that is in man. 

It is one thing to destroy or pull down; it 
is quite another thing to create or build up. 

Our great need is constructive conserva- 
tism. Reforms must be constructive; if not, 
a result is too often produced that is more 
harmful than the conditions that existed. 

Nearly everything in this world is relative. 
In forming an estimate of character we must 
weigh character in its relation to conditions. 
The great facts and problems of human ex- 
istence with which we constantly deal are 
most elusive and most difficult to define. 

In our relationship with men and affairs 
there is a subtle something — a subtle every- 
thing, that reveals itself in character. And 
that subtle something is emphasized not only 
in what a man does, but in what is quite as 
important, the way in which he does it. 

Many have not learned that the way a 
thing is done counts quite as much as the 

Character inspires confidence. I am re- 
minded of Prentiss Smith. He told me a story 
of his early youth when, armed with letters 
of introduction to the leading citizens of the 
then struggling hamlet of Peoria, he made 
his way across the prairies of Illinois to that 
city. In the afternoon he was driving with 
one of the leading citizens of Peoria, to 
whom he confided that he was visiting the 
town and looking over the field with a view 
of opening a bank, and he asked the leading 
citizen what he thought would be the pros- 
pects of a bank in Peoria. 

The leading citizen replied: "Well, it 
might make things different. But you know, 
we are a very queer people here. I think, 
however, if you once gained our confidence, 
you could lend us a good deal of money." 


July, 1923 

The Jepson Laurel 

Beside the edge of Crystal Lake 
We watch the June sun slowly fall, 

While o'er the mountain creeps the fog, 
Like white smoke thro' the redwoods ts 

CALIFORNIA'S second largest laurel 
tree, growing at the north end of Crys- 
tal Springs Lake on the watershed of Spring 
Valley Water Company in San Mateo Coun- 
ty, was dedicated by the California Botani- 
cal Society on Sunday, the 15th of April, 
1923, in honor of Willis Linn Jepson, of the 
University of California. 

Professor W. W. Mackie, of the Univer- 
sity of California, delivered an address pay- 
ing tribute to Professor Jepson for the work 
that has made him famous in the world of 
science as an authority on the dendrology of 
California. Members of the society and the 
following officers were present: Dr. W. L. 
Jepson, president; Dr. L. R. Abrams, of 
Stanford University, first vice-president; W. 
C. Blasdale, of the University of California, 
second vice-president; Professor H. E. Mc- 
Minn, of Mills College, secretary; Mrs. Ade- 
line Frederick, of Berkeley, assistant secre- 
tary; Mrs. Linda G. Dodd, treasurer. 

The Jepson Laurel, as it will henceforth 
be known, is one of the old landmarks of 
San Mateo County. In the days "before the 
gringo came" the Spanish-Californians held 
barbecues beneath its huge spread of foliage. 
It stands at a spot that made it convenient 
for this purpose. It is in San Andres Valley 
of the Feliz Rancho, about one-half mile 
north of the Sawyer Camp picnic-grounds of 
the Spring Valley Water Company, near the 
corner common to the Buri Buri, San Mateo, 
and Feliz ranchos, and is visible from the 
Crystal Springs-San Andres road. 

The bronze plaque commemorating the 
dedication of the Jepson Laurel gives its 
circumference as twenty-two feet four inches 
and its height as fifty-five feet. 

In the great windstorm of Thanksgiving 
Day, 1920, two of the large branches were 
broken off, opening its great canopy to the 

The only larger laurel in California grows 
near Cloverdale in an alluvial bench of the 
Russian River. 

When the members of the society gathered 

Our way leads where moss-covered oak, 
Bright bay, and buckeye charm the glade, 

While through the leaves the setting sun 
Weaves arabesques of shine and shade. 

—Clarence Ukmy. 

about the tree, Mrs. Adeline Frederick was 
asked to tell something about the events 
leading up to the dedication. She^said: 

"During a field trip of the Botanical So- 
ciety a few of us wandered unwittingly into 
this forbidden territory and discovered a re- 
markable resting-place. Our attention was 
called by Dr. Jepson to the unusual size and 
beauty of the laurel tree. He said such a 
tree should be dedicated and cared for. 

"On arriving home I wrote at once to Mr. 
Eastman, of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany, asking that surgical attention be given 
the tree, and made reference to a dedication. 

"The Spring Valley Water Company was 
immediately responsive, and suggested that 
the tree bear our name. Without conferring 
with Dr. Jepson it was determined that the 
tree bear the name Jepson Laurel — the com- 
pletion of the idea due to the generosity of 
the company, the inspiration to Dr. Jepson." 

Dr. William Frederick Bade paid tribute 
to the work of conservation of trees in gen- 
eral, and to the work of Dr. Jepson in par- 
ticular. When Roosevelt, he said, made his 
memorable trip to California to deliver the 
Earl lectures of 1903 at the University of 
California, the faculty at the banquet given 
in his honor presented him with Dr. Jepson's 
Silva of California. President Roosevelt in 

Spring Valley Water Company presented this tablet, which 

is set in concrete at the foot of California's second 

largest laurel 

July, 1923 


When the "gringoes" came in "the splendid idle forties," 

they found this skull and cross-bones carved on the laurel. 

Readers of Poe's "Gold Bug" and Stevenson's "Treasure 

Island" thrill at the thought of what it may mean 

acknowledgment said that no more fitting 
gift from this state could have been made 
and that it would be one of the most treas- 
ured books in his collection. 

"The great forests and the great outdoors,'' 
said Dr. Bade, "constitute an enormous her- 
itage to which we have fallen heir. Their fu- 
ture preservation is entrusted to our keeping. 
Not by bread alone do we live." 

Mr. Frank Dodd read the chant "The 
A\ 'ind in the Clearing" by Robert Cameron 
Rogers, of Santa Barbara. 

The Master of the day closed the formal 
ceremonies with a few remarks on the work 
of conservation, drawing a distinction be- 
tween a land used and skinned and a land 
with all its beauty preserved but still used. 
"The eastern United States is skinned and 
stricken of its trees. The skinning process is 
moving westward; we wish to stop it here 
in California." 

Dr. Jepson was called upon by the mem- 
bers for an informal speech. He said: 

"One of my objections to having a tree 
named for me is that this is an honor usually 
reserved for the dead. I am reminded of a 
Scot in Edinburgh who was left for dead 
when the stones of a building collapsed upon 
him. But when his sorrowful comrades began 
to dig out his body, they heard him saying, 
'Heave awa', lads; I'm no dead yet!' I assure 
you, I am no dead yet. It is not easy for me 
to express my appreciation of this honor and 
of the loyalty of the members of the society 
which makes it possible for me to carry on 
mv work." 

"Address of Dedication 

By W. W. Mackie, University of California 

WE have met here to dedicate a great 
tree to a great botanist. What could be 
more fitting than the recognition and appre- 
ciation of both while they stand here together 
in the full vigor of their prime? 

This laurel, rooted in the soil of our Coast 
Range and grown great under our California 
climate, has reached the utmost perfection 
in size and spread of branches. Standing far 
above its fellows, it seems to lend protection 
to its associates that cluster close about it 
and add to its kingly setting. Among the 
courtiers we see the graceful field tan-oak, 
the horse-chestnut, the fruited elder-berry, 
the coffee-berry, and the brambles — all 
characteristic of the altitude and vicinity. 

We need hold no brief for the place and 
rank of the laurel among our trees. It has 
within itself the elements of its survival and 
perpetuity. So long as the Coast Range leans 
against the Pacific to be caressed by its 
breezes, nourished by its rains, and protected 
by its mantles of fog, so long will the laurel 
and its children cover these hills with fra- 
grant and beautiful foliage, appealing to 
man's love of nature, and typifying nobility 
of character in perpetual service. 

It is in consideration of these qualities 
that we have the connection which makes it 
peculiarly fitting that this tree be dedicated 
to Professor Jepson — so great a lover of na- 
ture, and one whose nobility of character in 
perpetual service is so clearly a part of him 
in the minds of all of us who have followed 
him along the alluring botanical highways 
and byways of the state. 

Each one of us has the urs;e for self-ex- 


July, 1923 

pression — beautiful, effective, and perma- 
nent. Many of us can hope to achieve this only 
in our children. Professor Jepson, however, 
has the immediate certainty of knowledge 
and inspiration, born through his efforts, 
world-wide, that will last as long as the 
botany of California has a place in science. 

Doctor Jepson, led on in part no doubt by 
love of the trees surrounding his boyhood 
home in Sonoma County, entered early into 
the study of botany. His doctorate was se- 
cured at Cornell University, and further re- 
searches led him to England and the conti- 
nent of Europe. But, fortunately for us, his 
life's work has been given to his Alma Ma- 
ter, the University of California. Here his 
book children have been born, and a splen- 
did family they are! His first, The Flora of 
Middle Western California, appeared in 
1901, and later editions in 191 1 and 1923. 
A School Flora of California arrived in 
1909, closely followed by The Silva of Cali- 

Under the leadership of such guides we 
have learned to know our California plant- 
life in the best and truest sense. We have 
met it with the love and understanding of a 

In 191 1 the United States Forest Service 
(U. S. Forest Service Bui. 75) published 
Doctor Jepson's treatise on The Tan-Bark 
Oak — a tree which sorely needed a protector. 
And Doctor Jepson's latest work, A Flora of 
California, is almost completed at the pres- 
ent time. It has been appearing, one part 
after another, as the great families of plants 
followed in their year order. This work com- 
prehends all the native plants of the state. 
We trust that some time all our foreign 
plants that have come to remain permanently 
with us may be included. 

Throughout this long period of botanical 
activity Doctor Jepson has found time to 
teach and inspire hundreds of students, 
many of whom have continued along the 
paths into which he conducted them. 

Aside from teaching and authorship, Doc- 
tor Jepson has given his influence generously 
to the furthering of all projects having for 
their aim the increasing and preserving of 
botanical interests, scientific and otherwise. 
He has been the mainspring of the Cali- 
fornia Botanical Society, which was organ- 
ized in the '90s, and which here today in- 
augurates this happy custom of dedicating 

to our prominent botanists the outstanding 
specimens of our noblest trees. 

The courtesies extended to the California 
Botanical Society by the Spring Valley Wa- 
ter Company in permanently preserving and 
setting apart the Jepson Laurel, with its 
name engraved in stone, have set a worthy 

It is with sincere and heartfelt apprecia- 
tion of these courtesies that the California 
Botanical Society now takes great pleasure 
in dedicating this laurel — the noblest of its 
kind — to our greatest botanist, Dr. Willis 
Linn Jepson. 

The Laurel 

An Added Dedication on Behalf of 
Spring Valley Water Company 

TREES, it has been finely said, are 
"green symbols," and from the very in- 
fancy of mankind they have symbolized hu- 
man virtues and emotions. The oak is 
strength. The weeping-willow bows in sor- 
row. The laurel is loyalty. 

The laurel is a tree of very special dignity. 
Poets have always loved the laurel. Its leaves 
flutter through the beautiful old myths of 
Greek and Roman antiquity. 

The laurel was sacred to Phoebus Apollo. 
When this god became enamored of the river 
nymph Daphne, she sought safety amid the 
foliage of the laurel — Apollo's dedicated 
tree — and so was secure from his pursuit. 
Loyalty was stronger than infatuation. Apol- 
lo was loyal to his tree. 

It was anciently believed that lightning 
could not strike the laurel — that Jove, "the 
Thunderer," withheld his thunderbolt from 
Apollo's tree. This was another enforcement 
of the lesson of loyalty — the divine loyalty 
of one god to another. 

There was always a beautiful propriety 
in those ancient mythological symbols, and 
it has been said that the laurel was chosen 
to symbolize loyalty because the laurel is one 
of the noblest of trees, and loyalty one of the 
noblest of virtues. 

Loyalty to our country, loyalty to our fam- 
ily, loyalty to our friends, loyalty to those 
with whom the business of life brings us into 
intimate association — these loyalties are fun- 

July, 1923 


damental; without them the structure of so- 
ciety would fall to pieces. 

The soldier calls loyalty esprit de corps, 
and for the soldier who is not loyal, even 
though he possess every other military vir- 
tue, there is nothing but contempt. Benedict 
Arnold was bravest of the brave, but he was 
disloyal; so his name is "a hissing and a by- 

Loyalty is strength — the strength of fidel- 
ity, of allegiance — and the laurel, like the 
oak, is strong. 

Loyalty is devotion — devotion to princi- 
ple, devotion to duty — and the laurel is a 
devoted tree, not easily plucked from the 
earth into which it has struck its vigorous 

Loyalty is constancy — unswerving con- 
stancy of trust and confidence — and the lau- 
rel is constant; its branches sway with the in- 
constant breezes, but its trunk is unmoved by 
the assaults of wind and weather. Loyalty, 
like the laurel, stands firm in storm and 

In ancient times the laurel meant victory; 
the leaves of the laurel were wreathed about 
the brow of the victorious soldier, in token 
of the fact that loyalty, with its trinity of 
assistant virtues, strength, devotion, and con- 
stancy, had crowned his arms with deserved 
success. Hence, even in modern times, the 
use of the laurel wreath as the symbol of 
imperial power. The laurel-leaves on the 
brow of Napoleon meant the Crown of Em- 

The dedication of this laurel to Professor 
Jepson was therefore a most fitting dedica- 
tion. In dedicating it, the members of the 
California Botanical Society showed an ap- 
propriate instance of loyalty. They dedicat- 
ed it to Professor Jepson — strong, devoted, 
constant, crowned with the victories of schol- 
arship, a laureate of science. They dedicated 
it to one of their own. Professor Jepson is the 
president of their society. They were loyal 
to their chief. 

In no way derogating from the singleness 
of purpose inspiring that dedication, Spring 
Valley Water Company takes the liberty of 
an added dedication. We dedicate this mag- 
nificent laurel to the spirit of strength, devo- 
tion, and constancy, to the virtues that spell 
victory — in a word, to loyalty. 

— Edward F. O'Day. 

The Jepson Laurel Forty 
Tears Ago 

By Al C. I 'otter 

I WELL remember the laurel tree that has 
been named in honor of Profe>>or Jepson. 
During the period from 1882 to 1887 or 
1888, about the time the Lower Crystal 
Springs Dam was started, I was farming the 
land now under water on both sides of the 

The road from San Andres Lake, instead 
of crossing the creek near the big laurel, 
continued on down the creek to where it met 
the Half Moon Bay stage-road to San Mateo 
— about the site of the dam. This road was 
very picturesque, the lower portion near the 
dam particularly, being shaded by immense 
oaks and laurels. 

There was one laurel in the flat near the 
entrance to the old Sherwood home that ri- 
valed the Jepson Laurel. Or, rather, there 
were three trees in one cluster, as though they 
came from the same root. The trunks were 
cut into suitable lengths for butchers' blocks, 
and the straight limbs sent to San Francisco 
for furniture and cabinet work. As I remem- 
ber them, those butcher blocks were from 
three to five feet in diameter. It was a shame 
to cut those laurels down, but they had to go. 
Where they stood is now under seventy to 
eighty feet of water. 

The Jepson Laurel was appreciated by 
many in those days. Nearly every Sunday 
four-horse busloads of city people utilized 
its shade for dancing. It was first come first 
served, or the survival of the fittest. If the 
first arrival was strong enough to hold the 
spot, well and good. Or if the next party 
was made up of good mixers, they might 
share the pleasure with the first; but it gen- 
erally ended in a free-for-all fight. I have 
known parties to arrive there shortly after 
daylight to secure the dance platform under 
this grand tree. 

If it were only gifted with speech, the 
Jepson Laurel could tell us many interesting 
tales of love-trysts, bacchanalian revelries, 
and free-for-all fights. And sometimes under 
its shade would be a crowd of city children 
reveling in the beauties of this flower-cov- 
ered flat and enjoying themselves as only city 
kids can in the country. 

These small flats were more open years 


July, 1923 

ago than now, as cattle kept the small brush 
out, and signs of cultivation could be seen. 
There were old sled-roads entering the hills 
from most of these flats, where wood had 
been cut and sledded down the side-hills to 
the flats, where it was loaded on immense 
wagons and hauled to San Francisco by six- 
and eight-animal teams. 

I suppose the reason this tree still stands 
is that the laurel, or bay tree, is very hard 
to split into stove-wood, and so was passed 
up by the woodchoppers of early days. 

There used to be a spring on the side-hill 
southwest of the tree, a little distance up the 
hill, where the coldest of drinking-water 
seeped into a little basin that the sun never 
reached, so heavily was it shaded. 

I have a mental picture of it all before me 
now as I knew it forty years ago. 


A Brotherhood of Vener- 
able Trees" 

W TT7"E saw much woodland with thick un- 
VV dergrowth and several kinds of good 
timber: oak, madrono, spruce, as well as 
poplars and other trees." 

Padre Pedro Font, chronicler of the Anza 
Expedition of 1775-6, was on what is now 
the San Mateo County watershed of Spring 
Valley Water Company when he wrote this 
entry in his diary. 

"Wood and water" are inseparable, but 
even on watersheds trees are not always 
found in rich variety as well as in profusion. 

The dedication of the Jepson Laurel, the 
second largest laurel in California, provides 
a fitting opportunity for calling attention to 
the multiplicity of native and planted trees 
found on the watershed properties of Spring 
Valley in San Francisco, San Mateo, Ala- 
meda, and Santa Clara counties. The follow- 
ing list was prepared by F. W. Roeding, su- 
perintendent of the agricultural department 
of Spring Valley Water Company. 

Black Oak 
Oregon Oak 
Blue Oak 
Maul Oak 

California Live-Oak 
Valley Oak 
Scrub Oak 
Digger Pine 
Bishop Pine 
Common Cottonwood 
Black Cottonwood 


California Laurel 
Tan-Bark Oak 
Douglas Fir, 

or Oregon Pine 
Red Alder 
White Alder 

or Christmas-Berry 
Wild Lilac 

Western Sycamore 
Willows (3 or 4 species) 

or Wax-Berry 
Islay, or Wild Cherry 
Big-Leaf Maple 
Box Elder 
Oregon Ash 
Blue Elderberry 

Blue Gum 
Red Gum 
Dwarf Red Gum 
Manna Gum 
Red Flowering Gum 
Acacia Baileyana 
Black Acacia, or 

Australian Blackwood 
Golden Wattle 
Acacia Lopantha 
Silver Wattle 
Monterey Pine 
Scotch Pine 
Cluster Pine 
Monterey Cypress 
Incense Cedar 
Port Orford Cedar 
Arbor Vitae 
Cork Oak 
White Oak 
Lombardy Poplar 
Carolina Poplar 
Canary Island Date- 

Stone Pine 
Italian Cypress 
Australian Tea Tree 
California Black Walnut 
Eastern Black Walnut 
Deodar Cedar 
Tulip Tree 
Bird Cherry 
Maiden-Hair Tree 
Norway Maple 
Sycamore Maple 
English Maple 
Linden, or Lime Tree 
Red Bud 

Tassell Tree 


Red Flowering Currant 

Wild Flowering Currant 

California Dogwood 

( California! ) 
Hazelnut ( Calif ornica ) 

(Rhamnus Calif.) 
Bitter Cherry 
Western Choke-Cherry 



European Sycamore 
Pagoda Tree 
Hawthorn in variety 
Catalpa Speciosa 
Catalpa Bignonioides 

Umbrella Tree 
Eastern Box Elder 
European Ash 
Tree Mallow 

Weeping Willow 
Pepper Tree 
Osage Orange 




English Laurel 
Portuguese Laurel 
Basket Willow 
Tree Mallow 
Empress Tree 
Tree of Heaven 

lifter Seventeen Years 

ON August 23, 1906, John McCarrey, 
149 Chenery Street, went to work for 
Spring Valley Water Company as a fireman 
in the Lake Merced plant. On his way home 
that evening he stepped into a gopher hole 
and broke his leg. When he recovered he left 
the city. Vesterday he walked into the office 
of the company and told the cashier that he 
had a day's pay coming. In less than five 
minutes he was handed $2.35. "Really I 
should have had interest," he said. — San 
Fra n cisco Exa miner. 

July, 1923 


Completed section of reinforced concrete aqueduct in Miles Canyon. 

Reconstruction of the Sunol Aqueduff 

By George A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

THE Sunol Aqueduct is the conduit be- 
tween Sunol and Niles which carries 
the water drawn from the Alameda source 
of the water company. It is 25,900 feet long, 
and is composed of 14,600 feet of tunnel and 
11,300 of redwood flume. 

The conduit now being replaced has been 
used ever since the construction of the Sunol 
Infiltration Gallery in 1900. Prior to that 
time water flowed down Alameda Creek to a 
point about three miles above the town of 
Niles, where it was diverted into a masonry 
aqueduct which carried the supply to the 
Alameda pipe-line beginning at Niles. It is 
an interesting historical fact that this old 
masonry aqueduct was built and used by 
General Vallejo many years ago to carry wa- 
ter to drive an old-time "overshot wooden 
wheel'' which provided the motive power for 
the operation of a flour-mill. It was origi- 
nally an open brick-lined ditch which the 
Company in 1886 covered with an arched 
roof made of concrete. Thus the construction 
now under way will result in the third con- 

duit used since water was first taken from 
Alameda Creek. 

For many years about half the daily sup- 
ply of water used in San Francisco, or 
twenty-one million gallons, has been drawn 
from the Alameda source. The addition of 
twenty-four million gallons daily, which is 
now being developed, or a total of forty-five 
million gallons daily, is a larger quantity 
than could be transmitted through the flume 
portion of the Sunol Aqueduct, although the 
tunnels in the line have a minimum capacity 
of seventy million gallons daily. The flume 
had to be replaced with a larger conduit. 
Consideration of the probable future uses as 
well as the capacity of the existing tunnels 
led to the conclusion that the reconstructed 
portion of the line should be made of a size 
sufficient to carry seventy million gallons of 
water per day. 

In general, the design of the structure calls 
for a rectangular reinforced concrete conduit 
about five by six feet inside measurement, 
with walls and bottom six inches thick and a 


July, 1923 

Interior of new Sunol-to-Niles aqueduct, showing forms 
and reinforcing steel in place 

top four inches thick. For most of its length 
it will be built directly upon the old flume 
bench. In two places, however, the structure 
necessarily spans depressions in the contour 
of the country. The first of these depressions 
is about five hundred feet long and has a 
maximum depth of about twenty-five feet. 
Here the conduit will be supported by a re- 
inforced concrete trestle. The second depres- 
sion is about seventy feet deep and only 
eighty feet wide. At this point a reinforced 
concrete arch will carry the structure. 

The total length of conduit to be con- 
structed is about 11,300 feet, divided into 
four sections of different lengths by the five 
tunnels which make up 14,600 feet of the 
total length. This fact naturally led to the 
division of the work into four separate units. 
A complete construction plant has been set 
up at each location and four separate con- 
struction crews are engaged upon the work. 
Fortunately the aqueduct is paralleled by the 
Western Pacific Railroad, and two tempo- 
rary spur tracks were installed, upon which 
all materials were delivered. Over fifty car- 
loads of lumber, steel, and cement were re- 
ceived in this way. All of the sand and gravel 
used for concrete is hauled from Niles by 
motor-truck. A special power line has been 
built from Niles to operate the motors used 
in the work, and, including the pumping 
operations incident to the work, the average 
power consumption is over six hundred 
horsepower. Altogether over three hundred 
men are employed in the construction. About 
nine hundred feet of completed aqueduct is 
finished each week, and at the present rate 
of progress the aqueduct promises to be 
ready for use in September. 

During the time of construction the water 
that ordinarily flowed through the flume 
which was removed to allow the construc- 
tion of the new aqueduct is allowed to flow 
down Niles Canyon as far as the old Vallejo 
conduit mentioned before. Here it is divert- 
ed into the Vallejo conduit and carried down 
to Niles. A centrifugal pump elevates the 
supply into the pipe-line which transports it 
to the Belmont Pumping Plant, and this in 
turn pumps it to San Francisco. 

Niles Canyon has become a popular week- 
end picnic destination of late years, and ex- 
traordinary precautions have been taken to 
prevent contamination of the water in its 
passage through the gorge. A fence has been 
constructed between Vallejo Dam and Sunol, 
and a number of watchmen are kept busy 
preventing encroachment by the public on 
the banks of the creek. In addition, to be ab- 
solutely certain that the water is pure before 
being delivered to San Francisco, a chlorina- 
tion plant is treating the supply at the tem- 
porary pump near Niles. 

The drastic exclusion of picnickers and 
campers from Alameda Creek is, of course, 
a temporary precaution, and when the aque- 
duct is in use they will be welcomed by the 
Company as before. Indeed, plans are being 
made to add to their comfort and conve- 

The fourth annual meeting of the Cali- 
fornia Section, American Water Works As- 
sociation, will be held in Fresno on October 
25-27, with headquarters, in all likelihood, 
at the beautiful new California Hotel. 

Chairman L. M. Anderson named the fol- 
lowing entertainment and reception commit- 
tee: C. B. Jackson, Superintendent, Fresno 
City Water Corporation, chairman; F. M. 
Brooks, Art Concrete Works, Pasadena; L. 
M. Northrup, Manager, Neptune Meter 
Company, Los Angeles; George W. Pracy, 
City Superintendent, Spring Valley Water 
Company; C. W. Weeks, Fresno City Water 

The following were named a committee 
on exhibits: Alexander Bell, Pacific Coast 
Manager, Wallace & Tiernan Company, 
San Francisco; N. M. Bird, James Jones 
Brass Company, Los Angeles; C. B. Abbott, 
Water Works Supply Company, San Fran- 

July, 1923 


md-^ m^SM 

Looking down on the site of th 

new Stanford Heights Reservoir from the slope of Mount Davidson, with Portola 
Drive and Twin Peaks in the distance 

The New Stanford Heights Reservoir 

By George W. Tracy, Superintendent, City Distribution 

IN San Francisco about twice as much wa- 
ter is used during the daylight hours as 
at night. The smallest hourly consumption 
comes, as one would naturally think, from 
about one to five in the morning. At five, 
when people begin to prepare breakfast, the 
water use increases until about nine, when 
it falls off somewhat until the noon-hour. 
When luncheon is over and the dishes clean- 
ed up the water use drops back again until 
time to get dinner. About five in the after- 
noon the period of greatest consumption be- 
gins and lasts till eight. This covers over the 
dinner-hour and includes most of the irrigat- 
ing done in the residential districts. 

These fluctuations make it necessary to 
store water during the hours of least demand 
for use when it is needed. In addition to tak- 
ing care of the ordinary fluctuations, the 
reservoirs are often the only sources of sup- 
ply while repairs are being made to the 
pumps or to the large main lines which bring 

the water in from the country. These shut- 
downs are sometimes only for an hour or 
two, but at other times have extended over 
two or three days. 

This storage cannot be all in one place — 
in most cities, at least. The location must be 
such that each part of the city is supplied 
at the proper pressure, for excessive pressure 
causes trouble from splashing, water-ham- 
mer, and, in extreme cases, breakage of the 
plumbing fixtures. Too low pressure gives 
unsatisfactory service. 

In supplying water to San Francisco eight- 
een reservoirs or tanks are used by the 
Spring Valley Water Company. 

The district west of the Twin Peaks, the 
new residential section of San Francisco, 
first received its water supply from a tank 
located at the top of Forest Hill and known 
as the Forest Hill tank. This tank was built 
in 1 9 13 and was supplemented, a little later, 
by the Claremont Court tank, located on the 



July, 1923 

Two twenty-four-inch outlet pipes of Stanford Heights 

Reservoir ready to be incased in concrete; also pipe and 

elbow to which reservoir overflow will be connected 

hill above Claremont Court. In the last two 
years the growth of this district has been 
so great that the two tanks are now inade- 
quate, short interruptions in power service 
to the pumping station causing an acute 
shortage of water. While the building activ- 
ity was at its height all over the district the 
engineers of the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany were busy developing the plans for a 
permanent water supply. A block of land 
was purchased in the Stanford Heights dis- 
trict, a district perhaps little known to most 
San Franciscans. It lies on the northeast 
slope of Mount Davidson and south and east 
of Portola Drive. The block purchased is be- 
tween Twenty-ninth and Day streets, run- 
ning from Stanford Heights to Fowler Ave- 
nue. The land slopes from an elevation of 
about 590 feet above city base at Twenty- 
ninth Street to an elevation of about 620 feet 
at Day Street. The bottom of the reservoir 
will be at elevation 596 and the overflow- 
pipe at elevation 616. These elevations are 
admirably adapted for supplying the west of 
the Twin Peaks districts and also for bring- 
ing a water supply around to the east slope 
of the Twin Peaks. 

The reservoir which will be built on this 
block will have a storage capacity of nine 
million gallons, and will be known as the 
Stanford Heights Reservoir. For the pres- 
ent, only the westerly half of this reservoir 
will be built. This west basin will have a 
capacity of very nearly five million gallons. 
In plan it will be 330 feet long and 220 feet 
wide. Water will be carried to a depth of 
twenty feet. 

In design and construction the reservoir 
will be a typical one. The basin will be 
formed by taking the dirt out of the central 
portion and piling it on the downhill side, 
making an embankment that will be eighty 
to ninety feet wide at the base, ten feet wide 
at the top, and twenty-two feet high. On the 
west side this embankment will taper off 
to meet the natural slope of the hillside. This 
embankment will be specially prepared to 
make it as solid and as near to natural earth 
as possible. The dirt will be taken out by 
steam-shovels and loaded on motor-trucks 
which will haul over to the embankment and 
dump it. A scraper or spreader will then 
spread the dirt till it is in a layer about 
ten inches thick. This layer is then sprinkled 
and rolled. The rolling is done with a large 
gasoline or steam roller which weighs twelve 
tons. This roller goes back and forth over 
the ground until it is thoroughly packed. 
When the embankment has all been placed 
and thoroughly rolled, it will be trimmed to 
exact size and lined with concrete six inches 
thick. This concrete lining will be rein- 
forced, and expansion-joints will be placed 
about every thirty feet, so as to make a 
strong permanent waterproof lining and one 
that will not crack. 

A reinforced concrete retaining wall will 
be built along the east side of the reservoir. 
This wall will act as a division-wall between 
the two halves of the reservoir when the east 
basin is built. At the northeast corner of the 
reservoir an outlet tower will be built. This 
tower will be about fifteen feet square and 
twenty-two feet high. In it will be placed the 
gates for the control of the water and the 
overflow-pipe, (which will care for any ex- 
cess of water). This outlet tower will also 
contain a small outlet near the bottom, so 
that it may be emptied and cleaned, if de- 
sirable. Cleaning may never be necessary, 
as the last piece of construction on the job 
will be the erection of a strong tight roof 
which will prevent any growths in the water 
and also keep out all dust and dirt. A well- 
covered reservoir will keep clean indefinitely. 

A reinforced concrete tunnel will be built 
from the outlet tower through the embank- 
ment. Two twenty-four-inch cast-iron mains 
will be laid in this tunnel to carry the water 
from the reservoir to the water-pipes in the 
streets. These mains are laid in a tunnel, so 

(Continued on page 16) 

July, 1923 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

375 Suiter Street < Phone Douglas 2562 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Off to Europe 


July, 1923 


INTEREST in the Broderick-Terry duel 
has been very much alive since San 
Francisco Water, in the issue of October, 
1922, published the statement of John Dal- 
ton disputing the accuracy of the Historic 
Landmarks Committee of the Native Sons, 
which marked with monuments the supposed 
site of the encounter on the Laguna de la 
Merced Rancho. 

Mr. Dalton designates a spot on the Lake 
Merced Rancho about one quarter of a mile 
from the spot marked by the Native Sons. 
His authority is the late Peter Quinlan, of 
the Spring Valley Water Company. Mr. 
Quinlan was present at the duel, and more 
than once showed Mr. Dalton where it was 
fought. Mr. Dalton has worked at Lake Mer- 
ced as an employee of Spring Valley for 
thirty-six years, and is thoroughly familiar 
with the terrain. 

The San Francisco Bulletin republished 
John Dalton's statement, with the result that 
there has been quite a controversy among 
students of San Francisco history as well as 
among old-timers. 

The latest turn of the dispute is rather 
surprising. Defying every contemporary ac- 
count, the claim is now made in the Bulletin 
that the duel was not fought on the Merced 
Rancho at all, but on a bit of ground "just 
back of Leonidas Haskell's house at the foot 
of Laguna Street." It was in the Haskell 
home at Black Point that Senator Broderick 
died from Judge Terry's bullet. There are 
circumstantial accounts of his having been 
carried thither from the "field of honor" at 
Lake Merced. 

A writer in the Chronicle refuses to take 
the new theory seriously, derisively insisting 
that "the meeting took place on a boat just 
off Angel Island." 

Harold Starcke 

HAVING completed thirty-five years of 
faithful service in the Spring Valley 
Water Company, Harold Starcke, chief in- 
spector of the water sales department, has 
retired on a pension, and with his wife has 
left for a lengthy European trip. 

Mr. Starcke came to California from Co- 
penhagen, Denmark, in 1886, as manager of 
a Danish colonization project at Bidwell's 
Bar, near Oroville. When the project failed 
he was employed as assistant to George E. 
Booker, chief clerk of the Spring Valley Wa- 
ter Company during the administration of 
President Charles Webb Howard. He re- 
mained with the Company continuously until 
this year. In his thirty-five years of service 
he saw the number of water consumers grow 
from 32,000 to 80,000. He handled all ap- 
plications for water service. 

Other Spring Valley men with a long re- 
cord of service, and still actively employed, 
are J. Hughes, foreman, forty years; T. 
D. Pardow, bookkeeper, thirty-seven years; 
John Dalton, watchman, thirty-seven years; 
J. E. Maisch, leak and waste inspector, 
thirty-six years; W. Y. Patch, bookkeeper, 
thirty-six years; W. Dunne, fireman, thirty- 
five years. 



July, 1923 

San Francisco Water: <iAn Outline 

XIII. College Hill Reservoir gallons 

Pilarcitos 1,050,000,000 

PROPERLY to care for San Andres wa- San Andres 4,530,000,000 
ter, Spring Valley, before the new stor- 
age reservoir at San Andres was brought in- r ° tal — 5.580,000,000 
to use in November, 1870, had commenced Strange as it may seem, this total capacity 
construction of a new distributing reservoir, was four times that of all the Croton reser- 
with a capacity of fourteen million gallons, vo irs supplying New York, 
called College Hill Reservoir. In April, 187 1, the actual storage was 1,- 
Situated on a spur of Bernal Heights, near 190,000,000 gallons, and Lobos Creek was 
and to the west of Holly Park, at an eleva- yielding about two million gallons daily, 
tion of 255 feet above sea-level, this dis- In Mayj r g 7Ij the capacity of the dis . 
tributing reservoir took its name from St. tributin"- reservoirs was - 
Mary's College. T , TT J " gallons 

/-\ij p, tit /-> n 1 -ii. Lake Honda 1.2, 000,000 

Old St. Marys College was built on a Market-street ijsoiooo 

tract of sixty acres allotted to the Christian Lombard-street 3,750,000 

Brothers about i860 by Archbishop Ale- Brannan-street 500,000 

many. The brick structure stood for manv Francisco-street 5,000,000 

College Hdl 14,000,000 

Total 57,000,000 

XV. Consumption 

In 1869 the total consumption of water was 
2,003,000,000 gallons; in 1870 it was 2,- 
204,000,000 gallons. 

There were, in April, 1871, 19,000 build- 
ings in San Francisco, and the population 
was 155,000 souls. 

Thirteen thousand buildings received wa- 

Mter from Spring Valley, the rest from wells. 
r ' I - Calculating eight persons per building, 

104,000 persons used Spring Valley water. 
The per capita consumption was sixty gal- 
No trace remains of old St. Mary's College; but it was a l° nS P er day. 

familiar landmark when College Hill Reservoir was built. Water receipts for 1870 totaled $830,000. 

(From a rare photograph in the collection of x ' ^ 

Charles B. Turrill) (To be continued) 

years (long after the college had moved to 
Oakland) just off the Mission Road, near 
what is now the northern approach to the 
Mission Viaduct. 

College Hill Reservoir was completed in 
May, 187 1. 

XIV. Some Figures 

Up to January, 1871, the actual amount ex- 
pended for San Francisco's water supply was 
$6,450,000 ("in gold," the newspaper state- 
ments are careful to specify), of which $3,- 
072,000 had been spent for construction dur- 
ing the five years ending December, 1870. 

The capacity of the storage reservoirs 

Water should never be taken ice-cold into 
the stomach. It should be cool enough to be 
palatable — that is, to taste good — but never 
ice-cold. Also don't gulp it down, but drink 
slowly. This is of special importance if the 
water be cold and you are hot and thirsty. 

The picture on the cover of this issue shows 
the Jepson Laurel. From a photograph by 
George E. Fanning. 

The quotation on the back cover of this 
issue, is from the Book of Job, xiv : 7,8,9. 

July, 1923 



TVhen the IVater Consumer Complains 

By V. E. Perry, Assistant Manager, Water Sales Department 

A COMPLAINT by a consumer does not 
necessarily mean poor service, but lack 
of prompt attention to a complaint does. 
Spring Valley proceeds on the assumption 
that a consumer makes no complaint unless 
there is real reason for complaining, and 
gives the complaint immediate and thorough 

The most important complaints received 
are (1) bills in excess of customary amount; 
(2) lack of supply; (3) diminished supply; 
(4) quality of supply. 

In the matter of bills in excess of the cus- 
tomary amount, the consumer is positive that 
the utility does not read the meter, or over- 
reads it, or that the meter is running fast. 
As a matter of fact, marked increase in the 
water bill almost invariably points to a hid- 
den leak. When this is uncovered by our in- 
spector, the consumer is usually very grate- 
ful for the service rendered, and particularly 
so when a refund is made of fifty per cent of 
the excess billed — the Company's procedure 
where prompt repairs are made. 

Not that the utility is always free from re- 
sponsibility for a bill in excess of the cus- 
tomary amount. Meter readers are human; 
so are billing clerks. As for the meter, it is 
always tested before installation ; the service 
department will cheerfully test it at any time 
the consumer desires ; and there is in the ser- 
vice of the city a municipal meter tester who 
can be called upon to test the water meter, 
quite independently of Spring Valley action. 

In complaints of no supply is found the 
utility's greatest source of grief, for what 
could be worse than no water at noon, when 
the youngsters are expected home for lunch, 
or at five in the evening, when the housewife 
is preparing dinner? "What do you mean by 
shutting off my water just when I need it 
most?" But we have not shut off for non- 
payment, nor have we shut down the district 
for emergency repairs. So we dispatch a man 
from the Service Department to see what the 
trouble is. His report usually reads: "Shut 
off by plumber making repairs to adjoining 
flat," or "Small boys closed the house- valve." 
Sometimes the meter or pipe is choked, in 
which event the inspector uses the pump or 
changes the meter. 

There are few complaints about diminish- 
ed supply. The inspector's report is usually : 
"Faucet out of order," or "House-pipe too 
small," or "Pipe partly choked." As with 
the "no supply" complaints, whenever the 
Company is responsible the trouble is quick- 
ly remedied. 

A record of service complaints received 
during the last eight years shows local house 
plumbing to be at fault in forty per cent of 
the cases. 

That this Company has improved its ser- 
vice record during the last eight years is 
shown by the following percentages : 

1915: Services, 66,136; complaints, 1912, or 2.9% 
1922: Services, 77,516; complaints, 1851, or 2.4% 
Decrease in eight years 5% 

We consider this a very good showing, and 
a concrete example of useful service. 

Complaints about the quality of the sup- 
ply are usually caused by lack of circulation 
in blind streets, sparsely settled districts, or 
at dividing-lines between two districts. Oc- 
casionally we receive such complaints in a 
thickly built-up district, and then they are 
usually due to the opening of the fire- 
hydrant for sewer flushing, for oiling the 
hydrant, etc. 

Our remedy consists in a thorough flush- 
ing of the mains in the vicinity. This entire- 
ly eliminates the cause of complaint. 

While there is nothing injurious in the 
roily water that causes these complaints, the 
consumer does not — and should not — wish 
to be served with water that is not up to the 
high standard set and maintained bv Spring 

Dr. Hall, a noted authority on food and 
diet, speaking of water, says: "Within each 
living cell of the body water is necessary 
for all the life processes. It is used by the 
glands in their elaboration of various prod- 
ucts or secretions. Man has in ingenuity 
added many things to water, but as a rule 
these additions are useless and sometimes 
harmful. No drink ever devised by man has 
been as effective for the quenching of thirst 
as cool, pure water." 



July, 1923 

In voluntary 

j-operation with federal and state authorities, Spring Valley wages war on predate 
"varmints" were trapped on the peninsular watershed during the past season 

Predatory Animal Control 

By W. B. Lawrence, Superintendent, Water Division 

IN harmony and loyal co-operation with 
the work of the Federal Government on 
the national domain, and of the California 
Fish and Game Commission throughout 
California, Spring Valley Water Company 
has for years pursued a policy of predatory 
animal control. This has been a voluntary 
contribution to a worthy cause, and its value 
has been recognized by federal and state au- 
thorities, who find their burden lightened by 
the helping hand thus extended. 

This predatory animal control is effected 
by means of systematic trapping and a strict 
rule that prohibits hunting. The result is that 
the watershed properties of the Company in 
San Mateo County, comprising some thirty- 
six square miles, have become a great animal 

The particular area in which trapping 
operations have been carried on is the water- 
shed of the Pilarcitos Reservoir and the up- 

per San Mateo Creek, lying to the west of 
the towns of Millbrae and Burlingame. This 
consists of open and wooded country, the 
latter clothed with firs, greasewood and 
lilacs. Wild oats and hill and valley grasses 
grow in profusion. There are also alfilerilla 
and clover. 

For years no hunting has been allowed on 
this nor on the rest of the Company's prop- 
erties, and deer have greatly increased in 

Quail, however, appear to have decreased 
to a marked extent, almost becoming extinct, 
and it was to give additional protection to 
these and other ground-nesting birds that 
predatory animal control was instituted. 

The campaign has been carried on vigor- 
ously by the Company since 19 12. Trapping 
some seasons has extended over an area of 
fifteen square miles. Last season it covered 
an area of ten square miles. Trapping was 

July, 1923 



done by employees of the Company. The ac- 
companying photograph shows 120 skins 
taken during last season, as follows: 

Wildcats .... 24 Coyotes .... 10 

Opossums ... 20 Tree squirrels . . 3 

Coons 16 Skunks . . . . 38 

Foxes 4 Civet-cats ... 5 

Total 120 

It is interesting to note the increase in the 
number of opossums trapped. In the season 
19 18-19 there was only one trapped, while in 
1922-23 there were twenty. The season 
1922-23 shows three tree squirrels trapped, 
which is regrettable, for during the last year, 
in particular, there has been a gradual in- 
crease in these desirable animals. 

This trapping of predatory animals, ex- 
tending over eleven years, has not given the 

results anticipated, but it may help to an- 
swer the question, Does predatory animal 
control lead to a notable increase in game 
species ? 

Quail, as noted already, have decreased in 
numbers, so doubtless predatory animal con- 
trol is but one factor in the problem, and it 
is intended from now on that each patrolman 
shall carry a shotgun of small bore with in- 
structions to kill hawks that prey upon the 
smaller birds. Although there is no large 
number of these preying birds on the prop- 
erties, it will be interesting to note the result 
in the next few years. 

In the early part of this year the Company 
trapped and transported from the Alameda 
to the Peninsula system some four dozen 
quail, which were liberated in pairs at vari- 
ous places. 

The Life of Pipe 

After thirty-eight years of underground service 

Earth and coating removed; note original mill 

IN proceedings looking to the valuation of 
water companies, the life of pipe is near- 
ly always a question of controversy calling 
forth divergent expressions of opinion. 

With no thought of definitely settling the 
controversy, but merely as a contribution of 
fact, this circumstance is recited : 

Late last year Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany had to remove six hundred feet of pipe 
in South San Francisco, in order to permit 
the town to put down a sidewalk. As origi- 
nally installed the pipe was above the grade 
of the subsequently established street. 

The pipe was part of the Crystal Springs 
forty-four-inch line. It had been laid in 
1884. The charcoal iron for this pipe was 
furnished under contract by Huntington, 
Hopkins & Company. It was manufactured 
by Allan Wood & Company, of Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, according to Spring Valley 
specifications drawn by Hermann Schussler 
and W. H. Lawrence. The pipe was fabricat- 
ed and laid under contract by the Risdon 
Iron Works. 

The accompanying photographs tell the 
story of this pipe. One picture shows the pipe 



July, 1923 

as it appeared when removed from the 
ground after thirty-eight years of service, 
with coating and earth attached. The other 
picture shows the same piece of pipe, with 
coating and earth removed. The iron, it will 
be noted, shows the original mill scale. 

It is quite apparent that thirty-eight years 
have not by any means exhausted the useful- 
ness of this pipe. 

In rendering his decision to the federal 
court after the protracted rate cases of Spring 
Valley Water Company vs. the City and 
County of San Francisco, Master in Chan- 
cery H. M. Wright quoted the following testi- 
mony of the celebrated engineer Allen 
Hazen : 

"The design of the structures of the com- 
pany is good. I do not think I have ever ex- 
amined an old system of water-works which 
showed such continuity of purpose as is 
shown by the works of this company. The 
design is good. The metal was well arranged 
in the pipes; the riveting was good; the 
thicknesses were closely calculated; they 
were strong enough to do the required work, 
as is demonstrated by the very small num- 
ber of breaks that have occurred. The figur- 
ing was very close; the metal was stretched 
about as far on the lines as it was safe to 

In quoting Mr. Hazen's testimony with 
approval, the Master in Chancery added: 
"This favorable comment is a tribute to the 
engineering skill of Hermann Schussler, 
chief engineer of the company from its early 
beginnings until 1906, and it is refreshing 
to observe that the city's engineer witnesses 
join with Hazen in this generous praise." 
* * * 

In these days of prohibition and feverish 
enforcement of the Volstead Act, it may 
sound a little bit like high treason to advo- 
cate the formation of the drink habit. 

The average adult needs about two quarts 
of water in twenty-four hours. Of course, 
this quantity will vary with the temperature 
and the kind of labor one is doing. In very 
hot weather when one is engaged in hard, 
manual labor inducing excessive perspira- 
tion, the amount of water taken should be in- 
creased in order that the processes of waste 
and elimination may be properly carried on. 
— S. F. Municipal Record.- 

Stanford Heights Reservoir 

(Continued from page 10) 

that they can be inspected from time to time 
and repaired if necessary. A pipe-line laid 
directly through the dirt in the embankment 
might leak for a long time and do great 
damage before the leak would come to the 
surface. It would also be impossible to fix 
it without emptying the reservoir and put- 
ting it out of service while the work was be- 
ing done. 

The water stored in the reservoir will be 
sufficient to supply the district for sixteen 
days, even though no water be pumped dur- 
ing that time. This will be more than time 
enough for any necessary work to be done in 
the pumping station. For fire-fighting the 
reservoir will supply six fire-engines, each 
with five hundred gallons of water per min- 
ute for twenty-six continuous hours, or it 
would supply water for two hours to thirteen 
fires burning at the same time, if every fire 
called out six engines that pumped water 
at the rate of five hundred gallons a minute. 

Roy S. Folgei 

ROY S. FOLGER, who recently termi- 
. nated a long-continued association with 
the Royal Insurance Company in order to 
open an insurance brokerage office of his 
own, has consented to co-operate with other 
experts in solving some of Spring Valley's 
insurance problems. 

For years Mr. Folger has been a close 
student of the more complex phases of in- 
surance, and it was largely that they might 
obtain the benefit of his undivided attention 
that his friends in the San Francisco busi- 
ness world urged him to sever his connec- 
tion with the executive staff of the Royal. 

It is a striking development of modern 
insurance that the greatest insurance experts 
assume the initiative in serving their clients. 
There are complexities of insurance that 
only specialists may hope to master, and it 
is when they translate their knowledge of 
these complexities into service that the in- 
surance men of today achieve their greatest 

Spring Valley deems itself fortunate in 
obtaining the services of Mr. Folger. 



mm nMMrac© 


Lonely, lonely lay the hill, 
Not a bird was there to sing, 
Not a bee was there to drone; 
The sky, unbrushed of any wing, 
Hung above me like a stone, 
And scarce my feet obeyed my will, 
As heavily I walked alone. 

Then, like a tender memory, 

Crept up from off the lifeless ground 

The low, melodious, lovely sound 

Of water lapsing secretly. 

A little sunken stream I found, 

And all the way was sweet to me. 

O ancient music, earliest heard, 

Ere time was born or any bird, 

When first above the chaos wild 

The brooding Spirit breathed and stirred: 

O first-born music, undefiled, 

Clear as the laughter of a child, 

Fresh as God's latest word! 

Anna De Bary. 

Francisco Witer 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I I 

October, i 923 

Number 4 

A Home of Our Own 

425 Mason Street! Prospect yooo. 

THIS month of October, 1923, ushers in 
a new era of Spring Valley history. The 
Company that is charged with the responsi- 
bility of administering the water supply of 
San Francisco now occupies a home of its 

"A home of our own!" Breathes there a 
family that has not thrilled at those words? 
Ask the erstwhile apartment-house prisoner 
or flat-dweller what it meant when the time 
came for saying, "We have a home of our 
own." Well, Spring Valley is a family, a 
very happy family. And now, for the first 
time since April, 1906, Spring Valley has a 
home of its own. 

During its corporate history of sixty-three 
years, Spring Valley has but rarely changed 
its habitation. There has been manifested by 
this Company a decided tendency to "stay 

In April, i860, the first meeting of the 
Board of Directors was held at the first office 
of the Company, Number 2, Bolton & Bar- 
ron's Building, corner of Merchant and 
Montgomery streets. 

In August of the same year the office was 
moved to the southeast corner of Montgomery 
and Jackson streets. These premises were 
leased from Pioche & Bayerque, the well- 
known bankers, at the munificent annual 
rental of $720. 

In 1865 the Company constructed and 
occupied its own building at 516 California 
Street, the site afterward occupied by the 
German Savings Bank. 

Thirty-two years later, in December, 1897, 
Spring Valley erected what was known as 
the City of Paris Building, at Stockton and 
Geary streets, occupying the sixth floor with 



Spring Valley's new home at 425 Mason Street, the 
of Willis Polk, architect and builder 

an entrance on the Stockton Street side. This 
had been the site of the famous old Wigwam 
Theater. The Company remained at 126 


October, 1923 


\" ft 1A * 


Clock-case for Spring Valley's new building, designed by Miss Lucille Schoenfeld. a talented young sculptor of San 

Francisco. Miss Schoenfeld studied with Leo Lentelli, and collaborated with him on his distinguished work for the 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, also on the charming patio for the residence of Andrew Welch 

Stockton Street until burned out in the catas- 
trophe of 1906. Thereafter the site was dis- 
posed of, and the new City of Paris arose 
there in due time. 

From April to August of 1906, Spring 
Valley occupied temporary offices at Herman 
and Waller streets, on the old "Market Street 
Reservoir" lot. Thence it moved to the beau- 
tiful old Theodore Payne residence at 1409 
Sutter street, remaining there until May of 
1908, when it leased the Driscoll Building 
at 375 Sutter Street, from which it has just 
departed to a new home of its own. 

The brand-new home of the water com- 
pany is on Mason Street, at the corner of 
Derby, between Geary and Post. Across the 
street is the Native Sons Building, and north 
of that the First Congregational Church. 
Spring Valley has very nice neighbors. 

Willis Polk, who designed the Water 
Temple at Sunol and other Spring Valley 
structures, drew the plans for 425 Mason 
Street. T. Ronneberg was structural engineer, 
and George E. Atkins mechanical engineer. 
The new building is everything that a wa- 
ter company's main headquarters should be. 
No down-to-the-minute device for the dis- 
patch of business and the comfort of em- 
ployees has been overlooked. And while con- 

sulting utility at every step, Willis Polk did 
not forget beauty. 

No. 425 Mason Street is a seven-story 
building of reinforced concrete, with founda- 
tions, walls, and columns capable of carry- 
ing two stories more when these are needed. 
It is a building characterized outwardly by 
simplicity, but there is nothing severe about 
it. Willis Polk does not believe that a busi- 
ness structure has to be forbidding. 

The first floor, given over to the water 
sales department, consists of a single, large, 
well-lighted room handsomely finished. The 
walls and ceiling are warmly tinted; the 
wainscoting is of travernel marble; the floor 
is of Napoleon gray marble with a border 
of black Belgian; the furniture is of oak. 
Over the elevators on the north side is a 
mural painting by Maynard Dixon, and a 
large clock framed in a sculptural setting, 
this latter the work of Miss Lucille Schoen- 
feld. On the wall is the Company's seal, an 
Indian kneeling to gather water flowing from 
a spring, with the motto "Thirst no more." 
This large room is lighted by windows on 
the south and east, and by a skylight over a 
small mezzanine at the northwest corner. 
There is a special ventilating and heating 
system for this room. 

October, 1923 


The second floor is devoted to the ad- 
justing and bookkeeping departments. It has 
a suspended ceiling and a fan installation 
that assure perfect ventilation. Here, as on 
all floors above, the wainscotings and base- 
boards of halls and reception-rooms are of 
Alabama marble. The oak finish throughout 
is beautiful, the wood being an eastern oak 
finely grained and flaked. 

The third floor houses the billing, ad- 
dressograph, and collection departments. 
Here the walls have been specially treated to 
make them soundproof. A Lamson carrier 
for bills connects the first, second, and third 

The fourth floor accommodates the agri- 
cultural, real estate, purchasing, publicity, 
and photographic departments. 

On the fifth floor are the handsome offices 
of the Chairman of the Board, the President, 
and the Board of Directors. 

The sixth floor is devoted to the offices 
of the Secretary, the Assistant to the Man- 
ager, and the Comptroller. 

The seventh floor is the engineering de- 
partment, with the offices of the Chief Engi- 
neer, the City Superintendent, the operation 
and maintenance department, and the draft- 
ing department, the last being particularly 
commodious and well lighted, so that condi- 
tions for the intensive work of this depart- 
ment may be described as ideal. 

A superstructure on the roof contains a 
delightful rest-room for female employees, 
with a kitchenette and other conveniences. 
This is a very sunny and airy apartment, 
and it looks upon a delightful roof-garden, 
an unusual feature destined to give a great 
deal of pleasure. 

Other special features of the building are 
the spacious vaults, the inter-communicating 
dictograph system, and the steam-heating 

The scheme of interior decoration was the 
work of an art committee consisting of Henry 
Atkins, Willis Polk, Bruce Porter, and 
Gardner Dailey. 

The Re st- Room and Roof-Garden 

By Gardner Dailey, Landscape Architect 

IN turning over the entire top of its new 
building to its women employees for a 
sunny rest-room and roof-garden, Spring 
Valley Water Company is keeping well in 
step with the stride of modern business to- 
ward a more attractive working environment 
for women. 

This circumstance can in no way be view- 
ed in the light of a fad or luxury, for even 
the coldest utilitarian knows that the "hu- 
man machine" is as susceptible to wear as 
the mechanical. Knowing that, the utilita- 
rian would be impelled to do what the more 
warm-hearted human being does for a less 
calculating motive; that is to say, take steps 
to build up the efficiency that comes through 
contentment, and encourage rest and relaxa- 
tion by supplying suitable surroundings. 

In the case of Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany, the suitable surroundings have been 
designed as a place of quiet and seclusion 
into which the women can withdraw from 
the clatter of traffic and the dust of the street. 

The rest-room on the roof is surrounded 
by a pleasant garden. The room itself has 

been fitted up in a cheerful manner, and its 
windows on three sides look into the garden 
that surrounds it. The garden has been de- 
signed in the utmost simplicity and is free 
from the usual architectural embellishments 
that often overburden and oppress the plant- 
ings. Instead of heavy stone and cement fea- 
tures, as much green foliage and as many 
flowers will be displayed as the space will 
permit. In other words, everything will be 
done to complete the illusion of naturalness 
through the use of plants, trees, and shrubs 
"of the common garden variety." 

A light latticework will enclose the gar- 
den. Upon it will be trained flowering vines, 
and against it will be planted flowering 
shrubs with pleasing green foliage and sea- 
sonal color. These shrubs will also act as a 
background for the annual borders. Shrubs 
to be used are the white-flowering Mexican 
Lemon (Choisya ternata), the orange-scent- 
ed Pittosponim tobira, Buddleia magnified, 
with its tall graceful spikes of pale-blue 
flowers, the beautiful pink Escallonia rosea, 
and Erica melanthra, which blooms at 



October, 1923 

I! 1 


R.00F • OAfx-DEH 

PI ■ ;. ■ ::.*suS. 

. .-'. TCOIR-A- 


& : - • ,■•• il CL »PtD. 
ffl .1 HEDGE (l«W) 

<& £OSE.3 , CU M8IMG-. 

• ■ • '. I IS YEITC.H/I. 
4e.c/ssus, pheo*, 
■ ?eaj . .stocks. 

Planting plan for women's rest-room and roof-garden, new Spring Valley building, designed by Gardner Dailey, 

landscape architect 

Christmas and is more commonly known as 
Heather. For color effects in the fall the 
gracefully drooping Cotoneaster pannosa 
with its light-red berries will be used, and 
many other shrubs of a similar nature. 

In the corners and against the tall walls 
will be planted the glossy-leaved English 
Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) and the com- 
mon bamboo, both of which, being of a 
sturdy nature, will help shut off the strong 

In front of these shrubs, in a rotation of 
bloom, will come some of the well-loved 
"old-fashioned'' flowers, such as Phlox, Fox- 
gloves, Stocks, Narcissus, Crocus, Tulips, 
Scabiosus, Lobelia, and Ageratum, all in the 
pinks and whites and blues, the most restful 
of the colors. Reds and bright yellows will 
be eliminated wherever possible, as not be- 
ing in keeping with the repose of the spot. 
Old-fashioned Canterbury Bells and Holly- 
hocks always give any garden an air of 
quiet domesticity, even though it be in the 
"cheerless desert" of the city. In front of 
these beds will be planted lawn, upon which, 
here and there, will be placed covered arbor- 
seats, over which will be trained climbing 
roses and jasmine. 

It will of course take some time for this 
sort of garden to reach complete maturity, 

especially in the city air with its gases and 
soot, but once full-grown it should afford a 
secluded spot to withdraw from the strain 
of the office hours — as it were, a magic car- 
pet of escape from the hum and click of the 
busier hours below. 

Centuries ago in ancient Babylonia, Ne- 
buchadnezzar originated the roof-garden 
idea, and on the topmost walls of Babylon, 
supported by gigantic arches (the first arches 
in history, by the way), he planted marvel- 
ously beautiful gardens. They were classed 
among the Seven Wonders of the World, and 
were constructed for his Median queen, who 
was repelled by the flatness of the Baby- 
lonian plain. 

Historians neglect to tell us whether the 
queen liked these gardens; but they must 
have been very beautiful, for they were 
thickly planted with the pine, the fir, and 
the cypress. The drooping branches of the 
willow hung over the imperial walls, and 
along the queenly walk the sacred rose and 
the Persian lilac grew luxuriantly, shelter- 
ing from the sun exotic flowers and herbs 
which scented the air and pleased the eye. 
The king introduced pet lions to animate 
the restful scene; but here again the histo- 
rian neglects to tell us whether this added to 
or detracted from the repose. 

October, 1923 


Left to right: Maynard Dixon, painter; Miss Lucille Schoenfeld, sculptor; Willis Polk, architect. Mr. Polk enlisted 

the aid of Mr. Dixon and Miss Schoenfeld to enhance the beauty of the new Spring Valley building. Maynard Dixon 

painted a mural, and Miss Schoenfeld designed a clock-case for the water sales department, on the ground floor 

Dixon } s Spring Valley Mural 

By Ralph Stackpole 

(The writer of the following critique is a distin- 
guished San Francisco artist whose achievements 
as a sculptor hair won him national recognition. 
The exquisite beauty of his statue "The Kneeling 
Maiden," which occupied the place of honor in 
the rotunda of the Palace of Fine Arts, made 
a profound impression on all who attended our 
World's Fair. Mr. Stackpole recently returned from 
a wander-year in France and Italy. Being in close 
contact with the most significant contemporary art 
both at home and abroad, he speaks with authority, 
and his remarks on Maynard Dixon's mural paint- 
ing are at once an interpretation and a tribute.) 

MURAL decoration is an art world-old. 
It was practically lost after the Ital- 
ian Renaissance, and was revived again by 
Chevannes in the last part of the last cen- 
tury. Although still in the infancy of this re- 
vival, it again promises to become a big vital 

In San Francisco, only a short time ago, 
men were content if walls and roofs were 
soundly constructed ; but now there is a keen 
esthetic impulse to adorn the walls with 
mural pictures and to paint the roofs in 

Industrial buildings find they may be 
as beautiful as temple and palace, and, 
strangely enough, beauty follows strength 
and power. Most all who speak of New York 
ask, Did vou see the Wool worth Building? 

and you seldom hear a church or a dwelling 
mentioned with the same enthusiasm. 

The mural painted by Maynard Dixon 
for the new building of Spring Valley Water 
Company shows the Water Temple at Sunol 
set in a characteristic watershed landscape, 
a synthetic landscape that embodies the fea- 
tures found in Alameda and San Mateo 
counties, whence Spring Valley obtains most 
of its water supply. 

The Water Temple makes an accent of 
light among the gracefully rolling and bar- 
ren brown California hills. These hills be- 
come golden as the sun sinks lower into the 

The prototype of the Water Temple was 
built by the Greeks fifty centuries ago on a 
little island where the people were more 
sensitive to beauty than any other people 
who have ever existed — and now a temple of 
their design marks the source of our water 
supply, and also marks a beginning in our 
western culture. 

This is the subject of Dixon's mural. This 
is the way I see it. Dixon's art is clean-cut, 
built on definite line and design, construct- 
ed in masses. He expresses the best tendency 
of the art of our time. 


October, 1923 

IVater Supply and Earthquakes 

By George A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

(The awful devastation caused by the earthquake 
in the T okio-Y okohama region of Japan gives spe- 
cial interest to the following paper, which was read 
before the Commonwealth Club of California at a 
meeting devoted to the general subject of "Earth- 
quakes." Other speakers were Dr. W. W. Campbell, 
President of the University of California and Di- 
rector of the Lick Observatory; Professor A. C. 
Laws on, head of the department of geology, and 
Professor Charles Derleth, Jr., professor of civil 
engineering, both of the University of California; 
and Professor Bailey Willis, head of the depart- 
ment of geology, Stanford University.) 

SAN FRANCISCO is considered by 
waterworks engineers to be one of the 
most difficult cities of its size in the United 
States to supply with water. In making this 
statement it must be remembered that only 
the geographical location of the city, the un- 
certainty of rainfall in its vicinity, and its 
hilly topography are considered. When the 
earthquake hazard is added to the other con- 
siderations, the limits of the comparison may 
well be increased to the area of the world. 
Situated as it is on the extreme tip of a 
peninsula which a number of major and 
minor faults cross both longitudinally and 
transversely, it is not hard to realize that all 
of the conduits carrying water to the city 
must of necessity be exposed to more or less 
interruption due to earthquakes. Another 
feature of importance is the fact that south 
of the county line, just beyond the San Bruno 
hills, the neck of the peninsula is cut almost 
across by marshy areas which are particu- 
larly susceptible to movement during earth- 
quakes, similar to that of a bowl of jelly 
when shaken. 

In the city itself are areas of reclaimed 
land many acres in extent with water-mains 
in the streets, which, while not directly upon 
earthquake fault lines, are subject to the 
same jelly-like shaking as the marsh-lands. 
It was this shaking of the marsh and re- 
claimed areas that was responsible for all of 
the broken pipes in 1906. Outside of certain 
well-known areas in the fringe of flat land 
bordering the bay from Van Ness Avenue 
southerly, practically all of the pipe system 
remained intact. 

The principal lesson learned in 1906 was 
that if waterworks structures are located in 
soft or filled ground, or near a fault which 

moves, it is practically impossible to so con- 
struct certain parts of them, such as pipe- 
lines, as to guarantee absolutely against 
damage. Having this in mind, the question 
may well be asked, "What can be done to 
insure the water supply against earthquake 

Three precautions can be taken. First, 
waterworks structures should be so located 
as to avoid known areas which are subject 
to excessive movement. This has particular 
reference to main conduit" lines used for 
transmitting water from the source of supply- 
to the city. Of the three main transmission 
conduits which were in use in 1906, one was 
damaged severely where it crossed a marsh 
in Visitacion Valley; the second was dam- 
aged due to its location being in some spots 
coincident with the fault along which the 
earthquake occurred; and the third was 
broken only in one spot, which was repaired 
in a few hours. Had all three been in the same 
general location as the third, it is safe to say 
that the damage to the lines would have been 
comparatively small. Within the limits of the 
city pipes must of necessity cross the filled 
areas as they occur in that portion most 
thickly built upon. This area will be avoided 
by the principal distributing mains built in 
the future. 

The treatment of the local distributing 
system in these reclaimed areas brings up the 
second precaution, which is to isolate se- 
lected sections of the system by means of 
gate-valves, placed at all points where pipes 
cross the boundaries of the ground subject to 
movement. These valves are shut off, with 
the exception of one or two which pass the 
ordinary supply to the limited district. In the 
event of a destructive earthquake causing 
breaks sufficient in effect to drain the system, 
the few gates can be shut off, leaving the re- 
mainder of the distributing system in shape 
to meet the situation. The third, and perhaps 
the most important, remedy is to carry in 
storage inside the city limits a large quantity 
of water available for distribution. With 
sufficient stored water in San Francisco, 
breaks in the conduits carrying water to San 
Francisco will be relatively less important 
than breaks in the distributing system. 

October. 1923 


Plans made by the Spring Valley Water 
Company for additional distributing facili- 
ties to meet the growth of the city when fully 
developed have taken into account the loca- 
tion of important conduits in solid forma- 
tions, the isolation of pipe areas in soft 
ground, and, particularly, increased storage. 
Fortunately, nature has placed within the 
city limits on the Rancho Laguna de la 
Merced a storage reservoir with a capacity 
of two thousand five hundred million gal- 
lons, which together with proposed artificial 
storage reservoirs will furnish a normal sup- 
ply to a city of one million people for almost 
two months. With modern methods of sanita- 
tion and sterilization, this supply will al- 
ways be available in emergencies, no matter 
how densely populated the adjoining terri- 
tory ma}' become. New reservoirs which must 
be constructed to meet growing uses in new 
territory will be located on the slopes of 
Twin Peaks hills, and Merced water can be 
delivered to these, as well as to existing 
reservoirs, by means of emergency rotary 
pumps, through comparatively short pipe- 
lines. The proposed emergency pumps are 
of an inexpensive type, and units can be in- 
stalled from time to time so that the total 
capacity of the station will bear a fixed rela- 
tion to the total use within the city. The 
entire construction from pumps to reservoirs 
is located on solid ground, and, judging by 
the results of 1906, will not be disturbed by 
an earthquake of similar intensity. 

No discussion of the means of keeping 

San Francisco wet during an earthquake 
would be complete without some mention of 
the fire-protection water system. In 1906 it 
developed that water was needed much more 
for fire-fighting than for any other purpose, 
and following the reconstruction of the 
burned district plans were made and a sys- 
tem constructed that embodies all of the best 
features of water supply for tire purposes 
that have been in use anywhere. Many fea- 
tures of the system are designed to meet 
earthquake conditions, such as the location 
of the reservoirs and pumping stations on 
solid foundations, the avoidance of filled 
ground in laying large feeders, gating of 
distributing mains in filled-in ground, the 
duplication of pumping stations and sources 
of supply, and the use of special joints in 
connecting pipes designed to allow greater 
movement before rupture. 

The existence of the auxiliary water sup- 
ply for fire purposes, as well as the regular 
system, together with the fact that construc- 
tion of buildings, particularly in the old 
burned area, has been practically fireproof, 
has improved the situation to a great extent. 
and there is no comparison between the haz- 
ard of 1906 and that of today. So far as 
water supply is concerned, if the few fun- 
damental considerations which have been 
mentioned are followed in additions and ex- 
tensions of San Francisco's water supply, 
earthquakes of the future will not result in 
the damage by fire or the personal inconve- 
nience which followed that of 1906. 

TVater for the Presidio, 1776-1923 

By the late George S. Gillis, Lieutenant-Colonel, Quartermaster Corps, U. S. A. 

The following historical survey of the ivater supply 
of the Presidio of San Francisco is taken from the 
columns of The Quartermaster Review. In prepar- 
ing it Lieutenant-Colonel Gillis had access to the 
data available in the archives of Spring Valley 
Water Company. Since the publication of the arti- 
cle Army circles have been saddened by the sudden 
death of Lit utenant-Colonel Gillis. Lobos Creek 
has a special interest for all San Franciscans, as it 
-.■.■as San Francisco's first source of ivater supply 
and continued to be used by Spring Valley Water 
Company until 1S92 

WHEN the Presidio of San Francisco 
was first formally occupied as a mili- 
tary post, September 17, 1776, by a detach- 
ment of Spanish troops, consisting of the 

commandant, one lieutenant, one sergeant. 
five corporals, thirty-three privates, and their 
families, the problem of a pure and adequate 
water supply did not cause one single mo- 
ment's anxiety. Numerous small springs 
were found in what is now known as the 
west cantonment, or "Tennessee Hollow." 

One of these was named "Polin," and an 
ancient Indian legend imparted to it a 
peculiar virtue. It was claimed that women 
who drank from this spring were sure to be 
blessed with numerous progeny. It seems to 
have retained this legendary reputation with 
the Spaniards, for history records that every 


October, 1923 

Mountain Lake, once liiought to be the source of Lobos Creek. Large expenditures were made by the 
Mountain Lake Water Company before it was discovered that the lake had no underground outlet 

member of. this early garrison was married 
and large families predominated. In later 
years the Miramontes family, living on the 
spot, had twenty children. The legend is 
now apparently discredited or the alleged 
potency of the spring is feared and shunned, 
for it is no longer used for drinking pur- 

There is no record of any but the most 
primitive methods being employed to collect 
and distribute water throughout the period 
of Spanish occupation and during the sub- 
sequent rule of Mexico, from 1822 until the 
American flag was raised, in 1846. With the 
larger garrison maintained by the United 
States, there soon developed a water-supply 
problem, the solution of which has engaged 
the best efforts of every Presidio Quarter- 
master to the present day. 

In 1853 an attempt was made to procure 
water from Mountain Lake, a fresh-water 
pond on the south side of the reservation 
near where the Marine Hospital now stands. 
The Mountain Lake Water Company was 
organized and spent $400,000 in attempting 
to pierce the Presidio hills with a tunnel 
four thousand feet long, and constructing 
nine thousand feet of brick flume through 
the post. At that time Mountain Lake was 
supposed to be fed by never-failing springs 
and to be the source of Lobos Creek, a spar- 
kling stream flowing along the southwestern 

boundary of the reservation at the rate of 
more than two million gallons a day. The 
supposition was later found to be an error. 
The lake exists as a collection of surface 
drainage and has no underground outlet. 
Needless to say, this water company failed 
before delivering a drop of water. 

Four years afterwards, another water com- 
pany was formed and built a redwood flume 
two feet wide from the mouth of Lobos 
Creek along the cliffs around Fort Point, 
through the Presidio and Fort Mason, to the 
foot of Van Ness Avenue. Here pumps were 
installed and the water raised to reservoirs 
on Telegraph and Russian hills, to supply 
the city of San Francisco. 

From this flume, completed in 1859, the 
United States reserved the right to take such 
water as was needed to supply the Presidio 
garrison. A pumping station was built by the 
Government near where the Quartermaster's 
office now stands, and water was pumped 
from the flume to Holabird Reservoir, located 
at the foot of what is now Infantry Terrace, 
and distributed to the buildings on the post. 
That this supply was not adequate for fire 
protection was demonstrated in 1892, on the 
occasion of the burning of the bachelor 
officers' quarters, a frame building on the 
site of the present bachelor apartments. 
Troops were formed in line and passed 
water in buckets from the bav, but the build- 

October, 192J 


ing fell just as the first bucket of sea water 
reached the fire. 

This flume-and-reservoir method of sup- 
plying the post was employed for more than 
thirty-five years, but in 1893 San Francisco 
had developed other sources and ceased to 
use the water from Lobos Creek. The flume 
gradually decayed, and about two years later 
a section of it was carried away by a land- 
slide near Fort Point. Then the Quarter- 
master installed a pump near this break 
that carried the water across it through a 
fire hose. This means continued to serve the 
post for several months, and today the route 
of this historic flume may still be traced 
along the precipices of the Golden Gate. 

With the destruction of the flume, Moun- 
tain Lake was again resorted to for a new 
source of supply. In 1896 a pumping station 
was built there and pipes laid over the hills 
to the Presidio. Almost immediately the lake 
water showed contamination and was con- 
demned for drinking purposes. Next, several 
wells were dug around the lake shore, and 
these proved satisfactory while the post was 

After the outbreak of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War the Presidio garrison became 
greatly enlarged by troops passing to and 
from the Philippines. The east and west 
cantonments were built, and the amount of 
water consumed far exceeded the capacity 
of these wells. To meet this shortage water 
was bought from the Spring Valley Water 
Company. The earthquake of 1906 did not 
disable the Presidio plant, and for a while 

thousands of San Francisco people got their 
drinking-water from its mains. 

The construction of Fort Winfield Scott 
and the Presidio Infantry Terrace on high 
ground developed a new problem in 19 10. 
Neither the post nor the city mains contained 
sufficient water pressure to serve these new 
areas. It was then decided to return to the 
only adequate source of supply within the 
limits of the reservation, which is Lobos 

A new and larger pumping station was 
erected near its mouth and a six-million- 
gallon reservoir was built on top of the 
highest hill, four hundred feet above the 
sea. This system for a time served satisfac- 
torily all Army requirements, but litigation 
developed on the part of property owners 
along the creek, the center of which forms 
the boundary line. These litigants claimed 
half the daily flow, though they did not use 
any of it. As a result the Government was 
not allowed to pump more than 1,100,000 
gallons a day while the balance ran to waste. 
This restriction caused another shortage, 
and again a portion of the requirements had 
to be bought. 

But upon the opening of the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition, in 19 15, 
the War Department was called upon to 
furnish part of the water required by this 
great World's Fair. All legal restrictions 
were then removed, the Presidio plant began 
pumping the entire flow of Lobos Creek and 
has continued to do so ever since. 

In 1 9 16 the creek water began to show 

(Continued on Page n) 

Lobos Creek, for years a part of San Francisco's water supply, still used as a water supply for the 
Presidio of San Francisco 



October, 1923 

San Francisco J^ater: An Outline 


XIV. The Const Streams 

EGINNING in 1871, Spring Valley 
acquired valuable water-rights in San 
Mateo County, on the western or Pacific 
Ocean side of the chain known as the Mon- 
tara Mountains, across the ridge from the 
big watershed of San Andres, Pilarcitos, and 
Crystal Springs. 

At the present time the Company owns in 
this region the riparian rights to 1650 acres. 
This includes riparian rights on Pilarcitos 
Creek, Lock's Creek, Apanolio Creek, and 
Troncos Creek, all of which empty into the 
ocean at Half Moon Bay. 

Immediately afler San Andres came into 
use as an impounding reservoir for San 
Francisco, the Company decided, on recom- 
mendation of Chief Engineer Schussler, to 
develop these coast-stream rights. 

The most effective and economical plan 
was followed; that, name]}', of making them 
tributary to San Andres Reservoir by means 
of gravity flow. 

XV. Lock's Creek 
This development had begun in June, 1870, 
when the contract was let for drifting Lock's 
Creek Tunnel. While this work proceeded 
flumes were constructed to earn- the waters 
of Lock's and Apanolio creeks to the tunnel. 

The Lock's Creek line, as it was called, 
intercepted the flow of Lock's and Apanolio 
creeks, so that, instead of flowing to the 
ocean, the water was diverted eastward, a 
distance of about fifteen miles, to San Andres 

Water was flowing through this line by 
1872. ■ 

But there was another interesting feature 
of this development. 

XVI. The Stone Dam 
Pilarcitos Creek rises on the eastern side of 
the Montara Mountains and flows through 
a narrow gap to the western side, finally 
reaching the ocean at Half Moon Bay. 

The Upper Pilarcitos, of course, was al- 
ready intercepted by the Pilarcitos Dam. But 
the watershed of Pilarcitos Creek below the 
dam is a very productive one. 

To utilize this water source, a diversion 
dam was constructed in the deep, narrow 
canyon of Pilarcitos Creek, and a flume 

4500 feet long was built south from this 
small dam. Through this flume the water of 
the Lower Pilarcitos was carried to Lock's 
Creek Tunnel, through which it flowed, to- 
gether with Lock's Creek and Apanolio 
water, to San Andres Reservoir. 

This work also was done in 1871. 

The diversion dam on the Lower Pilar- 
citos is known as the Stone Dam. It is, per- 
haps, the most charming in appearance and 

the most picturesquely situated of all Spring 
Valley structures. It never fails to elicit ex- 
pressions of delight from those who have an 
eye for beauty. 

The Stone Dam is of rubble masonry. It 
was built of granite blocks quarried below 
the dam-site, and topped with a brick coping 
laid herring-bone fashion. It is a thin-arch 
dam, the pioneer example of this method of 

The original Lock's Creek development 
produced two million gallons of water per 
day. Its use was discontinued in 1898. 

But the Stone Dam diversion remains to- 
day an integral part of the Spring Valley 

Partial reconstruction of this line in 1898 
enlarged its function by adding to the Lower 
Pilarcitos flow that of Upper San Mateo 

(To be continued) 

" 'Tis a little thing to give a cup of water; 
yet its draught of cool refreshment, drained 
by fevered lips, may give a shock of pleas- 
ure to the frame more exquisite than when 
nectarean juice renews the life of joy in 
happiest hours." 

October, 1923 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

425 Masoti Street * Phone Prospect 7000 
Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. II. 

October, 1923 


THE fourth annual meeting of the Cali- 
fornia Section, American Water Works 
Association, will be held in Fresno October 
25, 26, and 27. 

Among the important papers that will be 
read are the following: 

"Water System of Fresno City Water Cor- 
poration," E. K. Barnum, Engineer of Fresno 
City Water Corporation. 

"Types of Pipe for Water Main Construc- 
tion," S. B. Morris, Chief Engineer, Pasa- 
dena Water Department. 

"Public Relations," Al C. Joy, Publicity 
Manager, San Joaquin Light and Power 

"Use of Balancing Reservoirs in Water- 
Distributing Systems," William Mulholland, 
Chief Engineer of Department of Public 
Service, Los Angeles. 

"Softening of Public Water Supplies," 
Gale Stroud, Consulting Engineer, San 

"Water-Measuring Devices," R. L. Daug- 
herty, Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
and Hydraulics, California Institute of Tech- 
nology, Pasadena. 

"Reasonable Water-Sanitation Require- 
ments," Dr. Carl Wilson, Bacteriologist, 
Bureau of Water Works and Supply, Los 

"European Experiences," Charles Gilman 
Hyde, Professor of Sanitary Engineering, 
University of California. 

This by no means exhausts the program of 
the convention, which is expected to be the 
most helpful in the history of the California 

It is planned to publish all papers and 
discussions for distribution to members after 
the convention. This has not been done be- 

The quotation on the back cover of this 
issue is from the Bible, first Book of Kings, 
r 7 :i °- * * * 

Ox the cover of this issue is reproduced the 
mural painted by Maynard Dixon for the 
new Spring Valley building. 

Water for the Presidio, 

(Continued from page 9) 

evidences of being dangerously contami- 
nated, due to the building up of the city's 
residence district along the south side of the 
reservation. To prevent the possibility of an 
epidemic, a chlorinating plant was installed 
at the pumping station, which rendered the 
water potable. 

Xot long ago it was recommended that 
enough wells be drilled to meet all require- 
ments and permit the abandonment of the 
creek, but this recommendation has not been 
approved. With the beginning of the autumn 
rains in 1920, laboratory tests showed in- 
creased contamination throughout the sys- 
tem. It was found impossible to eliminate 
this pollution entirely, even by doubling the 
normal dosage of chlorine at the pumps. 
Additional chlorinating apparatus was in- 
stalled at the outlet of the reservoir. These 
chlorinators are automatically controlled by 
the amount of water passing through the 
mains at all times, so that the proper quality 
of liquid chlorine is injected to effect positive 
sterilization. While not pleasantly palatable, 
due to the presence of the disagreeable chlo- 
rine compounds, the water is now drinkable 
and safe. 

The Presidio water-works are supplying 
the entire requirements of the Presidio, Let- 
terman General Hospital, Fort Winfield 
Scott, Crissy Field, Fort Mason, including 
the Army Transport docks and the water 
boats serving Alcatraz and Angel islands, 
which average nearly two million gallons a 

"Rising from my seat, I went to the wash- 
stand in the corner of the apartment, and 
drawing a bowl half full of Spring Valley 
water, I turned to Summerfield.** — From 
"The Case of SummerfieldC by Caxton. 



October, 1923 

JVhen San Francisco Had Two Water Supplies 

What Followed the Sarsfield Hall Fire of 1862 

AT three o'clock in the morning of Jan- 
J~\ uary 11, 1862, fire broke out in the 
boarding-house known as Sarsfield Hall, 
situated at the northwest corner of Pacific 
and Montgomery streets. Sarsfield Hall was 
a densely tenanted building. It was found 
that the hydrants of the San Francisco Water 
Works, known as "the Bensley Company," 
which supplied that part of town, could 
yield no water. The nearby cisterns were 
soon exhausted. But by dawn the fire-fight- 
ers, led by the Monumental and Manhattan 
companies, had the fire under control, and it 
did not burn the Pacific Flour Mills or other 
adjoining buildings. 

But meanwhile there had been a terrible 
holocaust. At least thirteen men, women and 
children were burned to death. A number of 
others, who jumped from the windows, were 
severely injured. 

There were two water companies in San 
Francisco in 1862, and out of the Sarsfield 
Hall disaster there grew a series of incidents 
shedding an interesting light upon the rela- 
tions existing between these rival concerns. 
The two companies were the San Francisco 
Water Works, or Bensley Company, estab- 
lished in 1858, and the Spring Valley Water 
Works, established in i860. The former had 
the "cream of the business" — the densely 
settled down-town district — but the latter 
(which subsequently absorbed the Bensley 
Company) had by far the better supply of 

A scrap-book of Spring Valley Water 
Company for the year 1862 tells the story 
of what followed the Sarsfield Hall disaster. 

[Bulletin, January 14, 1862] 
The Hydrants Full Again: — We have been in peril- 
ous condition lately, not from floods — for the dam- 
aging effects of the hour of deluge and days of 
continued rain, though considerable, were so dis- 
tributed generally upon those able to bear them 
that they are already forgotten — but from fire. If 
incendiaries had been about on Sunday, or even 
last night, there might have been worse than a 
Sarsfield Hall affair to put on record. Many of the 
hydrants were unavailable because of the accident 
to the flume — making it impossible to supply them 
properly. Chief Scannell and Mayor Teschemacher 
saw the danger, and with all haste, but very quietly, 
provided against it. They appealed to the two 
water companies, and the result is that pipes have 

been laid from the Third and Brannan street cor- 
ner, and already the hydrants in the greater part of 
the town are full again. If a fire should occur to- 
night the firemen will not be unarmed to meet it 
promptly, as of old. To accomplish this result the 
Spring Valley Company asked of the Bensley Com- 
pany the privilege of making the connections, which 
was gracefully granted. The Chief of the Fire De- 
partment and the Mayor of the city deserve all 
thanks for their promptness in this vital matter, 
and the rival companies for the harmony they ex- 
hibited in the affair. 

[Alta, January 15, 1862] 
Water for Public Purposes: — It will afford citizens 
relief to learn that the hydrants through town have 
been filled again. It will be remembered that in the 
late storm, the Bensley flume was badly damaged, 
so much so that the "town pumps" were as dry as 
bone. On the morning of the terrible conflagration 
at the Sarsfield House, there was for some time no 

David Scannell, San Francisco's fire chief at the ti 
the disastrous Sarsfield Hall fire 
(From the collection of Charles B. Turrill) 

October, 192 



water to be procured, and to its scarcity may be 
attributed the loss of life which accompanied the 
enveloping of the building in flames. Through the 
efforts of the Mayor and Chief Engineer, and the 
united action of the Water Companies, pipes have 
been brought in from Brannan Street, connections 
made, and hydrants filled. All the parties engaged 
in effecting this important result are entitled to the 
gratitude of the people of the city. 

{Call, January 15, 1S62] 
Notice: — The undersigned hereby tenders his sin- 
cere thanks, and those of the Fire Department, to 
Major Von Schmidt and the Spring Valley Water 
Company for their liberality and kindness in allow- 
ing the use of the water force, during the repairing 
of the reservoir of the San Francisco Water Com- 
pany. David Scannell, Chief Engineer 

{Bulletin, January 15, 1862] 
Water Company Courtesies: — The harmonious and 
prompt action of the Water Companies, by means 
of which the hydrants that were left empty in 
consequence of the injuries to the Bensley flume 
were with so little delay filled by the Spring Valley 
supply, was alluded to yesterday. The correspon- 
dence between the Companies was as follows : 

Spring Valley Water Works Co., 

January 11, 1862 

A. Chabot, Esq., President San Francisco Water 
Works. — Sir: Understanding that you are and 
probably will be short of water for several days to 
come, from the effects of the late storm, the Presi- 
dent, Mr. Tillinghast, desires me to inform you 
that we will make a connection with your pipes to 
supply water to the lower part of the city, not to 
exceed 80 feet above the city base, free of charge, 
until you have completed your repairs — say six 

This communication is made in a kind and 
friendly spirit, and should you desire to accept our 
offer, you will please let me know at what point 
you desire a connection with our pipes. Yours re- 
spectfully, A w . von Schmidt, Chief Engineer 

Office of the S. F. C. Water Works, January 13 

William H. Tillinghast, Esq., President, Spring 
Valley Water Works : — Saturday I was absent on 
our works till after your office closed, and was in 
consequence unable to reply to your note offering 
to connect your pipe with ours. 

We will connect in the manner proposed, and I 
have directed Mr. Quinlan to see it done without 
delay. Our pumps will be started this afternoon, 
and by working all night, we hope to fill our reser- 
voirs. If successful, the connection will be useless, 
but for fear of accidents, we will nevertheless make 
the connection. 

I beg leave to express to you my sincere thanks 
for your liberal offer and to assure that we fully 
appreciate the friendly spirit which dictated it. 

Your obedient servant, A Chabot, President 
{Mirror, January 21, 1862] 
Another Water Source: — During the interval re- 
quired by the San Francisco Water Company to 
repair the damage to their flume, the Spring Valley 
Water Company have connected their pipes with 
those of the old company, and are gratuitously sup- 

plying a large portion of the south part of the city 
with water. The "new water" is unanimously voted 
to be "pure and soft," and as for the supply, the 
additional drain upon the reservoir out toward the 
Potrero, is scarcely noticeable. This public-spirited 
act on the part of the company, will go far toward 
increasing the already extensive patronage which 
follows the laying of their pipes through the streets. 

{Alia, January 27, 1862] 
Notice to the Consumers of the Spring Valley 
Water: — Some muddy water has been flowing 
through our pipes, on account of the connection 
gate with the Bensley Company's pipes having been 
accidentally left open. The gate is now shut, the 
muddy water is being drawn off, and by Tuesday 
morning our pipes will contain clear water. 

A. W. Von Schmidt, 

Chief Engineer, S. V. W. W. 
{Herald, January 28, 1S62] 
Muddy Water: — The water of both the Bensley 
and the Spring Valley companies has been strongly 
tinctured with mud of late — in the case of the 
former, the difficulty having been caused by a slide 
in the reservoir, and of the latter by an accidental 
connection with the pipes of the former. Both 
promise clear water in a day or two. 

[Mirror, January 28, 1862] 
Honda Looking Black: — The Chief Engineer of 
the Spring Valley Water Company admits that 
"some muddy water has been flowing through our 
(the Water Company's) pipes." The disagreeable 
fact is thus accounted for: The Spring Valley 
Water Company, as full of benevolence as their 
reservoir is of limpid water, generously connected 
the pipes of their works with the pipes of their 
Bensley competitors, in order that a thirsty and un- 
washed people might not suffer during a slight 
derangement in the supplying system of the old 
company. When the assistance of the new company 
was no longer required, the connecting gate was 
improperly closed, and the mud deposits of Bensley 
were by a simple principle of hydraulics drawn into 
the Spring Valley pipes, and in their egress mingled 
with the sparkling bounty of Lake Honda, to the 
horror of the proprietors and the profane ejacula- 
tion of consumers. 

Jones — our dear friend Jones, who holds our 
paper for a small amount — was the first person to 
call our attention to the Spring Valley water. We 
called on him quite early yesterday morning. Jones 
is in the habit of commencing his morning toilet 
by placing his bald and venerable head under the 
water-faucet, and drenching the scattering locks. 
We entered just as our dear friend had risen from 
the faucet. His benevolent face was streaked with 
the debris of dirty water, and so closely did he re- 
semble a Comanche painted for the war-path that 
we involuntarily seized a chair, and with a battle- 
whoop threw ourselves into a posture of defence. 
Jones smiled, walked to the mirror and raised a 
towel to his caput. He looked and swore, and swore 
and looked, and then sat down exhausted with his 
profanity. Jones called his wife, and through her 
charitable offices was made clean. However, the 
Spring Valley water will be clear this morning, and 
for the sake of Jones we rejoice at it. 



October, 1923 

In and Out of Bondage 

Bv H. M. Kinsey, Assistant Secretary 

(The new Spring Valley Five, with its engraving 
of an Indian quenching his thirst at a spring, is 
a vi ry handsome bond. However, its beauty palled 
on the vice-presidents and secretaries of the Com- 
pany who had to sign it. There are 22,000 of these 
new bonds, and each bears two signatures. One 
of the signers herewith psychoanalyzes his emotions 
as he inked his way out of bondage to freedom.) 

WHAT'S in a name?" The half-dazed 
bond-signer puts this century-old query 
to himself countless times as he pursues his 
wean - way along the line of least resistance, 
and finally the everlasting truth is forced 
upon his numbed faculties and he answers, 
"Nothing but a lot of ink." Any truthful 
bond-signer will immediately subscribe to 

The amateur signer of bonds leads a short 
life but not a particularly happy one. As he 
signs and signs and countersigns, another 
sign begins to take hold on his miserable 
mind — a veritable beacon-light of hope and 
cheer in the apparently insurmountable dis- 
tance, a kindly light beckoning to a place of 
perfect rest and surcease from human woes 
such as endlessly repeating his own well- 
known name; that is, re-sign. If only there 
were a way out! But the quota still looms 
ahead, seemingly impossible of achievement. 

However, there are compensations ; the pic- 
ture is not wholly shadow — there is some 
light in it. Let us take, for instance, the tired 
but undaunted last-lap signer as he pushes 
his palsied pen across the Last Hundred. 
What reflections and reveries are his as the 
moving pen writes, and having writ, writes 
on ! He certainly has them and is entitled 
to them. 

No. 21900 — just an even hundred more 
and the bondman will be free ! 

As he plugs on it occurs to him that this 
"bond" word might stand a little investigat- 
ing. A word very largely used and doubt- 
less having multiple meanings. An instru- 
ment of debt, guaranteed by a mortgage, 
etc. Yes, of course, but some of the more in- 
teresting usages. "The bonds of matrimony" 
— hackneyed expression, but of supreme im- 
port; nearly as irksome as the bonds at hand. 
This might lead to endless conjecture; so 
another example comes to mind. "Nomi- 
nated in the bond" — where has he read that 

one? An immense effort of memory and 
he has it; old Shylock and the Merchant 
of Venice. (A long time since those days.) 
2 19 19 — let's see, what are some more? 
Bonded warehouses and employees, bonds 
of affection, bonded rails, bond-brokers — 
21936 — bonds of all denominations and ma- 
turities, the sweet slender bonds of love, ad 
infinitum and et cetera. 

And then the big one arrives with a crash 
— the one with universal appeal beside which 
all others pale: BOTTLED IN BOND! 
Wilson, Hennessey, Old Crow, and all the 
other noble arm}- of martyrs pass in full re- 
view. Tears gather in his eyes, and he glances 
at the fateful line quickly to see whether, 
under the spell of this distressing sense of 
old friends gone beyond recall — 21952 — he 
has not inadvertently set down some of these 
names. He breathes a sigh of genuine relief 
as he realizes he has escaped this awful 

No. 21973 — the goal is in full view and 
he girds his loins for the final punch that 
will put him over. His brain reels a little, 
then clears, and he again grasps that de- 
moniac fountain-pen with a death-like clutch 
and scratches on. 21979, 21980, 21981. Why 
wasn't he born with a shorter name — like J. 
Cox or B. Jones? Too late now! Oh, for one 
of those signing machines with a battery of 
twenty pens! There might even be somewhat 
of a thrill to it. 

His wrist is numb, his brain is dumb — 
21998, 21999, 22000! 

Over the top — Eureka ! Victory ! He is 
through, finished, all in ! The last one has 
been met and conquered. The Indian Sign is 
on the bonds ! 

"It is aimed by illustrations and descrip- 
tive matter to give the public an adequate 
idea of the city's water supply, its present 
development and its future plans and capaci- 
ties. While such efforts to promote an intelli- 
gent understanding are for the benefit of the 
owners of the plant, they are, in a broad 
but very real sense, for the benefit of the 
consumers dependent upon the supply." — 
Master in Chancery H. M. Wright. 

October, 1923 



Good- JVM at the Fair 

By the Editor 

THERE is something about a fair that 
makes a strong appeal to homely, un- 
spoiled human nature. A fair is a market, 
and man has been going to market from the 
beginning of the world, not only to buy and 
sell, but to please his eye with color and 
movement, and to satisfy his craving for the 
holiday society of his fellow men. The mod- 
ern development of merchandising has trans- 
ferred most of the business of barter from 
fairs to permanent shops, but the world and 
his wife will not let the fair die, and it sur- 
vives everywhere, usually as an annual in- 
stitution. True, the great Bartholomew Fair 
at Smithfield in England came to an end in 
1855 after a continuous existence as a yearly 
event since 1133; but there remain many 
great fairs throughout Europe, notably the 
Russian fair at Novgorod, which, it appears, 
even the Bolshevist regime has not served to 

The fair has always flourished notably in 
the country districts, where, indeed, it was 
probably born from the need that the farmers 
felt of getting together at stated intervals to 
accomplish man-to-man fashion the results 
now achieved through granges and other or- 
ganizations. The country fair was never — 
and is not today — a mere mercenary conve- 
nience. The same fine instinct that causes the 
farmer to dignify and englamour the gather- 
ing of the harvest makes the fair an occasion 
of merrymaking and festivity. The farmer 
takes his wife to the fair as a great treat, and 
the farmhand goes there to court his sweet- 
heart and to buy her a "fairing." But in 
cities, too, despite the hurly-burly that has 
done away with simplicity of manners, the 
fair has its hold upon men and women, and 
if there is no fair, its lack is supplied by the 
popular pastime of "window-shopping." 

All of which serves to explain why period- 
ical fairs — more grandiloquently called "ex- 
positions" — are an important feature of met- 
ropolitan business, and why, for instance, a 
movement is afoot in San Francisco to build 
a costly structure exclusively for fairs of one 
sort or another — industrial fairs, cattle 
shows, horse shows, and so forth. Metropoli- 
tan business is too keen of vision to overlook 
the possibilities of an institution so firmly 

rooted in the affections of all classes of man- 
kind as the ancient and honorable fair. 

Public-utility business advances in step 
with the front rank of private business. By 
its nature it is intimately in contact with the 
mainsprings of human action. It knows what 
is going on in the mind of the average man, 
because the average man is constantly im- 
parting to the utility his thoughts, both sym- 
pathetic and censorious. He who pays and he 
who collects a public-utility bill soon estab- 
lish a bond of plain dealing and blunt speak- 
ing. And so the public utility has special 
opportunities for discovering what pleases 
and what displeases the average man. 

It would be strange, then, if the public 
utility were not aware of the opportunity a 
fair provides for improving its relations with 
the public. 

The Spring Valley Water Company, in 
19 19 and again in 1922, availed itself of the 
opportunity to participate in San Francisco 
fairs, to the end that it might familiarize the 
public with its properties and its problems, 
and cultivate good-will through mutual un- 

In October, 19 19, the Company installed 
an exhibition in the California Industries 
and Land Show in the Exposition Audito- 
rium of San Francisco. A large relief map 
showing the entire Spring Valley system, 
with its watersheds, was specially made for 
this exhibition by Will Sparks, the San 
Francisco artist. It showed real water in the 
Pacific Ocean, San Francisco Bav, Lake 

One hundred and fifteen thousand persons vi-.itt.-d 
Spring Valley booth in the Land Show of 1919 



October, 1923 

Eighty thousand persons assuaged their thirst at the Spring 

Valley drinking fountains in the Industrial 

Exposition of 1922 

Merced, and the various storage reservoirs of 
the system. It may seem trifling to mention 
that fact, but just the use of real water in- 
stead of blue or green paint made that relief 
map distinctive and attracted to it an amaz- 
ing amount of absorbed attention. A series of 
photographs, some selected for sheer beauty, 
others for their practical significance, visual- 
ized the extent of the system and the variety 
of its water sources. In conjunction with the 
Neptune Meter Company, Spring Valley also 
installed a meter display, with practical tests 
demonstrating the delicacy and accuracy of 
the water-meter. 

There was a special reason for this last in- 
stallation. The city of San Francisco had 
been universally metered only a short time 
before, and the water-meter was pretty widely 
regarded as a sinister instrument of oppres- 
sion. Complaints based on suspicion of the 
water-meter are practically non-existent to- 
day in San Francisco, a pleasant condition 
which that exhibition helped to bring about. 

The official figures for that exhibition, 
which lasted from October 4 to October 19 
inclusive, showed that 347,174 persons at- 
tended. On the basis of the actual count of 
persons visiting the Spring Valley booth dur- 
ing one day, it was estimated that 115,000 
persons visited the Spring Valley booth dur- 
ing the entire time of the fair. The attendants 
at the booth distributed 7400 pieces of litera- 
ture, as follows: "Fair Water Rates," 4500 
copies; "A Check on Waste," 2900 copies. 

They had been instructed not to distribute 
literature broadcast, but to exercise discrimi- 
nation between interested and indifferent vis- 
itors, and as they were all men skilled in 
public contacts they undoubtedly carried out 
their instructions. 

An interesting sidelight on this exhibition 
was supplied by O. E. Clemens, the Manager 
of the Water Sales Department, who reported 
as follows : "While a great many people were 
met at the Company's booth in the Land 
Show, and a variety of questions on all possi- 
ble subjects answered, there was a remark- 
able absence of direct complaints of dispro- 
portionate bills — eight, all told, being re- 
ceived. In each case a visit of inspection was. 
made, and report rendered to the interested 

In October, 1922, when Spring Valley de- 
cided to install an exhibit at the California 
Industries Exposition, a quite different pub- 
licity need had arisen. The Company had re- 
cently formed a virtual partnership with the 
city of San Francisco for the purpose of in- 
creasing the water supply by bringing in an 
additional twenty-four million gallons daily 
from the Calaveras Reservoir in Alameda 
County. The terms of the arrangement be- 
tween city and company were being fully ex- 
plained in newspaper advertising, and it was 
seen that an excellent opportunity presented 
itself to visualize the big project at this fair. 

Accordingly, a large oil-painting showing 
the Calaveras project in contour and cross- 
section was made the feature of the Com- 
pany's exhibition. 

The desire to concentrate attention on this 
Calaveras project permitted, in the Com- 
pany's 1922 exhibit, a unity of presentation 
that did not characterize the earlier one. 
True, there were again displayed beautiful 
photographs of the water system, but the 
strong impression made upon the visitor to 
the booth was exerted by the painting that 
illustrated the new water operations. 

No check was attempted of the number of 
visitors, but a rather interesting calculation 
was made possible by the circumstance that 
the Company installed two drinking-foun- 
tains in its booth. From meter-readings it 
was estimated that 80,000 persons drank at 
these two fountains from October 7 to 28, the 
duration of this fair. As the total attendance 
was 320,000, it would appear that one person 
in four assuaged his thirst in the Spring Val- 
lev booth. 




S I sit alone in my chamber this last of the dying year, 
Dim shades of the past surround me, and faint through the 
storm I hear 

Old tales of the castles builded,under shelving rock and pine, 
Of the bearded men and stalwart I greeted in Forty-Nine ; 
The giants with hopes audacious ; the giants of iron limb ; 
The giants who journeyed westward when the trails were new and dim ; 
The giants who felled the forests, made pathways o'er the snows, 
And planted the vine and fig-tree where the manzanita grows ; 
Who swept down the mountain gorges, and painted the endless night 
With their cabins, rudely fashioned, and their camp-fires 1 ruddy light ; 
Who builded great towns and cities, who swung back the Golden Gate, 
And hewed from the mighty ashlar the form of a sovereign State ; 
Who came like a flood of waters to a thirsty desert plain, 
And where there had been no reapers grew valleys of golden grain. 

Hark ! the bells are chiming midnight ; the storm bends its listening ear, 
While the moon looks through the cloud-rifts and blesses the new-born year. 

Bar closely the curtained windows; shut the light from every pane, 

While, free from the world's intrusion and curious eyes profane, 

I take from its leathern casket a dinted old cup of tin, 

More precious to me than silver, and blessing the draught within, 

I drink alone in silence to the Builders of the West— 

"Long life to the hearts still beating, and peace to the hearts at rest." 

—Rollin M. Daggett. 

'AN Francisco ^Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume I 1 1 

January, i 924 


Keeping Faith 

By S. P. Eastman, President 

SAN FRANCISCO has achieved the great- 
est growth in her history during the year 
just ended. The present population is con- 
servatively estimated at 579,000. At the time 
of the last census, in 1Q20, it was 508,000. 
It is generally believed that our rate of 
growth will be accelerated during the year 
now beginning. 

San Francisco is distinguished for its 
youthfulness. Like Peter Pan, it doesn't want 
to grow up — a spirit that is appreciated by 
all who understand San Francisco. But we 
are growing up just the same. Captured by 
the spell of the city, our visitors become our 
fellow-citizens. They bring with them the ex- 
pansive impulses of other communities; and 
as, in receiving them and giving them homes 
here, we obligate ourselves to provide them 
with the opportunities they desire, we must 
enlarge our boundaries and widen our hori- 
zon. To do otherwise would be to break the 
faith of hospitality — and San Francisco has 
never broken faith. 

In public utility terms this keeping of 
faith translates itself into the prosaic obliga- 
tion of providing the public with all the 
public-service facilities that are needed. Pub- 
lic utilities must advance if the city is to ad- 
vance. Transportation, the telephone, gas, 
electric energy, water supply — in all these 
there must be good management, and good 
management means constant expansion as 
well as careful administration of existing 
facilities. To keep the faith, therefore, there 
must be provided more telephones, more 
power lines, more water connections. There 
must be large new investments, and these, of 
course, must go hand in hand with the high- 
est type of workmanship. This involves the 

placement of major orders for copper, lead, 
and iron. It is a matter of significance that 
the prices of copper, lead, and iron are con- 
sulted as the index of prosperity. 

San Francisco's water supply was in liti- 
gation during the years 1907 to 19 14 and 
1916 to 1920 inclusive. This prohibited the 
borrowing of money for extensions within 
the limits set by the prevailing rates of inter- 
est — we could not pay the "market price of 
money" out of the inadequate profits earned 
by the water works. There was no assurance 
of protection for any new capital that might 
be invested. Capital said in effect: "As the 
city and the company cannot appreciate their 
need for mutual reliance, we will go else- 
where." Accordingly, during those years of 
difficulty money in substantial amounts 
could not be borrowed for the water supply. 

Yet the city had been growing steadily, 
and substantial sums should have been laid 
out in extensions within the city limits. 
These expenditures were not made — could 
not be made. The disputed legality of the 
rates closed the door to capital initiative, 
forbade the borrowing of money for expan- 

Honorable H. M. Wright, Standing Mas- 
ter in Chancery for the District Court of the 
United States, in his report filed October 16, 
191 7, states, with reference to the develop- 
ment of the Company's system and the neces- 
sity of a settlement of past differences: 

The company's position has been that it could 
not get money for additional capital expenditures 
unless the city fixed rates that would attract the 
capital from the private investor's pocket; that, 
even if capital could be had, it was unwise to ex- 
tend the system in its normal growth, while there 
existed the threat of active competition by a duph- 


January, 1924 

General View 
merits, or 

and down-stream em bank- 
are dumped from the trestle 

cate municipal waterworks, or, when the proposi- 
tion took the form of a condemnation, to increase 
the stakes at issue in a law suit. The city's position 
is that the rates have, in fact, been adequate; and 
that, in any event, the company should have fully 
performed its public duties, with the assurance 
that the courts would do justice. Whether the com- 
pany or the city is right is neither here nor there. 
The city cannot attain its full prosperity without 
ample water for the present and full provision for 
the future. The problem is too big for pettiness; 
there should be an end of hostile feeling and ran- 
corous criticism. There is room for honest differ- 
ences of opinion ; but these ought to be capable of 
settlement by exhaustive inquiry into the facts and 
by fair and logical reasoning to a conclusion. We 
have had a full inquiry; and I appreciate the re- 
sponsibility resting on me to draw just conclusions. 
It is to be hoped that the whole matter may be 

The Company's inability to keep up with 
the demands was aggravated by increased 
costs and diminished returns resulting from 
the Great War and the conditions which 
followed in its train. The Company alone of 
all the large utilities in the state obtained no 
financial relief during the war period to take 
care of higher operating expenses and taxes. 
The new rate schedules did not become effec- 
tive until September, 192 1. 

The city reservoir and distributing pipe 

system had so fallen behind the demands be- 
cause of conditions already described that in 
certain sections of the city the service was 
inadequate and no comfortable margin ex- 
isted over the requirements. 

Since September, 192 1, the Company has 
attracted capital to invest in San Francisco's 
water supply. 

Why were we able to accomplish this ? Be- 
cause of a reasonably mutual recognition, on 
the part of the city and the Company, of 
what had passed and what confronted us in 
the future. 

The Railroad Commission's decision of 
August 12, 192 1, pointed the way. Under 
the terms of the commission's order, the 
Company was required to provide an addi- 
tional water supply for the city, and to hold 
itself ready to enter a co-operative arrange- 
ment with the city covering the construction 
and use of the Bay Division of the Hetch 
Hetchy Conduit. Following the decision, the 
city and the Company signed a formal agree- 
ment designed to meet the requirements of 
the commission's order. 

A program was arranged to extend from 
192 1 to 1933. It provided for payment by 

January. 1024 


"^ ^ 


The quarry or "borrow pit" from which coarse material to form the outer embankments of Calaveras Dam is 

obtained. The loaded train carries material to the dam. The steam-shovel and trucks are excavating the spillway 

channel, which will be concrete-lined and will carry flood-waters from the reservoir when it is full to capacity 

Spring Valley Water Company of interest 
on the cost of constructing the Bay Division 
of the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, also the ex- 
pansion of the Spring Valley works to de- 
liver through these city works an additional 
supply of twenty-four million gallons daily. 
This Spring Valley expansion requires on 
the part of the Company an outlay of some 
two million dollars, and in addition the ex- 
penditure by the Company of some $300,000 
per year in city service and main extensions. 
Because of the period that had gone be- 
fore, when no expansion of the city facilities 
could take place, the Company added to the 
requirements already mentioned the addi- 
tional sum of $200,000 to be spent in the 
year just ended. The Executive Committee 
of the Company recently adopted a further 
program of city main extensions recom- 
mended by its Chief Engineer, George A. 
Elliott, calling for the expenditure in the 
city, during the first half of the new year, of 

The Company's record of new services in- 
stalled since 192 1 averages 2630 per year. 
This average exceeds the average for five 
years ending in 19 14, the commencement of 
the Great War, by thirty-five per cent. The 
new services installed during 1923 will ap- 
proximate 3600. The rapid increase in popu- 
lation and the subsequent demands for in- 
creased water supply call for the expenditure 
of large sums by the Company to keep up 
with the needs. 

A new horizon has been established by the 
decision of the Railroad Commission of 
August 12, 1 92 1. Past deficiencies, hereto- 
fore referred to, have been left for crossing 
on the bridge of good faith. 

The city has pioneered in its Bay Division 
of the Hetch Hetchy Conduit, for the benefit 
of future generations; the water company 
has endeavored to do likewise in its inter- 
relations with this system. When opportunity 
first offered, the water company made its 
initial move; it practically doubled capital 


January, 1924 

expenditures in the city main extensions dur- 
ing the year just ended; and we propose to 
again double them during our new year 1924. 
We realize it will take many years to do what 
had to be left undone in the past, and, in 
addition thereto, to keep pace with the ac- 
celerated growth of the future. 

We take natural satisfaction in the fact 
that we have now been able to attract needed 
capital for the financing of the new twenty- 
year Spring Valley bonds. 

Capital, in this instance, means to a sub- 
stantial extent the big life- and fire-insur- 

ance companies of New York, and financial 
institutions of San Francisco and Los Ange- 
les, whose money available for investment is 
the accumulation of the savings of the mass 
of men who take insurance and make savings 
for their families. 

This capital appreciates that we intend to 
keep faith by respecting the criteria for trust 
funds: protective bond interest, expansion 
of the system, co-operation with our city, 
and reasonable earnings to loyal holders of 
shares for the future. We have taken such 
steps as seem to us faithful to all concerned. 

A Year of Constru&ion A&ivity 

By G. A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

THE year 1923 was a period of great 
construction activity with the Spring 
Valley Water Company. 

In addition to the more or less regular 
installation of pipe and services, construction 
work was done looking toward increasing 
the supply of water for San Francisco as well 

as adding to the distributing facilities neces- 
sary to deliver the additional water to both 
old and new consumers. 

One new service reservoir, to be known as 
Stanford Heights Reservoir, was built in the 
Twin Peak Hills two hundred and fifty feet 
higher than the next highest reservoir. 

embankment of Calaveras Dam. It is now 140 feet above the bottom of the reservoir, 
but its height, when the present work is completed, will be 205 feet 

January, 1924 


Sunol Aqueduct during construction. Timber false work 
being placed for support of the concrete arch 

The capacity of University Mound Reser- 
voir, which supplies most of the industrial 
and business districts, was increased forty 
per cent. 

New pipe-lines of large capacity were laid 
to expedite the distribution of the increased 

Following the co-operative agreement be- 
tween the city and the water company pro- 

viding for the construction necessary to in- 
crease the supply of water for San Francisco 
by twenty-four million gallons daily, a quan- 
tity which will supply an increase in popula- 
tion of 240,000 people, both the city and 
the Company began the work of developing 
and transmitting the water to the point of 

The Company throughout the year con- 
tinued the construction of Calaveras Dam in 
Alameda County. The dam is now about 
half-completed. Some 11,000 feet of the 
Sunol Aqueduct located in Niles Canyon, 
which will carry the water from Calaveras, 
was constructed. The new aqueduct, built of 
reinforced concrete, has twice the capacity 
of the wood conduit which it replaced. The 
entire aqueduct from Sunol to Niles, a dis- 
tance of about five miles, is now built en- 
tirely of concrete. 

Work on the Bay Division of the Hetch 
Hetchy Conduit, which will pick up the sup- 
ply from Calaveras at the end of the water 
company's pipe at Irvington, has been prose- 
cuted vigorously under the direction of M. 
M. O'Shaughnessy, City Engineer. 

Reinforced concrete arcl 
beauty of this arch, as 

rully on the route of the Sunol Aqueduct. The span is eighty-eight feet. The 
floor of Niles Canyon, may be better judged from the picture on the cover 
of this issue of San Francisco Water 


January, 1924 

Niles regulating reservoir under construction at the junction of the Sunol Aqueduct and the pipe-line that carries 

water across San Francisco Bay to Crystal Springs in San Mateo County. Capacity, five million gallons. It will 

be lined with concrete and roofed 

Calaveras Reservoir 

By T. W. Espy, Construction Engineer 

THE Calaveras Dam, now under 
construction, is situated in Alameda 
County nine miles south of the town of 
Sunol, and just north of the boundary be- 
tween Santa Clara and Alameda counties. 
The waters impounded back of this dam will 
cover the floor of Calaveras Valley, which is 
a bowl-shaped area of about two thousand 
acres lying to the south in Santa Clara 
County, and six miles east from Milpitas. 

The history of San Francisco's water sup- 
ply indicates a policy of always having in 
full development a quantity of water suffi- 
cient to meet the advance needs for several 
years, and also to have available for develop- 
ment additional water-bearing properties to 
meet needs many years in advance. This 
policy is well illustrated in the present de- 
velopment on Calaveras Creek, where, on 
properties acquired fifty years ago, the water, 
as conserved on January 1, 1925, will care 
for San Francisco's needs with double the 
present population. 

In the year 1865 Hermann Schussler and 
W. H. Lawrence, after making extended re- 
connoissance of water supplies for San Fran- 
cisco, recognized the possibilities for water 
development on the Calaveras watershed and 

advised the water company to acquire the 
lands necessary to insure this area as a 
future source of supply for San Francisco. 
This advice was not immediately followed. 
From this time on, however, the Calaveras 
watershed was recognized as an abundant 
source of water, and immediately there were 
further engineering investigations to deter- 
mine its magnitude. 

About the year 1874 T. R. Scowden, an 
eminent engineer from Kentucky, after a 
thorough investigation, recommended that 
San Francisco acquire the Calaveras proper- 
ties as a municipal water supply. This plan 
was rejected. A short time later (in 1875) the 
Spring Valley interests purchased the prop- 
erty now occupied by the Calaveras Dam, 
and since have continued to purchase other 
lands necessary for this project. 

The Calaveras watershed has an area of 
one hundred square miles, the flood-waters 
of which have heretofore passed through the 
gorge now blocked by Calaveras Dam, and, 
joining with the flood-waters from some 525 
square miles to the north and east, pass 
through the Niles Canyon and run down 
Alameda Creek to waste into San Francisco 
Bay near Newark. 

January, 1924 


Excavating the Stanford Heights Reservoir basin in the sandy clay of the Mount Davidson region— showing 
preparation of the slope for concrete. Capacity, five million gallons now, but ultimately ten millions 

All sides of Mount Hamilton are within 
the Calaveras watershed, and the Honda, 
Smith, Bonita, and Isabel creeks all flow 
into Calaveras reservoir. 

Thirty years' records of the quantities of 
water passing the site of Calaveras Dam 
show more water wasting annually into San 
Francisco Bay from this one hundred square 
miles of area than the total amount of water 
now consumed annually by San Francisco. 
By the present construction program Cala- 

A five-hundred-foot section of the Sunol Aqueduct, carried 

on trestles. The aqueduct capacity is seventy million 

gallons daily 

veras Dam will be big enough in December 
of this year to increase San Francisco's wa- 
ter supply to twice the amount now being 
obtained from the Alameda sources, and the 
Calaveras Reservoir at that time will store 
more water than San Francisco now uses in 
two and one-fourth years. 

Immediately to the east of the Calaveras 
Dam lies the watershed of the Upper Ala- 
meda Creek with an area of forty square 
miles. With Calaveras Dam completed, this 
water, when needed, will be conserved by 
diverting it into the Calaveras Reservoir 
through a tunnel two miles in length. This 
will add thirty per cent to the productivity 
of Calaveras, or a total quantity from Cala- 
veras alone of one and one-third times San 
Francisco's present consumption. 

The immediate arrangement is to make the 
Calaveras water available for use in San 
Francisco by conducting it down Alameda 
Creek and through the natural underground 
gravel filters at Sunol, thence down Niles 
Canyon through the new concrete aqueduct 
to the new Niles Reservoir now under con- 
struction. The present thirtv-six-inch-di- 


January, 1924 

Sunol Aqueduct, near Farwell, in Niles Canyon. This canyon is one of the great passes in California for railroad 

traffic from the coast to the northern San Joaquin Valley will stream through it. Above the railroads, the County 

etc., the great concrete aqueduct makes its tortuous way from Sunol to Niles. caj 

ameter pipe-line from Niles to and across 
San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton Point now 
carries water up to its capacity. The addi- 
tional water from Calaveras will be carried 
in a new forty-eight-inch-diameter pipe-line 
to be laid during the summer of 1924 from 
Niles Reservoir to the town of Irvington, 
whence it is to be conveyed through the city's 
Hetch Hetchy pipe-lines and Pulgas Tunnel 
into the Crystal Springs reservoir. 

Intensive explorations in the Calaveras 
gorge to determine the proper location and 
type of dam were carried on previous to the 
earthquake of April, 1906, but the financial 
situation caused by this disaster stopped de- 
velopment at that time. 

Explorations were again resumed in 19 10, 
and, after three years' work, the Company, 

upon the advice of many of the foremost 
geologists and engineers in the United States, 
abandoned the idea of a masonry dam, and 
in May, 19 13, commenced the construction 
of an earthen structure. 

The Calaveras Dam now being construct- 
ed is a thick water-tight diaphragm of im- 
pervious clay in a vertical position, sup- 
ported on both up-stream and down-stream 
sides by massive fills of rock with compara- 
tively flat slopes. Some seven hundred thou- 
sand cubic yards of rock fill and one hun- 
dred thousand cubic yards of compacted clay 
will be placed to reconstruct the dam to the 
present contemplated height of 205 feet. 

The material for the rock fill is being ex- 
cavated on the hillside just down-stream 
from the dam by a two-and-one-half-cubic- 

January. 1924 


portation, and with the construction of Dumbarton Bridge it will be busier and more crowded than ever, as 
i, and Alameda Creek, on a specially excavated bench on the steep sidehill densely wooded with oak. toyon. 
ig half of San Francisco's water supply and destined to carry a great deal more 

yard electric-shovel, and is dumped from 
trestles on either side of the compacted clay 
core, being transported in twelve-cubic-yard 
standard-gauge railroad dump-cars. 

The elevation of the top of the dam in 
December, 1924, will be 775 feet above sea- 
level. The creek bed at down-stream edge of 
dam is elevation 570, giving a height of dam 
of 205 feet. 

When the upper Alameda Creek water is 
brought into Calaveras Reservoir the dam 
will be completed to elevation 810. 

Up to 775 feet elevation the dam contains 
more than three million cubic yards of ma- 

Water will be drawn from the reservoir 
through a concrete-lined tunnel built in the 
solid rock around the west abutment of the 

dam. The flow of water in this outlet is 
regulated by four inlets at different eleva- 
tions opening into a reinforced concrete- 
lined shaft 140 feet deep surmounted by a 
reinforced concrete tower forty feet high. 
These outlets are designed to carry twice 
the quantity of water that San Francisco now 
uses. The spillway to carry off flood-waters 
is an open concrete-lined channel placed in 
the solid rock to the west of the dam. It will 
discharge the water into Calaveras Creek 
several hundred feet down-stream from the 

This channel is eighteen feet deep and 
twenty-nine feet wide. It will discharge 
more than seven times the amount of water 
that has ever been measured passing this 
point in twenty-four hours. 



January, 1924 

Stanford Heights Reservoir — showing the basin completely lined with con 

f under construction 

The Skyline Boulevard 

By G. J. Davis, Assistant Superintendent, Water Division 

THE Skyline Boulevard is the name 
given to the road now under construc- 
tion by the Highway Commission, under the 
supervision of Major John B. Skeggs, from 
San Francisco to Santa Cruz, following the 
crest, or skyline, of the hills bordering the 
Pacific Ocean. The road is unique in its 
location and presents unsurpassed views 
along its route. 

Beginning in San Francisco, a view of 
the Ocean Beach and Lake Merced is had in 
the first two miles. Beyond this point Lakes 
San Andres and Crystal Springs, backed by 
the wooded hillsides of Sweeny Ridge on the 
west and the Bay of San Francisco on the 
east, are presented to the traveler. Proceed- 
ing south along the Kings Mountain Ridge 
the eye covers many miles of redwood- 
covered hills and valleys, until the climax is 
reached in passing through the Santa Cruz 
Mountains. That the road has a utilitarian 
aspect is indicated by the fact that the mili- 

tary authorities regard it as an important 
link in the transportation system necessary 
for coast defense. 

During the year 1923 the first two units 
were completed, comprising the portion be- 
tween the Great Highway in San Francisco 
and a point on the San Mateo-Half Moon 
Bay road at the crest of the divide, a distance 
of twenty-one miles. 

Wherever possible a right of way one hun- 
dred feet wide was secured to care for fu- 
ture traffic, but at present the boulevard is 
constructed with a width of forty feet. 

In order to allow settlement of fills, a per- 
manent surface has not been used. As at 
present constructed, the road is surfaced 
with macadam and will be\ sprinkled with 
water during the dry months. 

A reinforced concrete bridge carries the 
traffic across the Crystal Springs Dam. This 
bridge has been built at an elevation suffi- 

( Continued on page u) 

January, 1924 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

425 Mason Street * Phone Prospect 7000 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. III. 

January, 1924 

No. i 

THIS issue of San Francisco Water 
is devoted exclusively to those construc- 
tion activities during the past year that bore 
upon the future of the San Francisco water 
supply. As readers will see. upon perusing 
the various articles, the work has been on a 
broad, comprehensive scale. This issue of 
San Francisco Water is a progress report, 
and it will be agreed, undoubtedly, that the 
progress in the work to be done, on the part 
both of the city and the Company, has been 
very satisfactory. 

Under the terms of the order of the Rail- 
road Commission in the water-rate decision 
and of the agreement with the city, the Com- 
pany prosecuted the work at Calaveras Dam; 
completed the reconstruction and enlarge- 
ment of the flume section of the Niles Can- 
yon Aqueduct; and completed the excavation 
and embankment work upon the reservoir at 
Niles, all of which work will increase the 
supply by twenty-four million gallons daily 
and regulate the output from the Alameda 
System. The Niles Reservoir and pipe-line 
connecting it with the city's pipe-line at 
Irvington w T ill be completed in 1924. 

The city also, under the terms of the 
agreement with the Company, has prosecuted 
its work of constructing the Bay Division of 
the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct from Irvington 
to Crystal Springs Reservoir. The Pulgas 
Tunnel through the ridge to Crystal Springs 
Reservoir was completed. Contracts have 
been let and the work commenced of con- 
structing the pipe-line and Bay Crossing. 

Within the city limits the Company ex- 
tended and enlarged its reservoir and main 
distributing-pipe facilities. 

The first unit of five million gallons ca- 
pacity of the Stanford Heights Reservoir 
on the easterly slope of Mt. Davidson was 
completed and put into operation Decem- 
ber 1. 

The placing of the embankment designed 
to increase the capacity of the University 
Mound Reservoir was completed during the 
year. The concrete lining will be constructed 
in 1924. 

Extensive improvements were made in the 
distributing-pipe system by extending the 
system and by enlarging, with cast-iron pipe, 
the mains where small wrought-iron mains 
had been installed. These improvements 
were designed to keep pace with city growth 
and to eliminate inadequacies in certain 
sections which the Company heretofore was 
unable to remedy. 

Additions were made to the number of 
services and meters to keep pace with the 
new buildings erected during the year. 
Thirty-six hundred new services were added, 
the greatest number of services added an- 
nually in the history of the Company, except 
during the rehabilitation of the city follow- 
ing the Fire, in 1907 and 1908. 

The Company's new office building on 
Mason Street was completed and occupied 
October 1. 

Another achievement during the year was 
the completion of the second unit of the Sky- 
line Boulevard, a great portion of which ex- 
tends through the peninsula properties of the 
Company, upon which properties the Com- 
pany deeded to the state the necessary rights 
of way. 

All the photographs in this issue of the San 
Francisco Water, including the illustra- 
tion for the cover, were made by George E. 
Fanning, photographer for Spring Valley 
Water Company. 

* * * 

The Skyline Boulevard 

(Continued from page 10) 

cient to provide for raising the dam high 
enough to secure an additional three billion 
gallons in storage. 

About eleven miles of the boulevard con- 
structed to date passes through lands owned 
by Spring Valley, and gives access to here- 
tofore little-known locations. Right of way 
for these eleven miles was the gift of the 

The Skyline has been justly called "Cali- 
fornia's highway of grandeur," and it has 
the important effect of cancelling a "no 
thoroughfare'' sign that nature placed on the 
peninsula of San Francisco. 



January, 1924 

Stanford Heights Reservoir just before the water was turned into it. Note the concrete 
and the concrete posts supporting the wooden roof 

Sunol Aquedu& 

By I. E. Flaa, Chief Draftsman 

IN 1875 the water company, realizing that 
an additional supply of water would be 
required for the growing city of San Fran- 
cisco, began acquiring water-rights and 
property in Alameda County. Subsequently 
the development of this source became neces- 
sary, and in 1900 the Sunol Aqueduct was 
built between Sunol and Niles on the south- 
erly side of Alameda Creek Canyon to carry 
the water from the Alameda Creek system. 

This aqueduct was composed of 14,600 
feet of concrete-lined tunnel, having a carry- 
ing capacity of seventy million gallons daily, 
and 11,300 feet of redwood flume with a 
capacity of twenty-one million gallons daily, 
making a total length of 25,900 feet. 

To provide for carrying an additional 
supply of twenty-four million gallons daily, 
now being developed, and for probable fu- 
ture development, the wooden-flume section 
was replaced by a six-by-six-foot reinforced 
concrete flume having a bottom and side 

thickness of six inches and top of four in- 
ches and a carrying capacity of seventy mil- 
lion gallons daily. The plans and estimates 
were prepared in the latter part of 1922; 
construction commenced April 1, 1923, and 
was completed September 15, 1923. 

About 350 men were employed. They 
were divided into four groups, each under 
the direction of a foreman; each group had 
a certain definite portion of the work, and it 
was so arranged that the four groups would 
finish their portions at the same time. Five 
hundred tons of steel, 26,400 sacks of 
cement, and 7600 cubic yards of sand and 
gravel were used to complete the work. 

The major portion of the flume was placed 
upon the same bench used by the original 
structure. In two places the configuration of 
the ground made it necessary to provide ele- 
vated structures. The first was a depression 
about five hundred feet long, with a depth 
of about twenty feet. Over this portion the 



Forms and reinforcing steel for outlet structure and coun- 
terforts for supporting the division wall of the Stanford 
Heights Reservoir. Through the outlet tunnel are laid the 
pipes which carry water to and from the reservoir 

flume was built upon a reinforced concrete 
trestle. The second was a gully about seventy 
feet deep and one hundred feet wide. Across 
this gully the flume is supported by an arch. 
Particular attention was given to the de- 
sign of this arch. There were two problems: 
the first being the engineering problem of 
giving it the necessary strength to support 
the load it would bear; the second, the artis- 
tic problem of giving it the proper propor- 

tions so that it would be a pleasing structure 
to view from any position. 

The entire detail of the conduit was de- 
signed by Edward A. Nickel of the Spring 
Valley Engineering Department, and in his 
treatment of the arch it is agreed that he very 
happily combined engineering skill with 
beauty of line, as may be seen by studying 
the picture on the cover of this issue of San 
Francisco Water. 

University Mound Reservoir in the hills west of the 
view district of San Francisco. The curving line of boards 
separates the old and the new parts of the reservoir em- 
bankment. The old embankment was twenty feet high, 
giving a reservoir capacity of forty-two million gallons. 
The addition of six feet to the embankment adds seventeen 
million gallons to the capacity, making it fifty-nine million 
gallons in all, an increase of forty per cent 

The New Niles Reservoir 

By Edward A. Nickel, Engineering Department 

THE Niles Reservoir which is being con- 
structed at the present time is located 
in the picturesque Niles Canyon, approxi- 
mately two miles east of the town of Niles. 
The reservoir site is on gentle-sloping 
ground overlooking the old Vallejo flour- 

It is situated near the end of the Sunol 
Aqueduct, to which it will be connected by 
a six-foot-square reinforced concrete tunnel. 
A forty-eight-inch steel pipe-line will be 
constructed between this reservoir and the 
town of Irvington, where it will be connected 
with the Bay Division of the Hetch Hetchy 

The reservoir lot recently purchased con- 
tains seven acres, of which only the west- 
erly portion is being used, leaving sufficient 
room for another reservoir of equal size. 

The capacity will be five million gallons. It 
is to be a typical earth reservoir with a con- 

There has been a remarkable advance in pipe work. The 

welding-torch has eliminated all riveting in the field. 

These Spring Valley men are welding the field joints of a 

twenty-four-inch riveted steel main, using 

oxy-acetylene torches 



January, 1924 

crete basin lining, covered by a flat wooden 
roof supported by concrete columns. 

The work is being done in two units. The 
first unit consists of the earth excavation, 
and rolled-fill embankment, the construction 
of the reinforced concrete outlet tunnel, 
which is under the embankment, and the 
construction of the gate-chamber of the inlet 
structure, in which will be located the gates 
controlling the diversion of water from the 
Sunol Aqueduct to the reservoir. This work 
has just been completed. The second unit, 
consisting of the placing of the concrete 
basin lining, the construction of the roof and 

the six-foot-square inlet tunnel, will be 
finished in 1924. 

The total excavation will be approxi- 
mately sixteen thousand cubic yards, of 
which thirteen thousand cubic yards will 
be used in the rolled fill forming the sides 
and ends. There will be used approximately 
twelve hundred cubic yards of concrete in 
the lining. This lining will be in twenty- and 
thirty-foot panels, reinforced with tempera- 
ture steel, and provided with a plastic filler 
at each expansion joint to prevent leakage. 

This reservoir is to be completed at the 
same time as the Niles-Irvington pipe-line. 

Increasing the Supply in San Francisco 

By O. Goldman, Assistant, City Distribution 

ON the northeastern slope of Mount 
Davidson the Spring Valley Water 
Company purchased a parcel of land, on the 
western half of which a reservoir has just 

been completed, having a capacity of about 
five million gallons, and known as the Stan- 
ford Heights Reservoir. This reservoir is 
about 300 feet long and 160 feet wide, with 

A section of twenty-four-inch riveted steel main ready for lowering into the trench. All the pipe-joints have been 
welded on the edge of the trench instead of in the trench itself, as was formerly necessary when riveted joints 
were used. Sections of pipe three hundred feet long can now be lowered into the trench, as compared with thirty- 
foot sections under former methods of construction. Note the pipe-covering of specially prepared felt which is 
now used in addition to the ordinary dip. Pipes of this character have lasted over fifty years 
in the Spring Valley system 

January, 1924 



a rimway of ten feet. The total depth is 
twenty-two feet, and the water surface is at 
an elevation of 614 feet above city base when 
at its maximum depth of twenty feet. The 
construction of this reservoir was begun on 
June 4, 1923, and completed November 8, 

The reservoir is of the cut-and-fill type — 
that is, some of its bank is made by facing 
the existing hillside and some by the placing 
of material, forming a new embankment. 
The southern bank of this reservoir is cut, 
the western is partly cut and partly embank- 
ment, the northern is all embankment, while 
on the east side is built a reinforced concrete 

Keeping constantly in mind the necessity 
of increasing the water supply in San Fran- 
cisco, a concrete wall was erected on the 
eastern side of the reservoir instead of an 
earth embankment, so that the remaining 
half of the reservoir can be built with a 
minimum loss of available storage. 

A steam-shovel was used for excavating 
the reservoir basin, the embankment being 
made from the material thus excavated. 

After the floor and the embankments were 
brought to the required grades and eleva- 
tions, they were lined with six inches of con- 
crete properly reinforced. 

On the northeast corner of the reservoir a 
concrete tower was built, which acts both as 
the inlet and the outlet. This tower is so 
constructed that when future needs demand 
that the other half of the reservoir be built 
it can be accomplished without the slightest 
interruption to the service. The reservoir is 

This reservoir will supply that part of the 

The trenching-machine in operation, excavating the ti 

for a twenty-four-inch riveted steel pipe in Fout Av 

This machine does the work of thirty-five men 

This twenty-four-inch riveted steel pipe is two miles long. 
It carries water from Stanford Heights Reservoir to the 
Clarendon Heights Tank, which stands on the eastern 
spur of Twin Peaks, six hundred feet above sea-level. This 
portion of the pipe is laid in a sidehill trench at an 
angle of forty-five degrees 

city now getting its water from the Clarendon 
Heights Tank, as well as the larger portion 
now receiving its supply from the Forest 
Hill Tank, the necessary pipe-lines having 
been laid and connections made. For the 
population thus served it will mean a greater 
available supply without interrupted service 
due to unavoidable shut-downs of the pump- 
ing stations, as well as greatly improved fire 

Not only are the residential districts of 
San Francisco increasing in population, but 
the commercial districts as well, and these 
also are demanding a greater water supply. 

University Mound Reservoir supplies the 
largest commercial district. On investigation 
it was found that its banks could be raised 
six feet, thereby increasing its storage ca- 
pacity by about seventeen million gallons. 
This reservoir will then have a total ca- 
pacity of fifty-nine million gallons. 

The raising of this reservoir calls for a 
rolled-earth embankment on the north, east, 
and south sides. On the west side is a na- 
tural bank requiring only concrete lining 
and about two hundred feet of concrete wall. 

As the reservoir was in constant use dur- 
ing the entire period of enlargement, it was 



January, 1924 

necessary to protect its water from any ma- 
terial which might roll into it. This was ac- 
complished by erecting a vertical wall about 
sixteen inches high. 

The work on the embankment was begun 

on November 12, 1923, and completed on 
December 16, 1923. It will now be allowed 
to stand until some time in the spring, when 
the concrete lining, wall, and forebay struc- 
ture will be undertaken. 

Main Extensions 

By P. D. Rice, Foreman, City Distribution 

DURING the current year there was 
added to the city distributing system of 
Spring Valley a total of 69,400 feet of mains 
(a little over thirteen miles), ranging in 
diameter from three to twenty-four inches. 

Less than two miles of these mains are 
smaller than six inches, and practically all 
of these two miles are four-inch mains. 

About three miles each of six-inch, eight- 
inch, and sixteen-inch were laid, and almost 
two miles of twenty-four-inch. A small 
quantity of three-inch pipe was laid under 
the piers along the waterfront. 

These installations involved the removal 
and replacement of 63,000 square feet of 
paving, and the excavation of about 20,000 
cubic yards of material from the trenches. 

Provision was made for the installation 
of ninety-five fire hydrants in connection 
with these extensions, most of which have 
now been put in place, affording increased 
fire protection. 

A total of 122 gate-valves was also in- 

Geographically, this work covered a wide 
range, extensions having been made in North 
Beach, the Marina, Richmond, Sunset, Park- 
side, Ingleside, St. Francis Wood, the Mis- 
sion, Excelsior Heights, University Mound, 
Bernal Heights, and the Western Addition, 
as well as in the business district. The most 
important single residential installation was 
that in St. Mary's Park, which involved 
the laying of 4000 feet of four-inch, 2200 
feet of six-inch, and 1200 feet of eight-inch 

Three installations of considerable magni- 
tude were effected during the year. In the 
'order of their completion these are: 

First, a sixteen-inch riveted steel line, be- 
ginning at San Lorenzo Way and Portola 
Drive and extending along Portola Drive to 
a point opposite Twenty-ninth Street in 
Stanford Heights, thence through an arm of 
Sutro Forest and along Twenty-ninth Street 

to Stanford Heights Reservoir, a total dis- 
tance of about 3700 feet. 

Second, a 16-inch riveted steel line, ex- 
tending from Capitol and Lakeview avenues, 
via Lakeview, Granada, Grafton, Harold, 
Ocean, Phelan, Flood, and Circular avenues, 
and Diamond Street to Chenery and Dia- 
mond streets, a total distance of 12,300 feet, 
all the intersected smaller mains being tied 
into it. 

Third, a twenty-four-inch riveted steel 
line running from Stanford Heights Reser- 
voir over Twenty-ninth Street, Stanford 
Heights Avenue, Portola Drive, Corbett 
Avenue, and Fout Avenue to Clarendon 
Heights Tank. The length of this line is 
9500 feet, and it also is connected to inter- 
sected mains. 

Service and Meter 

By Joseph Kappeler, Foreman, Service and Meter 

DURING the year 1923 there was quite 
a large increase in the number of serv- 
ice connections put in over those installed 
in 1922. In all, there were 3600 put in, as 
against 2771 in the previous year, making 
an increase of 829 services, or thirty per 
cent. These services varied from three- 
fourths of an inch to six inches in size. 

In 1923, 5 121 meters were set, as against 
4262 in 1922. The number of meters set is 
greater than the number of services put in, 
because in most two-family houses one serv- 
ice supplies the house, but a meter is set for 
each flat or apartment. There were also some 
1300 retaps put in, due to the installation of 
cast-iron mains in the streets to replace the 
small wrought-iron mains. 

In St. Mary's Park, a new subdivision de- 
veloped during the year, there were 265 serv- 
ices installed. 


IN the footprints of the padres, 

Before the gringo came, 
In the days of the old missions, 

In the days of Spanish fame, 
When those good old Spanish families 

Ruled the Golden State — 
Ah, what different atmosphere 

Since that very early date! 

The black'eyed senorita, 

And the caballero, too ; 
And the sun-baked old adobe 

Were never known to you. 
Where are those good old families 

Of the happy days gone by ? 
Listen, Eastern stranger, 

And to tell you I will try. 

Then you came, "Americano," 

And you saw the lands we had, 
And you wrote back to your mother 

And you wrote back to your dad ; 
And when they read your letters 

'Bout the beauties of our State 
They packed the many things they had 

And shipped them all by freight. 

Then you crowded all around us ; 

Inch by inch you hemmed us in 
Till we'd scarcely room to breathe — 

It really seemed a sin. 
Then you took away our ranchos 

That were given us by Spain, 
And you took — our senoritas. 

Oh, the answer's very plain ! 

There were the Picos and Pachecos, 

With their many leagues of land, 
With their ranchos filled with cattle, 

Which they never had to brand. 
For they trusted one another 

(Much different then than now) 
And they did a lot of thinking 

To avoid most any row. 

Now the children of the mother 

Whose grandad's blood was Latin 
Are scattered from San Diego 

Clear back to old Manhattan. 
So there you have my story, 

From your amigo in the West ; 
I couldn't help a-tellin' you — 

Had to get it off my chest ! 

— Leo Carrillo. 

an Francisco Witer 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume III 

April, i 924 

Number 2 

Spring Valley } s Alameda Headquarters 

By the Editor 

SUNOL is Alameda County headquarters 
for Spring Valley Water Company. Over 
there, against the background of the hills, is 
the Temple dedicated to San Francisco's wa- 
ter supply, and there, in the shade of the 
walnut trees, are the offices in which is cen- 
tralized all the activity that goes on at Cala- 
veras Reservoir, Pleasanton Pumps, the 
Filter Galleries, Niles Canyon, etc. 

Sunol Cottage (pictured on the cover) is 
the overnight stopping place of Spring Val- 
ley executives, public officials, and visiting 
engineers on their periodic trips over the far- 
flung Spring Valley properties. It is a pleas- 
ant and an attractive place. The old cottage 
has been enlarged and rehabilitated, yet so 
sympathetically has the work been done by 
Mr. Gardner Dailey that a feeling remains, 
perhaps not of antiquity, but of elderliness. 

According to the California standard, Su- 
nol Cottage is of venerable age; the spot 
where it stands has a history that carries us 
back to the days "before the gringo came'' — 
to the earliest settlement of Alameda County, 
to the gallant dons and beautiful sefioritas 
of the Sunol, Bernal, and Pico families. 

All the smiling country embracing Sunol, 
Pleasanton, and Livermore was part of one 
of the famous "Ranchos of the North," a 
principality eleven square leagues in extent, 
and Spring Valley's Sunol Cottage is on the 
site of one of the oldest ranch-houses. 

I. The Cradle of Alameda County 

In 1772 Captain Pedro Fages and Father 
Crespi explored the Port of San Francisco 
for the purpose of selecting sites for mis- 
sions. They traversed the region east of San 
Francisco Bay, then and long afterwards 

known as "the Contra Costa," or opposite 
shore. On the first and second of April, 1772, 
they passed through the San Ramon and 
Amador valleys into Sunol Valley, which 
Padre Crespi called Santa Coleta, proceed- 
ing thence to the vicinity of what was to be 
Mission San Jose. So Fages and Crespi were 
the pathfinders in beautiful Sunol Valley. 

After the Presidio of San Francisco had 
been established in 1776, Captain Moraga 
also explored the Contra Costa, and, accord- 
ing to Palou, "entered a canyon somewhere 
near the head of the Bay, which took him 
over to the San Joaquin River; so he dis- 
covered that stream." Moraga, therefore, was 
the first to explore Alameda Creek (origi- 
nally the Arroyo de San Clemente), Niles 
Canyon (or Alameda Canyon, as it used to 
be called), and the Livermore Valley. 

Twenty-one years later (in June, 1797) 
the Mission San Jose was founded. It has 
aptly been called "the cradle of Alameda 
County." At the time of its foundation San 
Francisco was an adobe hamlet, less impor- 
tant than San Jose. 

"There was no other site of civilization on 
the Contra Costa," writes William Halley in 
his Centennial Book of Alameda County. 
"Over all the broad expanse of country to the 
north and east of it, there was nothing but 
what was savage. Not a rancho, not a hut in- 
habited by a white man. Occasionally a 
small party of soldiers from the Presidio of 
San Francisco, out in pursuit of their game, 
the unfortunate 'Digger,' would break the 
solitude of the wilderness. It may, however, 
have been that at that early date, a solitary 
vaquero attended the herds of the Mission 


April, 1924 

i 1858. (From a rare daguerreotype, collecti 

Dolores, pastured out on the San Pablo 

Father Lasuen, seconded by Sergeant 
Pedro Amador, selected a splendid site for 
the new mission. Says Mr. Halley : 

"Its site was well chosen. Its position was 
a plateau in the southern portion of the 
county, indenting the foothills of the Contra 
Costa range, and facing the southern extrem- 
ity of the Bay of San Francisco, from which 
it was distant about nine miles. San Jose, to 
the south of it, was about ten miles, and San 
Francisco, to the west, about fifty miles. A 
beautiful and fertile slope stretched between 
the two. Behind it were the handsome Cala- 
veras and Sunol valleys; and at some few 
leagues' distance the magnificent tract from 
whose beautiful bosom rises the majestic 
mound of Diablo, and which stretches a dis- 
tance of some forty miles, or more, from the 
Livermore foot-hills to the Straits of Carqui- 
nez. Mission Peak stood like a giant sentinel 
immediately at its back, and indexed its loca- 
tion. Every want was here abundantly sup- 
plied. A fine site, a healthy climate, abun- 
dance of the purest water (which ran peren- 
nially from the unfailing springs through the 
Mission garden), with the Calaveras and 
Alameda Creeks close by. Wood was near 
and abundant. Game was ever within shot. 
The pasturage was all that could be desired. 
The soil was as rich and mellow as a ripe 
apricot. The belt on which it was situated 

was warm and ever free from killing frosts. 
An embarcadero was only a few miles dis- 
tant, and within an hour's walk were warm 
mineral springs, possessed of potent healing 
qualities. What more could possibly be de- 
sired? If this was not the foundation of an 
earthly paradise, it is hard to say where it 
could be found." 

II. Land Grants in Alameda 

Beginning with the second decade of the 
nineteenth century, a series of land grants 
forms the background of Alameda County 
history. The principal grants in the vicinity 
were the following (acreage of land as pat- 
ented in courts of United States) : 

1820 — To Luis Peralta, Rancho San An- 
tonio, 43,472 acres. 

1835 — To Jose Maria Amador, Rancho 
San Ramon, 6040 acres. 

1836 — To Fulgencio Higuera, Rancho 
Agua Caliente, 9564 acres. 

1839 — To Sunol and Bernales, Rancho El 
Valle de San Jose, 48,436 acres. 

1839 — To Jose Noriega and Roberto Liv- 
ermore, Rancho Las Positas, 8880 acres. 

1839 — To Jose Dolores Pacheco, Rancho 
Santa Rita, 8894 acres. 

1 84 1 — To Guillermo Castro, Rancho San 
Lorenzo (part), 26,723 acres. 

1842 — To Jose de Jesus Vallejo, Rancho 
Arroyo del Alameda, 17,705 acres. 

April, 1924 


1842 — To Barbara Soto et al., Rancho 
San Lorenzo (part), 6686 acres. 

1842 — To Jose Joaquin Estudillo, Rancho 
San Leandro. 6830 acres. 

1844 — To Tomas Pacheco and Augustin 
Alviso, Rancho Potrero de los Cerritos, 10,- 
610 acres. 

As these grants were made, and the great 
ranchos developed, life in the Alameda sec- 
tion of the Contra Costa took on the vivid 
hue characteristic of that early Californian 
life everywhere. 

III. Don Antonio Sunol 

Properly to tell the story of Sunol we must 
go back to a gallant young Spaniard who 
fought in the Napoleonic wars. Sunol takes 
its name from Don Antonio Sunol. He was 
born in Barcelona, Spain, in 1797. As a 
youngster he succumbed to the spell of Na- 
poleon and entered the French naval service. 
He was present when Napoleon surrendered, 
and therefore saw his hero a prisoner, des- 
tined to exile at St. Helena. Antonio Sunol 
arrived in Monterey in 1818, and in 1823 he 
married the beautiful Dolores Bernal of San 
Jose. Five of his children are mentioned: 
Paula (Sainsevain), Incarnation (Elche- 
barne), Jose Narciso, Antoneta (Murphy), 
and Jose Dolores. 

"He held several high offices of responsi- 
bility and trust," says M. W. Wood in his 
History of Alameda County. 

We catch a glimpse of Don Antonio hold- 
ing a position of responsibility at San Jose, 
in the narrative of Lieutenant Charles 
Wilkes, U.S.N., who came to California in 
1 841 in command of six vessels engaged on 
a scientific exploring expedition. Lieutenant 
Wilkes visited the Pueblo of San Jose and 
determined to pay his respects to the alcalde. 
Wilkes' work, published in Philadelphia in 
1845, * s a scarce book, so his account de- 
serves to be quoted at length. Says Lieuten- 
ant Wilkes : 

"We accordingly rode up to his house, a 
very pretty two-storied edifice, of a light 
cream colour, in the center of the main street, 
and directly opposite a new church that they 
are erecting. The alcalde gave us a cordial 
reception. His first appearance was that of a 
French pastry-cook, with his white cap and 
apron. He was a short, dapper rosy-cheeked 
man, by birth a Frenchman, but had been 
now twenty years settled in the pueblo; was 

married, and had eleven children, who 
looked as healthy and as dirty as one would 
wish to see them. The moment he understood 
who his visitors were, he did us the honour 
to doff his white cap and apron; and shortly 
after appeared in a round-about, very much 
ornamented with braid, etc. The only name I 
heard him called by, was Don Pedro. He 
spoke his native language imperfectly, using 
a great many Spanish words with it, and told 
me that he had nearly forgotten it. From him 
I learned that the pueblo contained six hun- 
dred inhabitants, about forty of whom were 
whites. He described himself as the 'sous- 
prefet,' and said that he administered justice, 
inflicted punishment, and had the ability to 
make the inhabitants happy, as he thought 
they should be. On my asking, by what laws 
he administered justice, his answer was, — by 
what he thought right. He had very little 
trouble, except guarding against the attacks 
of the Indians and preventing them from 
stealing horses, of which he had great fears; 
he had, therefore, provided for the safety of 
his own by keeping them in a small shed at- 
tached to his house, and within a locked 

Lieutenant Wilkes called the "sous-pre- 
fet" Don Pedro, but this was a mistake — not 
the only one in his book. According to Zoeth 
S. Eldredge, the Californian part of Wilkes' 
narrative "is a mass of misinformation con- 
cerning the climate, soil, and people." Com- 
menting on the passage just quoted from 
Wilkes, Eldredge writes: 

"This was Don Antonio Sunol, who was a 
Spaniard — however much he may have 
looked, in the eyes of Commander Wilkes, 
like a French pastry-cook." 

Don Antonio's political importance may 
be seen in the fact that he was chosen one of 
California's seven territorial legislators in 
1843. A n d on the secularization of the mis- 
sions, Mission San Rafael was sold to him, 
jointly with Antonio Pico, for $8000, by or- 
der of Pio Pico. 

IV. Rancho El Valle de San Jose 
It was his marriage to a Bernal that led to 
the association of Don Antonio Sunol's name 
with those parts of the Contra Costa now 
known as the Sunol and Livermore valleys. 
Though a landowner there, he continued to 
live in San Jose until his death, in 1865. His 
wife, Dolores, was the sister of Augustin 


April, 1924 

Vaqueros tossing the riata, with Mission San Jose in the distance. The Californians wore a bandana head-dress 
the low-crowned Chilean hat, not the sombrero. (From the collection of Charles B. Turrill) 

A very famous don was Bernal, born at 
Santa Teresa Rancho in the Santa Clara 
Valley in 1785. For more than twenty years 
he served as a lieutenant in the Mexican 
Army, and was rewarded by Governor Juan 
B. Alvarado in 1839 with a grant known as 
the Rancho El Valle de San Jose. This was 
a principality of eleven square leagues, the 
largest grant allowed under Mexican law. 
To put it in "gringo" terms, it was a grant 
of one hundred square miles, or 64,000 acres. 
When patented, in 1865, the rancho had 
shrunk to some 48,000 acres. It included 
what are now Washington and Murray town- 

This principality Augustin Bernal divided 
equally with his brother, Juan Pablo Bernal, 
and his two sisters, one of whom was the wife 
of Antonio Sunol, the other of Antonio 
Maria Pico. Pico later disposed of his inter- 
est to Antonio Sunol, who in turn conveyed 
it in 1846 to Juan Pablo Bernal. 

To picture the Sunol and Livermore val- 
leys as they were when the Sunol and Bernal 
families nourished on the Rancho El Valle 
de San Jose, one must divest the region of all 
that characterizes it now except its fertility 
and its natural beauty of hill and vale, of 
stream and tree and wild flower. Its prosper- 
ous towns, its paved roads, its intensively 

cultivated and carefully fenced fields must 
all be put aside; so also must its human hab- 
itations save an adobe ranch house or two, 
with corrals and outbuildings. Some grain 
was grown, but the great source of wealth 
was cattle, which roamed a wilderness of 
wild oats and chaparral. From the earliest 
days to the present this has been a cattle 
country. It was called El Valle de San Jose 
(the Valley of San Jose), because it was 
there that the padres of Mission San Jose 
had pastured their flocks and herds. 

The Sunols and the Bernals had few 
neighbors. The oldest inhabitants of the 
Contra Costa were the Peraltas, whose San 
Antonio Rancho extended north from San 
Leandro Creek to what is now the boundary 
of Contra Costa County, including the pres- 
ent cities of Oakland, Berkeley, and Ala- 
meda. This grant only was a Spanish grant, 
the rest Mexican. It was made by Don Pablo 
Vicente de Sola, the last Spanish Governor 
of California. The next oldest dwellers were 
the Amadors and the Higueras. The Ama- 
dors had the San Ramon Rancho in the 
Amador Valley. They sold it to "Ameri- 
canos" in 1850 for a trifling sum. Around 
their home at the southern limit of the grant 
there gradually grew up the town of Amador, 
now Dublin. The Higueras had the Rancho 

April, 1924 


Four roads intersect at the entrance to Spring Valley's Alameda County headquarters 

Agua Caliente, a name that identifies itself, 
since this is the region about Warm Springs. 
In 1839, the same year that the Sunols and 
Bernals acquired El Valle de San Jose, Don 
Jose Noriega and Don Roberto Livermore 
were granted Rancho Las Positas, in the 
Upper Livermore Valley. Noriega and Liver- 
more as partners had already raised stock 
and grain where the town of Sunol now 
stands, and had an adobe home there. Nor- 
iega sold his interest in Las Positas to Liver- 
more, and the latter founded on the rancho 
one of the distinguished families of Alameda 
County. That same year the Pachecos were 
granted the Rancho Santa Rita, which 
touched the San Ramon at Dublin and ex- 
tended into the Livermore Valley to the 
boundary line of El Valle de San Jose. In 

1 84 1 Guillermo Castro acquired part of the 
Rancho San Lorenzo, another part of which 
was granted to Francisco Soto the following 
year. The San Lorenzo stretches north and 
south of San Lorenzo Creek, including on 
the north Castro Valley and Lake Chabot, 
and on the south the city of Haywards. In 

1842 the Rancho Arroyo del Alameda was 
granted to Jose de Jesus Vallejo. This ex- 
tended north from Alameda Creek to the San 
Lorenzo Rancho, including the present towns 
of Niles, Decoto, and Mount Eden. That 
same year the Estudillos were granted the 

Rancho San Lorenzo, situated between San 
Leandro and San Lorenzo creeks; the town 
of San Leandro is on this grant. And in 1844 
Tomas Pacheco and Augustin Alviso re- 
ceived the Rancho Potrero de los Cerritos 
which (to describe it in terms of today) in- 
cludes the Coyote Hills on the west, Alva- 
rado on the north, and touches Centerville 
on the east. 

V. The Sunols in Sunol Valley 

It was Don Antonio's eldest son, Jose Nar- 
ciso, who actually established the Sunol 
family on the grant in the Contra Costa. 
Jose Narciso was born at San Jose in 1835. 
As a boy of eleven he probably stood open- 
mouthed and secretly resentful while Fre- 
mont and his men marched through the 
plaza on their way to the north. This was in 
1846. The Pathfinder was bound (ostensibly 
at least) for Oregon. His route to the San 
Joaquin Valley was by way of the Pueblo 
and the Mission of San Jose. He had only 
forty-two men, not much of an army, but it 
inspired a good deal of trepidation, not to 
say dismay. He camped one night on a hill- 
side near the lagoon between Sunol and 
Pleasanton. When next Fremont appeared 
in this region, not long afterwards, the 
United States and Mexico were at war. He 
marched down the San Ramon Valley and 


April, 1024 


The first of his family to live on the Rancho El Valle de 

San Jose, a grant to his father, Don Antonio 

commandeered all the livestock on the Ama- 
dor rancho except Don Jose's saddle horse. 
When the old don demanded by what right 
he thus deprived people of their property, 
Fremont answered, "By the right of my 

When Jose Narciso Sunol was fourteen 
years old his father's love for France was 
shown in a striking way. Most of the dons 
were content with the school facilities af- 
forded by Monterey, but not so Don Antonio. 
He sent the youngster to the Lycee at Bor- 
deaux. Jose Narciso studied there five years. 
On his return (1854) he built his home on 
the Rancho El Valle de San Jose, selecting 
the beautiful spot where Spring Valley's 
Sunol Cottage now stands. Four years later 
he married Maria Rosario Palomares, whose 
mother was a Pacheco. 

We are in the "gringo" period now, and 
of course there were squabbles about land. 
The squatter was not likely to overlook the 
rich stretches of El Valle de San Jose. In 
one of these squabbles in 1855 a brother of 
Jose Narciso Sunol was killed by a man 
named Wilson. Wilson resisted arrest by 
Sheriff Andrew H. Broder, and made his 
escape. Thirteen years later this murder had 

its sequel in a remarkable case of mistaken 

A Spaniard who had known both Sunol 
and Wilson thought he recognized the mur- 
derer at San Luis Obispo. Harry N. Morse, 
sheriff of Alameda County, who was as inde- 
fatigable as he was brave, arrested Wilson 
and lodged him in jail at San Leandro. The 
description was perfect — the height, com- 
plexion, color of the hair and eyes were the 
same. The prisoner had the same stoop of the 
shoulders, downcast look and restless eye 
that characterized Wilson, and, as with Wil- 
son, there was a tooth missing from the cor- 
ner of his mouth. He vigorously protested 
his innocence, and insisted that his name 
was Slack. He was cleared after a warm 
legal battle, and the murderer of Sunol was 
never caught. 

VI. Charles Hadsell 

In 1875, when Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany began acquiring water-bearing lands, 
water-rights and watershed in Alameda 
County, the Sunol place belonged to Charles 

Charles Hadsell was born December 14, 
1832, in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. 
He was descended from Pilgrim stock. When 
he was four years old his parents moved to 
New York. In 1851 Charles Hadsell deter- 
mined to seek his fortune in the gold-fields. 
He took passage for California via Chagres 
River on September 3, crossed the Isthmus 
of Panama on foot, and arrived in San Fran- 
cisco on the steamer "Panama" October 22, 
1 85 1. For a year he mined in Tuolumne 
County, then turned his attention to agricul- 
ture. He first found employment at Beard's 
Landing, in Washington Township. Thence 
he went to Santa Cruz County, later to Santa 
Clara County, and in 1862 he moved to Su- 
nol Valley, where he purchased the fine tract 
still known as the "Hadsell place." In 1868 
he married Miss Anna Maria Kolb. 

Charles Hadsell farmed with success, and 
dispensed charming hospitality at his home, 
the same home that had been occupied by 
Jose Narciso Sunol. Enlarged and rehabili- 
tated, it is now Spring Valley's Sunol Cot- 
tage, and (as already stated) is pictured on 
the cover of this issue of San Francisco 

When the Hadsell house was being recon- 
structed, a workman, engaged in tearing out 

April, 1924 


The padres of M 

Pleasanton water 

leir cattle where now meet 
of San Francisco's supply 

a partition, picked up an old letter that had 
evidently been lost through a crack in the 
wall. This letter is interesting, as it illus- 
trates the business methods and a little of the 
business conditions of 1872. It is on the 
letterhead of \\ 'illiam McColl, general com- 
mission merchant, northeast corner of Davis 
and Market streets, San Francisco. It was 
written by Mr. McColl, under date of August 
23, 1872, to Charles Hadsell. In a hand 
rather hard to decipher it reads as follows : 

"I hope you and Lady arrived home all 
safe and well yesterday. I find nothing new 
in the wheat market — 1.50 — yet an under- 
tone or current of good feeling. Please let 
the lot lie at Warm Springs Landing and 
when I can get 1.60 for it will order it down 
unless you order to the contrary." 

The envelope deserves a word. It is a post- 
office envelope with a three-cent stamp, and 
carries this legend: "Paid. Wells Fargo & 
Co. Over Our California and Coast Routes." 

The express company bought these envelopes 
from the postoffice for three cents apiece and 
sold them to the public for five cents, after 
stamping them with the legend given above. 
Letters in these envelopes were carried by 
Wells Fargo, not by the postoffice. There 
were express offices at places where there 
were no postoffices, but even when writing 
to addresses served by postoffice man}' busi- 
ness men preferred the Wells Fargo service. 
It was more expeditious, much more reliable 
than most of the so-called "Star mail routes," 
and, besides, Wells Fargo delivered letters 
while mail had to be applied for at the post- 

VII. Bandits in Sunol Valley 

To the blood-stained annals of banditry and 
brigandage in northern California, Sunol 
Valley contributes more than one unenviable 
page. The roads hereabouts have a strategic 
importance for those seeking rapid passage 
between the San Joaquin and the Santa 


April, i<;24 


o! W1KUAM VcQ ^ 

'Coinmi?sioii Hlcicfiiviif,, 


4~ A^T^Z: 


E&J3ffl a 

letter of the '70's was found behind a partition when Spring Valley 
Sunol Cottage was rehabilitated 

Clara valleys. The early sheriffs had many 
occasions to traverse these roads in pursuit 
of desperadoes. 

So outrageous were the crimes of horse- 
thieves and cattle rustlers in the sixties that 
a Committee of Vigilantes was formed, with 
salutary results. 

Beginning about 1859, the Sunol Valley 
was terrorized by the bandit Narciso Bojor- 
ques. He murdered and robbed not only there 
but in other sections, and his name was one 
of terror. 

In or about the year 1859 the murder of 
the Golding family occurred in Sunol Val- 
ley. The dwelling-house was burned down, 
and father, mother and child burned to 
death. The body of a vaquero was found 
hanging to the limb of a tree. This fourfold 

murder was laid to 
Bbjorques, but when 
the trial came noth- 
ing could be proved 
against him, though 
everybody believed 
him to be the guilty 

Shortly afterwards 
he committed a rob- 
bery in company with 
another bandit named 
Quarte. There was a 
dispute about the di- 
vision of the spoils and 
Bojorques shot his 
companion, leaving the 
dead body in the road. 
The next exploit 
recorded of Bojorques 
was performed in com- 
pany with Procopio, a 
cousin of Joaquin Mu- 
rietta. They stole a 
band of cattle in Su- 
nol Valley and took it 
to Alvarado. Narciso 
escaped, but Procopio, 
after a gun-battle with 
the posse, was sur- 
rounded in a salt 
marsh and captured. 
He served nine years 
in the penitentiary. 

Bojorques operated 

in the Sierra Nevadas 

for some time, and was 

once arrested for a bold and brutal robbery 

in Mariposa County, but witnesses feared to 

appear against him, and he got off. 

In August, 1866, he robbed a butcher 
named Gunnel at Alisal (now Pleasanton). 
His method was daring. He rode up along- 
side Gunnel, shot him, dragged him from 
his horse, and robbed him of one hundred 
and twenty dollars in gold. 

Sheriff Harry Morse, being determined to 
take him on a charge that would stick, cor- 
responded with various other sheriffs, and 
finally received a warrant from Los Angeles 
charging Bojorques with grand larceny. 

Armed with his warrant, Sheriff Morse 
hunted Bojorques to Mission San Jose, then 
to Alisal (Pleasanton), where he learned at 
Foscalini's store that Bojorques had gone by 

April, 1924 


five minutes before, mounted on a stout 
horse, and carrying an extra saddle in one 
hand. The sheriff concealed himself in the 
rear of Foscalini's store. Half an hour later 
Bojorques returned, galloping his horse and 
whistling. He pulled up at the store and was 
invited in, but refused. Morse came forward, 
reaching into his breast-pocket for the hand- 
cuffs. When he was six feet away Bojorques 
drew a revolver and pulled the trigger. The 
pistol missed fire, and Morse shot him twice, 
the second time in the side. Bojorques gave a 
loud groan, dropped his pistol, put spurs to 
his horse, jumped the animal over a fence 
and started for the hills. The horse could not 
take the fence on the further side of the field, 
so Bojorques dismounted and made for a 
ravine close by. Morse followed on foot, but 
lost Bojorques in the chaparral. Posses 
scoured the hills that night, and next day 
came upon his bloody trail. He was traced 
fully a mile by drops of blood to a tree where 
he had evidently rested through the night, 
leaving a pool of blood behind. His body 
was not found until some time afterwards. 

VIII. Scott's Corner 
Not far from Sunol, where the road from 
Sunol to Calaveras- Reservoir and Mission 
San Jose crosses the road to Livermore, is a 
spot known for years as Scott's Corner, now 
called Py's Corner. In 1865 a Mrs. Sam 
Brown taught school there, and when the 
school was closed George Foscalini opened a 
store in the building. Later Thomas Scott 
was the storekeeper. Scott had been a super- 
visor, was well known, and Scott's store at 
Scott's Corner was quite a place. 

A murder committed in Scott's store called 
forth Sheriff Harry Morse's most memorable 
exhibition of bravery. The following account 
is in the old-fashioned language of the news- 
paper reporting of about forty years ago : 

"On the evening of January 10, 187 1, 
Thomas Scott and several other persons, 
among them Otto Ludovisci, Mr. Scott's 
clerk, were sitting in the store engaged in 
conversation. The place is a wild-looking, 
lonesome locality, and as there were many 
lawless characters prowling about the neigh- 
borhood, the doors of the store were usually 
kept locked after dark, and customers who 
visted the establishment for supplies had 
only to rap to gain admittance. Some time 
during the evening a knock was heard at the 
front door. It was answered by the clerk, 

who, upon opening it, was confronted by 
three men, among whom was a notorious 
Mexican named Juan Soto, with bandages 
over the lower part of their faces to disguise 
themselves. They entered and, paying no at- 
tention to the other inmates, attacked the 
clerk and shot him, inflicting a wound from 
which he died shortly afterwards. The mur- 
derers at once cleared out, and being all well 
mounted escaped pursuit, but before leaving 
helped themselves to sixty-five dollars in 
cash from the till. 

"Next day Sheriff Harry Morse was at 
their heels. He first proceeded to San Jose, 
visited the New Almaden Mines, scoured 
the country as far south as the Pacheco Pass, 
and penetrated into Merced County, but with 
no success. However, a colony of Mexicans, 
all armed and desperate characters, had been 
discovered in the Panoche Mountains by 
Sheriff Harris of Santa Clara who had ar- 
rested, from among their number, an escaped 
convict. This information he imparted to 
Sheriff Morse, but in the meantime the band 
had disappeared. Intelligence, however, was 
soon received by Morse of the whereabouts 
of some of the gang, and therefore, without 
delay, accompanied by Sheriff Harris and 
Constable Winchell of San Jose, and a small 
party of trusty men, he made for the Panoche 
Mountains. The party was guided to three 
secluded houses. 

"Morse at once entered one of the houses, 
unfortunately, however, leaving his Henry 
rifle slung on the horn of his saddle. Seated 
at a table with three others was Juan Soto, 
the murderer of Ludovisci. Morse was un- 
prepared for so sudden a rencontre, but de- 
termined to secure his man. Drawing his re- 
volver, he called upon the Mexican to throw 
up his hands, covering him with the pistol 
as he spoke. No response came to this com- 
mand. Thrice was it repeated and thrice de- 
fiantly ignored. Morse, keeping his eye 
steadily fixed upon the murderer, produced 
a pair of handcuffs which, throwing them 
upon the table, he directed Winchell who 
followed him in, to place upon Soto's wrists. 
At this critical moment a large muscular 
female sprang from behind upon the sheriff 
and seized his right arm in a vise-like grip. 
His left arm was clutched by one of the 
Mexicans. Immediately Soto leapt from 
where he stood at bay to a position behind a 
companion and drew his pistol. 



April, 1924 

"Minutes now became momentous, and a 
struggle for life lay before the officers. With 
a prodigious effort Morse threw off his as- 
sailants, and fired his pistol at the bandit's 
head, but only carried away his hat. Juan 
now retaliated. The sheriff thereupon made 
a dash for the door and succeeded in making 
a safe exit, but on turning a corner found 
himself looking down the barrel of his op- 
ponent's pistol. Both now discharged their 
weapons at each other, the outlaw's shot be- 
ing in advance, and how he missed is strange, 
for he was reputed 'a dead shot.' Four times 
were shots exchanged without a casualty, 
but now a bullet from Morse's revolver 
struck that of Soto, and this so numbed his 
arm that he at once made for the house. 

"Winchell now appeared on the scene, 
armed with a double-barreled shotgun, 
heavily loaded with shot, and commenced a 
fusillade at the vanishing figure of the out- 
law, but without effect. Meanwhile Morse 
ran for his Henry rifle. 

"In the brief interval Soto had been think- 
ing and working fast. He put his blue sol- 
dier's overcoat on the back of a companion. 
This effected, both ran for a saddled horse 
hitched to a tree opposite the house, and 
Sheriff Harris was about to fire at the blue- 
coated runner when he was hailed by Morse 
to the effect that a ruse had been perpetrated, 
and so he checked his fire. 

"Fate seemed to be against the bandit. His 
horse broke away from him and while he 
was running to another which stood ready 
at a little distance, a bullet from Morse's 
Henry hit his right shoulder. He turned 
around with demoniacal resolve in his eyes. 
Holding a revolver in either hand he boldly 
advanced to meet his enemy the sheriff. This 
was no time for parley. Morse raised his 
rifle, a cloud of smoke, a report, and the 
desperado lay stretched upon the ground shot 
through the brain, and once more was the 
gallows cheated of its proper prey." 

IX. Our Alameda County Headquarters 
In the Water Temple at Sunol takes place 
"the meeting of the waters" that flow from 
Alameda County to supply San Francisco. 

Through the Water Temple flows, at the 
present time, one-half of San Francisco's 
daily supply, some twenty million gallons. 
With the completion of the Spring Valley 
work now progressing rapidly at Calaveras 
and between Niles and Irvington, with the 

completion also, by the city of San Francisco, 
of the Bay Division of the Hetch Hetchy 
Aqueduct between Irvington and Crystal 
Springs, this daily supply from Alameda 
County will be augmented by the addition 
of twenty-four million gallons. 

In Alameda County Spring Valley Water 
Company has three different methods of col- 
lecting water. The first method consists of 
boring wells and tapping the water which 
has gathered underground. This method is 
followed in the country around Pleasanton. 

The second method consists in taking it 
from the gravels which lie under the Sunol 
Valley. The water sinks into the under- 
ground gravels from Alameda Creek and 
flows through an underground gravel-bed 
instead of along the creek-bed on the surface. 

The Pleasanton and Sunol waters flow to- 
gether at the Water Temple at Sunol. In its 
basin the two streams meet, and in one 
stream they flow out of the Temple into an 
aqueduct which passes down Niles Canyon 
and across the bay to San Francisco. 

The water collected in the Water Temple 
is all purified by nature in a way which no 
filter made by man could purify it. There is 
no purer water in the world than this. 

The third method by which water for San 
Francisco is collected in Alameda County 
consists in gathering rain-water and snow- 
water from the streams that flow down from 
the high elevations near Mt. Hamilton and 
storing them in a reservoir behind a dam. 
The dam in question is situated in a valley 
midway between Niles Canyon and Mt. 
Hamilton. This is Calaveras Dam. Cala- 
veras water is released from the reservoir 
into Alameda Creek, and mingles with the 
other waters in the filter galleries. 

The Alameda waters reach San Francisco 
through pipe-lines which cross the Bay 
from Dumbarton Point in Alameda County 
to Ravenswood in San Mateo County. There 
are four of these pipes laid along the bottom 
of the bay. From Ravenswood the water 
flows by gravity as far as Belmont, and from 
Belmont it is pumped into San Francisco. 

Sunol, it will be seen, is the "point of con- 
trol"' for all Spring Valley's water activities 
in Alameda County. Here too are centered 
the Company's important agricultural inter- 
ests and its ever-increasing walnut produc- 
tion. Sunol's importance today makes a 
pleasant sequel to its romantic past. 

April, 1924 


San FranciscoWater 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

425 Mason Street * Phone Prospect 7000 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. III. 

April, 1924 

No. 2 

In M em or i am 

Spring Valley Water Company mourns 
the passing of three faithful workers whose 
service extended over long periods of time. 

F. X. Bp:ntz was a meter reader for 
Spring Valley since 1897. He retired on sick 
leave in April, 1923, received a pension in 
conformity with a resolution of the Board of 
Directors, and died February 13, 1924. He 
was a widower, 7 1 years of age. 

Tom Gannon was a service man for 
Spring Valley since 1896. He retired on sick 
leave in April, 1923, and died February 14, 
1924. He was unmarried, 54 years of age. In 
many different circles of San Francisco life 
Tom Gannon was well known and highly 

George Edwards was a bookkeeper for 

Spring Valley since 1903. He died March 

14, 1924, 66 years of age. He was one of the 

"old Lincoln School boys." He is survived 

by his wife. 

# # * 

Bees at Lagnna Honda 

From San Francisco Examiner 

Poison oak when sampled by bees yields 
the finest kind of honey, according to Nils 
Persson, superintendent of Lake Laguna 
Honda, who runs a bee ranch right here in 
San Francisco. 

Hundreds of thousands of busy bees chase 
around from bush to flower while street cars 
near by roar through the Twin Peaks tunnel. 

Nestled in a natural watershed, a stone's 
throw from Twin Peaks and the Relief 
Home, the little ranch house offers a pleasant 
appeal to the eye of the passing tourist or the 

dweller a few hundred yards above on Eighth 

Eucalyptus trees supply the favorite bee- 
food at present, according to the proud bee 
patron and boss, together with the afore- 
mentioned poison oak, blackberries, thistles 
and field flowers. 

The bees, having such a lot of food, are in 
a sweet temper and no honeyed words need 
be employed to coax them, but when the fog 
begins to creep from the Golden Gate — be- 
ware! They are apt to sting. 

Persson is very proud of his lucrative 
hobby. Thirty neat, white hives swarm with 
dark brown bees of the so-called Italian 
Leather variety. The strongest of the colonies 
yields as much as 200 pounds of honey a 
season, which means April to August. 

Bees do not need a great amount of watch- 
ing. The "big boss" cleans out the hives oc- 
casionally and puts in new combs. He also 
listens in for any sound of queen bees' quar- 
rels. This means that the swarm will be 
divided soon, for queens cannot live together. 
Only the v/orkers keep them from killing 
each other. 

Farmers often mail queens to each other 
in so-called queen cages — little wooden boxes 
with one side wired off. 

Another social question of great impor- 
tance is the drones. Along toward autumn 
begins their great yearly massacre by the 
workers. Working bees break their legs, tear 
off their wings and very definitely chase 
them out of winter quarters. 

* # # 

The relation between temperance and pure 
water is the theme of Dr. Mayo in American 
Medicine. He writes: "In France and Italy, 
the drinking of billions of gallons of wine 
saved the people from extinction ; they could 
not have lived had they drunk their polluted 
water. The Teutonic countries turned to beer 
to secure a sterile drink; England had ale 
and wine, and temperance countries, such as 
Turkey, had tea and coffee. Simultaneously 
with Vienna's introduction of pure water 
from the mountains, her per capita consump- 
tion of spirituous and fermented liquor was 
reduced 40 per cent." 

* * * 

The cover plates of this issue were made 
from a photograph taken by George E. Fan- 
ning, photographer for Spring Valley Water 



April, 1924 

Paying Water Bills at Branch Banks 

By M. C. Gorgas, Publicity Department 

IN the fall of last year the Mercantile 
Trust Company proposed that its branch 
banks be authorized to act as agents of 
Spring Valley Water Company to the extent 
of accepting payment of water bills, receipt- 
ing therefor, and forwarding the amount 
collected with the bill stubs each day to the 
Spring Valley main office. This was not a 
new idea, as the payment of bills at branch 
banks has been put in operation by certain 
utilities in other cities. 

In view of this being an added service and 
an accommodation to consumers of water, 
Spring Valley Water Company consented to 
try out the idea, and accordingly, as an ex- 
periment, selected two of these branch banks 
at which bills could be paid after November 
10, 1923. 

These banks, at Westwood Park, and 
Twenty-ninth and Mission streets, respec- 
tively, are centrally located in two districts 
of quite different classes of residents, and are 
remote from the main office of Spring Valley 
Water Company. The branch bank at Ocean 
Avenue and Mission Street, whose district 
is between and adjoining these other two, 
was purposely not taken, so as to ascertain 
if the people there would ask for the 

Advertising was done by sending notices 
in the November bills to the districts con- 
cerned, and by cards in the windows of the 
two banks. Mr. J. E. Drew, of the Mercantile 
Trust Company, had some attractive window 
displays in the bank windows, among which 
were pictures of Governor Leland Stanford, 
and an election ballot of 1859, mounted on 
cards with appropriate captions — these latter 
being at Westwood Park, as that district is 
now supplied with water from the Stanford 
Heights Reservoir, recently constructed. A 
small plaster model of the Sunol Water Tem- 
ple and surroundings, based on the Maynard 
Dixon mural painting in the main office of 
Spring Valley Water Company, was dis- 
played in both banks and attracted much 
attention. , 

Mr. Joseph A. Murphy, assistant to the 
president of the Mercantile Trust Company, 
with a member of the publicity department 
of Spring Valley Water Company, made fre- 

t Rf.Pi BjlT. An StAtE | 

Leland Stanford. 
James F. Kennedy 

Oscar £. Shaffer. 

S. to. Parker. 
Philip P. Caine. 

J. R. Clark. 

S. W. Brown. 

P. IVI. Randall. 

Harlow S. Xovo. 

B. D Maker. 
J. C. McKibbia. 

John OMcara. 

The Sacramento Republican ballot of 1859. Leland Stan- 
ford headed the ticket and was elected. Cornelius Cole 
was elected district attorney, but E. D. Baker was de- 
feated for Congress. All three were afterwards U. S. Sena- 
tors. Stanford afterwards appointed Jerome Madden land 
agent for the South Pacific, and E. Black Ryan tax agent 
for the Southern and Central Pacific. 

April, 1924 



quent visits to these districts, interviewed 
members of the local improvement clubs, 
merchants, and others, and emphasized the 
desire of Spring Valley Water Company to 
extend its service so as to add to the conven- 
ience of consumers of water. It was found 
that the idea was favorably looked upon and 
appreciated by these people. 

The results have been very satisfactory to 
the public, to the banks, and to Spring Val- 
ley Water Company. The public find it a 
convenience to pay at the nearby bank the 
bills left by the collector when householders 
were not at home or without funds at the 
time of his visit, as they are saved the trouble 
and expense of a trip to the main office or the 
expense of a money order; and the mer- 
chants, especially, like to have the people re- 
main and shop in the district. The branch 
bank is benefited by more people coming into 

the bank, with the possibility of opening new 
accounts. Spring Valley Water Company's 
principal gain is in the public good-will; 
besides, it has been found that bills that used 
to be delinquent are paid on time. 

The payments at Twenty-ninth and Mis- 
sion average over 11 00 bills, and at West- 
wood Park over 350 bills per month. Half of 
these are mailed bills and half are bills left 
by collectors. 

As many inquiries were made at banks in 
adjoining districts as to the possibility of 
payments being made there also, the Com- 
pany in March extended the service, as a 
further experiment. 

The San Francisco Savings and Loan So- 
ciety installed this service at four branches, 
and the Anglo-California Trust at five. 
These, with seven additional banks of the 
Mercantile, cover most of the city. 

Hetch Hetchy- Spring Valley Agreement 

By Nelson Eckart, Chief Assistant Engineer, Hetch Hetchy Project 

(Reprinted by permission from Mr. Eckart' 's Bulletin Series, "The A B C's of Hetch Hetchy") 

THE construction of the Bay Crossing 
Division is being rushed to completion 
in advance of the intervening section, in ac- 
cordance with the terms of an agreement 
entered into with Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany, which agreement was authorized by 
the Board of Supervisors on the recommen- 
dation of the City Engineer. 

Owing to the uncertainty of its future, due 
to numerous attempts of the city to purchase 
its properties, the water company has de- 
layed the necessary increase in its conduit 
capacity and the development of its water 
production to such a point as to cause the 
City Engineer to become seriously apprehen- 
sive of an acute water shortage. 

To meet this the company proposed to con- 
struct a high-level conduit from Calaveras 
Reservoir to Crystal Springs, passing around 
the lower end of the bay. This would have 
taken much longer to construct and would 
have cost $12,000,000, and, further, it would 
not be used in connection with the delivery 
of water from Hetch Hetchy when the city- 
purchases the Spring Valley. 

The matter was taken up with the Rail- 
road Commisison, which issued an order au- 
thorizing the agreement in accordance with 
City Engineer O'Shaughnessy's plan. 

Under this agreement, the city is con- 
structing the bay division crossing, with a 
capacity of 45,000,000 gallons, under the 
Hetch Hetchy operating conditions, also the 
Bay Pulgas Pump Station, the whole to be 
completed January 1, 1925. 

The Spring Valley Company is to raise 
the Calaveras Dam to such height as to in- 
crease the available water supply by 24,000,- 
000 gallons daily; also to construct a line of 
pipe to deliver this water from the Xiles 
Screen Tank to the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, 
a distance of about 16,000 feet, and to make 
such other increases in their structures as to 
deliver this 24,000,000 gallons; also to grant 
the city rights of way for the aqueduct 
through their property; and, furthermore, to 
pay to the city, for the privilege of passing 
this water through the city pipe, five per cent 
on the cost of the line, not to exceed $250,000 
per year, and interest on cost during con- 
struction; also to operate and maintain the 
line during its use at its own cost. This con- 
tract expires December 31, 1933/ but may be 
terminated under certain conditions on three 
years' notice of either party. During the pe- 
riod of the contract, the city has an option to 
purchase these properties for $38,000,000, 
the price fixed by the Railroad Commission. 



April, 1924 

Bay Division, Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct 

By G. A. Elliott, Chief Engineer 

THE Bay Division of the Hetch Hetchy 
Aqueduct, now being constructed by 
the city of San Francisco under the direc- 
tion of M. M. O'Shaughnessy, City Engi- 
neer, begins near the town of Irvington in 
Alameda County and ends at the south end 
of Crystal Springs Reservoir in San Mateo 
Countv, at a point directlv west of Redwood 
City. ' 

Beginning at the Irvington end with a 
riveted steel pipe five feet in diameter and 
a thickness of from five- to seven-sixteenths 
of an inch, depending upon the pressure, the 
line extends in a direction a little south of 
west through Newark to Dumbarton Point 
on the bay shore. From Newark to Dumbar- 
ton the pipe will be supported on a trestle 
over the marsh and tide-lands for a distance 
of about three and one-half miles. 

It is necessary to cross the bay with the 
line, and a crossing has been selected just 
north of the railroad bridge, where the width 
is about six thousand feet. For over half of 
this distance the water is comparatively shal- 
low, and work has been commenced upon a 
steel and concrete bridge which will be of 
sufficient size to carry two pipes, so the con- 
duit capacity may be increased when needed. 
Heavy concrete piers spaced 107^2 feet apart 
are under construction at the present time. 
These piers will support a steel superstruc- 
ture which in turn will carry the pipe. 

For a distance of about half a mile the 
depth of the bay precludes bridge work, and 
it will be necessary to carry the supply across 
this stretch in submarine pipes laid on the 
bottom of the bay. The submarine pipe will 
be what is known as flexible-joint pipe, the 
lengths being connected with a ball-and- 
socket joint similar to the human hip joint. 
This allows a certain amount of movement 
between the individual pipe-lengths without 
leakage of water. Although the bottom of the 
bay will be smoothed off by dredging before 
the pipe is laid, irregularities in contour 
necessarily are present, and the movable 
joints enable the pipe to accommodate itself 
to these without excessive strain or leakage. 

The pipe is laid from a barge, which 
moves forward as each joint is completed, 
allowing the finished line to find its bed 

on the bay bottom. The practicability of this 
type of under-water crossing has been 
demonstrated by long use in various water 
works, a notable instance being the four 
submarine pipes now used by the water com- 
pany, two of which were laid in 1888, in the 
vicinity of the location used by the city. 

Work is now actively under way on both 
sides of the bay, where large crews of men 
are engaged in laying the five-foot riveted 
pipe. The trench is being excavated by a 
drag-line scraper that does the work of a 
large number of men. The bottom of the 
trench is leveled off by hand so as to provide 
a secure foundation for the line. The thirty- 
one-foot lengths of five-foot pipe mat have 
previously been delivered by auto truck, one 
length making a truckload, are picked up by 
a movable steam-operated derrick and placed 
in the trench ready for the riveters and 
caulkers to make the joints. Portable air- 
compressors supply air to operate the rivet- 
hammers. As much as six hundred feet of 
pipe is laid per day with one outfit. At the 
present time ten miles of pipe-line has been 

In the hills west of Redwood City the 
Pulgas Tunnel, 8675 feet long, has been 
driven through the ridge east of Crystal 
Springs Reservoir, has just been lined with 
concrete and will be ready for use in a few 
months. The pipe will deliver the water 
to Crystal Springs Reservoir through this 
tunnel, which has a capacity of two hundred 
million gallons of water per day. Like the 
bridge crossing the bay, the tunnel has been 
constructed to carry more water than the 
pipe, because it is always more economical 
to build permanent structures sufficiently 
large to anticipate a reasonable increased 
future use. The cost of duplicating pipe-lines 
is not as disproportionate to their capacity 
as would be the case with a tunnel or bridge. 

The time schedule for the project calls 
for completion about the end of the year 


# * # 

The quotation that has been used more than 
any other in connection with water supplies, 
ancient and modern, is from the old Greek 
poet Pindar: "Water is best." 

April, 1924 



The Pool of Siloam 

THE text from II Chronicles xxxii:30 
on the back cover of this issue of San 
Francisco Water is one of the Biblical 
records of an early method of supplying 
water to a city. Hezekiah was a king of Ju- 
dah who reigned from B.C. 727 to B.C. 698, 
and who saved his city from Sennacherib of 
Assyria in 701 B.C. by stopping up all the 
springs and the brook outside of the city, 
thereby depriving the invaders of water. 

The city of David, whose actual location 
has been a matter of conjecture, as the de- 
scriptions in the Old Testament and Jose- 
phus are very indefinite and were written 
for people who were familiar with the place, 
is now thought to be that part of Jerusalem 
on the western slope of the hill of Ophel. 
Gihon means a spring or fountain, and is 
known now as the Virgin's Spring or Foun- 

tain. It is situated on the eastern slope of 
Ophel outside the walls of the city. This 
spring and the rock-cut Pool of Siloam in 
the city of David are joined by a tunnel [700 
feet long cut through the rock, which was a 
hard silicious chalk overlying a thick bed of 
soft white limestone. 

In 1880 an inscription was found cut into 
the wall of this tunnel near the Siloam end. 
It was in Hebrew, written in Phoenician 
characters; and as it bad been below the or- 
dinary level of the water, the letters had so 
filled with lime as to be nearly undecipher- 
able. The lime was carefully cleaned out and 
the inscription, excepting certain parts which 
were worn entirely away, was read. The Rev. 
A. H. Sayce, one of England's most eminent 
archaeologists, has made a translation which 
is as follows : 

Jerusalem's famous water supply to which King Hezekiah brought the waters of Gihon some 2600 years aj 



April, 1924 

THE " SILOAM INSCRIPTION." — About B. C. 700. 

inscription, in the Phoenician character, wna cut on the wall o! the conduit of thi 

The rounded form of these Phoenician letters shows that the scribes were used to writing 
papyrus as well as on stone 

"(Behold) the excavation. This is the his- 
tory of the excavation. While the excavators 
were. lifting up the pick each towards his 
neighbor, and while there were yet three 
cubits to (excavate there was heard) the 
voice of one man calling to his neighbor, for 
there was an excess of rock on the right hand 
(and on the left) and after that on the day 
of excavating, the excavators had struck 
pick against pick, one against the other, and 
the waters flowed from the spring to the Pool 
for a distance of 1200 cubits. And a hundred 
cubits was the height of the rock over the 
head of the excavators." 

There was no date, nor was the name of 
any king written. Among many inscribed 
ancient Jewish seals which had been pre- 
viously discovered was one inscribed with 
the name of the owner, the son of a king of 
Judah who reigned about 650 B.C. By com- 
paring the same letters in the Siloam inscrip- 
tion with those on this seal, the Siloam letters 
were found to be slightly more archaic, and 
so the inscription probably dates back to 
Hezekiah's reign. 

A second tunnel leading from the Pool 
of Siloam to a lower pool has been found. 
This lower pool probably used to take the 
overflow from the upper. In II Kings xx:20 
"Hezekiah made a pool and a conduit, and 
brought water into the city"; so this inscrip- 
tion fits well with the Biblical records. With 

the Biblical testimony and this inscription 
we may safely assume that Hezekiah built 
one of them at least. 

The Virgin's Spring was enclosed in 
masonry, so that it could be stopped up from 
the outside and the water all run to the city 
through the tunnel. This was done in 701 
B.C., as before stated. 

The Siloam inscription is the oldest He- 
brew writing extant. It is written in Phoeni- 
cian letters, and the fact that rounded forms 
are used shows that the scribes were used to 
writing on parchment or papyrus as well as 
on stone. 

The main interest however lies in the fact 
that it shows that tunnels were cut from both 
ends to meet in the middle, and that therefore 
the engineers of that period of 2600 years 
ago must have used instruments of precision 
to guide the miners. Although in this case the 
parties did not quite meet, an error of about 
three feet is not great in a tunnel 1700 feet 
long and of rather a winding form. 

Of course the Romans added to the water 
supply. They had three large reservoirs in 
the city, called the pools of Solomon. 

Later the supply system deteriorated, and 
up to the time of the present British occupa- 
tion the supply was inferior to that of Heze- 
kiah's time. The lower pool of Siloam had 
become an open cesspool, and the water from 
the Virgin's spring unfit to drink. 

f -^ IVW _^p 




Fling aloft our flag of Union, 
Red with blood of battles won, 

Holy grown by its communion 

With great deeds by patriots done! 

Everywhere it waves victorious 

On each field, blood'Stained and torn, 

Its old splendor made more glorious, 
Higher still its folds are borne! 

Battlefields in wild commotion 

Greet it with exultant shout; 
Hark! the guns in grim devotion 

Thunder peals of victory out! 

Bunker Hill's grey shaft of glory 
Greets Mount Shasta's hoary head, 

Telling freedom's battlcstory 
O'er the bones of patriots dead. 

John Swett 

in the San Francisco Bulletin 

July 3, 1862 

an Francisco I^ter 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume 1 1 1 

July, 1924 

Number 3 

Our Qlorious Fourth in 1862 

Bv the Editor 

THE San Francisco of Forty-nine and 
the early Fifties has a golden lure for 
writers and readers. The San Francisco of 
the Seventies exercises upon the imagination 
the silver magic of the Comstock Bonanza 
and the thrill that came with the first click 
of wheels on the transcontinental rails. 

In between these two periods came what 
Charles Murdock calls "the almost neglected 
Sixties." The neglect of San Francisco's 
Sixties is easier to explain than to justify. It 
was a time of substantial growth, of neces- 
sary adjustments. In the early Sixties San 
Francisco developed a strength that enabled 
the city to survive, in the next decade, a suc- 
cession of fits and fevers that might other- 
wise have been fatal. Our early Sixties 
should not be neglected. 

San Francisco Bay — one of the noblest 
harbors in the world — fixed the location of 
our city. Convenience and abundance of wa- 
ter supply were not considered until long 
afterwards. At first, water was barged across 
the Golden Gate and sold by the barrel from 
water-carts. Later on, small local supplies 
were developed. 

It remained for the early Sixties to see San 
Francisco in possession of a water system 
capable of continuous expansion as the city 
grew in population, industry, and commerce. 
The birth and growth of Spring Valley Wa- 
ter Company is an outstanding fact of that 
"almost neglected" epoch. And of all the wa- 
ter dates of the early Sixties, none surpasses 
in interest and importance the Fourth of 
July, 1862. 

I. San Francisco in 1862 

San Francisco in 1862 had a population of 

eighty thousand, was without doubt the most 
cosmopolitan community in the United 
States, and lived on a high level of civiliza- 
tion and culture. The city was isolated, but 
not in the least provincial. 

It was a community of distinguished educa- 
tors and eloquent pastors of souls, brilliant 
professional men, bankers and merchants of 
breadth and vision. Good music was in high 
esteem, the theaters attracted the best talent, 
noted European chefs presided over the res- 
taurants. Social life took a high tone from 
the rivalry of Southern "chivalry" with the 
well-bred of New York and New England. 
The newspapers were well written ; some very 
good books were published locally; and the 
bookstores imported the best new works 
from New York and Philadelphia. London 
and Paris. 

Breathing this atmosphere, a Starr King 
was stimulated, and the creative genius of a 
Bret Harte and a Henry George was vital- 

If we add to these brighter hues the dark 
colors of a political corruption by no means 
peculiar to this western outpost, gambling 
that was honestly conducted in the open, and 
a tolerant attitude toward dissipation, the 
general picture of San Francisco in 1862 
will not be too rosily painted. 

There was no transcontinental railroad, 
and the "magnetic telegraph" was a new 
thing. Communication with the eastern sea- 
board was by clipper ship around the Horn, 
steamer to Panama and Nicaragua, and the 
Overland Mail, which, on account of the 
Civil War, was no longer by way of the 
Pueblo of Los Angeles, Fort Yuma, and El 
Paso, but out of Folsom via Placerville and 


July, 1924 

San Francisco in 1862, looking west from Russian Hill. On the elevation overlooking the Bay is the reservoir of 
the San Francisco City Water Works, or "Bensley Company" 

the Emigrant Trail. The Pony Express had 
been discontinued. 

Montgomery Street was the main artery 
of business and pleasure, with frontage sell- 
ing for as high as $6000 a foot. The fashion- 
able shops for women were in Sacramento, 
Clay, and Washington streets between 
Kearny and Montgomery. For a long time 
land titles had been in dispute south of Pine, 
so city growth had been mostly to the north 
and west. But this difficulty was now fairly 
well adjusted, and the city was expanding in 
all directions, though growth southward was 
rather slow. 

Nobody dreamed of the magnificent possi- 
bilities of Market Street. St. Patrick's 
Church and the Catholic Orphan Asylum, 
on the site of the future Palace Hotel, were 
none too easy of access. In St. Anne's Valley, 
a depression in the sand-dunes where the 
Emporium now stands, was St. Ignatius 
Church. A few other structures were rising 
in Market Street, for the steam paddy of 
David Hewes had leveled the dunes, and 
there was a single-track steam railroad from 
Second Street to the distant Mission Dolores. 

Yerba Buena Cemetery, a gore of sixteen 
acres bounded by Market, Larkin and Mc- 
Allister streets, had recently been closed, a 
park being in contemplation. This was a re- 
mote region, as was Hayes Park beyond, but 
the city fathers were looking to the future, 
"admonished," as a writer put it, "by the 

gigantic strides with which improvements 
were progressing." 

There were omnibuses from the Plaza 
(Portsmouth Square) to Lone Mountain, 
Mission Dolores, the Presidio, and Fort 
Point, and a crosstown line plied between 
North Beach and South Park, the latter be- 
ginning to come into its own. 

There was a Seal Rock House, but no Cliff 
House, and only those who had private car- 
riages or could afford "hack" hire visited 
the ocean beach. Family parties spent Sun- 
day at The Willows, in the block bounded by 
Valencia and Mission, Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth (then called Falcon and Eagle) 
streets ; or at Russ Gardens, where Columbia 
Park is now. Both were respectable resorts, 
furnishing pleasant music and good beer. A 
favorite walk was to the top of Telegraph 
Hill. The boisterous spent Sunday at the 
Mission, where the entertainment included 
bull-baiting, cock-fighting, and racing. 

It would be wrong to omit mention of the 
two leading saloons: Barry & Patten's, at 
the southeast corner of Montgomery and 
Sacramento, and the Bank Exchange, in the 
Montgomery Block. 

Palatial residences were multiplying on 
Rincon Hill. Nob Hill had not even acquired 
its name. The principal hotels were the Oc- 
cidental, Lick, and Russ, in Montgomery 
Street, and the American Exchange, at 323 
Sansome Street. Foremost among the theaters 

July, 1924 



from Russian Hill in 1862. To the left is Washington S( 
whence started the great Fourth of July parade 

were the Metropolitan, in Montgomery be- 
tween Washington and Jackson, the Ameri- 
can, at the northeast corner of Sansome and 
Halleck, and Maguire's Opera House, in 
Washington near Montgomery. Visiting lec- 
turers held forth in Piatt's Hall, where the 
Mills Building is today, and the fashionable 
balls were given in the new hall of the Dash- 
aways, in Post between Kearny and Dupont. 

There were five principal dailies: Alt a 
California, Call, and Herald (morning) , and 
Bulletin and Journal (evening). 

H. F. Teschemacher was Mayor, and 
Washington Bartlett, afterwards Governor, 
was County Clerk. David Scannell was Chief 
of the newly organized paid Fire Depart- 

It was the heyday of Emperor Norton, and 
"Bummer" and "Lazarus'' were licensed 

James B. Haggin and Lloyd Tevis were 
dealing in real estate in Clay Street. James 
C. Flood and William S. O'Brien, subse- 
quently of the Comstock "Big Four," had a 
saloon in Washington Street. Edwin Booth 
was living with his father, Junius Brutus 
Booth, on Telegraph Hill. Adolph Sutro 
conducted the Sutro House at the southwest 
corner of Montgomery and California. James 
Phelan was a wholesale dealer in wines and 
liquors in Front Street. E. J. ("Lucky") 
Baldwin ran a livery stable in Commercial 
Street. Francis Bret Harte was a clerk in the 
office of U. S. Survevor-General Edward F. 

Beale. Charles Warren Stoddard was clerk- 
ing for Beach, the bookseller, at 18 Mont- 
gomery Street. William Sharon and Louis 
Sloss were buying and selling mining feet or 
shares (the Stock Exchange was not opened 
till late in the year), as well as gold-dust. 

These are the names, selected at random 
from the directory, of men who were des- 
tined to attain national celebrity. 

II. Loyal to the Union 

Abraham Lincoln had carried San Francisco 
by a scant plurality. In 1862 both U. S. 
Senators for California, Milton S. Latham 
and James A. McDougall, were Democrats, 
but the three Congressmen, Aaron A. Sar- 
gent, Timothy Guy Phelps, and Frederick 
F. Low, were Republicans. Leland Stanford, 
our War Governor, was a Republican. 

There was Southern sentiment in San 
Francisco in 1862 — that was inevitable — but 
the city was overwhelmingly loyal to the 
Union. This had been proved conclusively in 
1 86 1. When the news came that Fort Sumter 
had been fired on, there was a great patriotic 
demonstration in the open air at the site of 
the present Crocker Building, with Senators 
Latham and McDougall and Generals Sum- 
ner and Shields as the principal speakers. 
Then our former townsman Colonel E. D. 
Baker, Senator-elect for Oregon, stopped in 
San Francisco on his way to Washington 
and delivered in the American Theater his 
great speech to save California to the Union. 


July, 1924 

The Mission in 1S60, showing the bridge across Mission Creek at Center (now Sixteenth) and ! 

and garden of John Center, the Center Woolen Mills, and in the distance the Mission Doloi 

right is the Market-Street hill where Spring Valley constructed a reservoir. The view is from 

Brannan-Street Reservoir on "the Potrero Nuevo," constructed a year later 

There had been a notable illumination to 
celebrate Lincoln's election. And when, on 
November 23, 1861, the Pony Express 
brought the news that South Carolina and 
Alabama had seceded, the patriotism of San 
Francisco was grimly solidified. Starr King 
and others had not labored in vain. 

San Francisco in 1862 was heaping its 
gold into the funds of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion — the Red Cross of the Civil War — and 
these contributions continued so generously 
throughout the struggle that Dr. Bellows, 
organizer of the commission, paid this city a 
tribute that should never have been forgot- 
ten, though nobody seems to remember it 
now. Dr. Bellows sent this telegram to San 
Francisco at the close of the war : 

"Noble, tender, faithful San Francisco, 
city of the heart, commercial and moral capi- 
tal of the most humane and generous state in 
the world." 

Though far away from the death struggle 
of North and South, San Francisco was play- 
ing her part in arms. Her volunteers were 
holding the vast territorial area of Arizona 
and New Mexico as well as California. And 
men whom San Francisco knew from inti- 
mate association were in the forefront of the 

III. In the Thick of the Fray 

By the Fourth of July, 1862, the date to 
which special attention is about to be di- 
rected, two of San Francisco's splendid men 
had already fallen in battle. Colonel E. D. 

Baker, who had left the United States Senate 
to draw his sword for the Union, had given 
his life at Ball's Bluff. And General Albert 
Sidney Johnston, who had been in command 
of the Department of California before he 
left San Francisco to fight for the Confeder- 
acy, had fallen at Shiloh. 

At Forts Henry and Donelson General 
Johnston had confronted two Union com- 
manders well known in this city — General 
Grant, who had spent some time here as a 
young captain after fighting Indians in 
northern California, and General Halleck, 
who had practiced law in the Montgomery 
Block, of which he was one of the owners 
and builders. And at Shiloh, where General 
Johnston was killed, there had been not only 
General Grant, but also General Sherman, 
who, not long before, had been a banker in 
San Francisco. 

These were not the only leaders in the con- 
flict well known to San Francisco. Fremont 
the Pathfinder, prominent in the early days 
of the war, had a home at Black Point that 
everybody knew. Admiral Farragut, the hero 
of New Orleans, had been a famiilar figure 
in and about the Plaza when he was com- 
mandant at Mare Island. And many friends 
had heard Lieutenant Phil Sheridan say, 
just before his steamer passed through the 
Golden Gate, "I'll come back a captain, or 
I won't come back at all." When he returned 
in 1875, an d was grandly banqueted at the 
Palace Hotel, "Fighting Phil" was a lieu- 

July, 1924 



at Market and Post streets. May 
the firing on Fort Sumter 

IV. The Rival Water Companies 

In 1862 San Francisco had two water com- 
panies — the Bensley Company, which brought 
water from Lobos Creek, and Spring Valley, 
which was bringing a temporary supply 
from Islais Creek while developing its Pilar- 
citos system high in the hills of San Mateo 

John Bensley was delivering two million 
gallons a day from Lobos Creek to two reser- 
voirs on Russian Hill, both of them still in 
use, the Lombard-Street and the Francisco- 
Street reservoirs. The first in the field, he 
had the "cream" of the water business — the 
thickly populated downtown section of the 
little metropolis. 

Spring Valley, tapping Islais Creek, west 
of the present Mission-Street Viaduct, was 
delivering only 200,000 gallons a day, carry- 
ing the water by flume and pipe to a reser- 
voir at Center (16th Street) and Brannan, 
situated, to quote a newspaper of the time, 
"on an elevated plateau beyond Butcherville, 
on the Potrero." 

But Spring Valley had more foresight 
and initiative than the older company which 
it was destined to absorb a little later. It 
anticipated San Francisco's growth, recog- 
nized that the great city San Francisco was 
destined to be could not depend upon streams 
like Islais and Lobos, and had gone pros- 
pecting down the peninsula. 

This was before the time of Hermann 
Schussler, who did not enter the employ of 
Spring Valley until 1863. The Pilarcitos de- 
velopment was under the direction of Colonel 
A. W. von Schmidt, a Forty-niner and a 
capable engineer. Later on he was to blow 
up Blossom Rock, and build the dry dock 
at Hunters Point. His plan was to bring 
Pilarcitos water by flume, pipe-line, and tun- 
nel a distance of thirty-two miles, to store it 
in Laguna Honda, which was then far be- 
yond the "charter line" of the city, and to de- 
liver it to consumers by way of the Brannan- 
Street Reservoir and the Market-Street (also 
called the Buchanan-Street) Reservoir, the 
latter situated on a hill that has since been 


July, 1924 

Participants in the great parade of July 4, 1862, falling in at Filbert and Powell. The rampart-like elevation on the 
skyline is the Francisco-Street Reservoir, still in use 

bisected by the extension of Ridley, Thir- 
teenth, or Duboce, as the street has been suc- 
cessively called. 

V. Pilarcitos Water Comes In 

Spring Valley was engaged in four opera- 
tions at one and the same time. It was build- 
ing the thirty-two-mile line from Pilarcitos, 
constructing the Laguna Honda storage 
reservoir, excavating the Market-Street dis- 
tributing reservoir, and laying its pipes from 
the Brannan-Street distributing reservoir to 
the residential and business districts. 

Let us follow these operations as they were 
reported in the press of San Francisco. 

On the second of January, 1861, Spring 
Valley announced that it was ready to lay 
pipe into the city, commencing at the Bran- 
nan-Street Reservoir, and that it would be 
ready to deliver Islais Creek water to cus- 
tomers by the first of March. "This an- 
nouncement," says the Alta, "rather takes the 
city by surprise, and shows that the parties 

engaged in the enterprise have been most 
energetically engaged in its prosecution." 

"More Pipe," the Herald announced on 
May 24, 1 86 1, and in the item that follows 
we glimpse one of the fine old fleet of tall 
American clippers standing in through the 
Golden Gate under a cloud of canvas : 

"The ship Flying Mist, which arrived 
yesterday from New York, brought two miles 
of pipe for the Spring Valley Water Com- 
pany — making seven miles in all received up 
to this time. There are thirteen miles now 
on the way from Glasgow and New York. 
The flume will be completed through the 
tunnel next week, when the full stream of 
the Pilarcitos Creek will be flowing on the 
bay side of the San Mateo Mountains." 

In the Herald of January 24, 1862, there 
are further details about this puddled-iron 
pipe from the foundries of Great Britain : 

"Within the last two months some fifteen 
miles of iron pipe, for the Spring Valley 
Water Company, have arrived at this port, 

July, 1924 


The patriotic exercises on the Fourth of July, 1862, were 

held in the Metropolitan Theater, Montgomery Street 

between Washington and Jackson 

chiefly from Scotland and England, forming 
portions of the freight of six ships, one hav- 
ing been entirely loaded with this weighty 
cargo. Fifteen miles of pipe is easily written, 
but to appreciate the bulk of iron embraced 
in such an amount, it is necessary to see it oc- 
cupying the fifty-vara lot at the corner of 
Market and Fourth streets, where the quan- 
tity is constantly augmenting by new ar- 

"Some of this pipe consists of immense 
twenty-inch mains — by far the largest ever 
brought to California — for conducting the 
water from Lake Honda Reservoir into the 
city. Some fifteen or twenty miles additional 
have been purchased and are now on the way 
to San Francisco. One vessel, daily expected, 
is entirely loaded with twenty-inch pipe." 

The Mirror also described the pipe yard, 
adding, in the facetious vein reporters were 
permitted to indulge in those pleasant days, 
"the aggregate weight must be considerable 
— if not more — but the patient earth sus- 
tains it without a murmur." 

During February, 1862, the Spring Valley 
mains were being laid in Kearny Street be- 
tween Sacramento and Merchant, and the 
Alta was moved to remark: "It is a consola- 
tory reflection that a portion at least of the 
excruciating pavement on Kearny Street is 
to be disturbed, for it has been for months 
the very worst in this or any other place." 

Then comes another clipper ship. On 
February 25, the Journal reports: "The ship 
Skylark, lately arrived, brought three miles 
of iron pipe for the Spring Valley Water 

Company. There are now ten miles laid and 
ready for the delivery of water, and about 
twenty-five miles on the way from England 
and Scotland." 

And still another clipper! On May 16, the 
Herald reported: "The clipper ship Mary 
Robinson completed yesterday the discharge 
of 200 pieces of cast-iron pipe — manufactur- 
ed at New York for the Spring Valley Water 
Company. There is another vessel lying in 
the Bay with pipe for the company." 

At this time Spring Valley was trenching 
on Center Street, preparatory to laying new 
and larger pipes connecting with the Bran- 
nan-Street Reservoir, and, says the Journal, 
"the members of Young America No. 13 are 
particularly pleased." This was a volunteer 
fire company in the Mission. 

The Call of May 25 reported that the 
line from Pilarcitos had been completed as 
far as The Abbey, "or to within about seven 
miles of the city." Old-timers remember the 
Abbey House, a resort on the Mission Road. 
The building still stands, in Mission Street 
northeast of its junction with San Jose 

On June 21, in the midst of these activi- 
ties, the annual meeting of Spring Valley 
took place, and Eugene L. Sullivan was elect- 

Colonel A. W. von Schmidt, Forty-niner and engineer, 
brought Spring Valley's first supply from Pilarcitos 


July, 1924 

**.~ *•-» 

Pilarcitos condui 

to San P'rancisco, outlet of tunnel from reservo 
Creek, as recorded by an artist 

and flume crossing upper end of San Mateo 
the Sixties 

ed president. One of the new directors of 
the Company was Frederick A. Woodworth, 
the son and literary executor of Samuel 
Woodworth, author of "The Old Oaken 
Bucket." It was Frederick Woodworth who 
brought the body of the great poet to San 
Francisco and committed it to western 
ground in Laurel Hill Cemetery. 

At this time all the Spring Valley work 
was being rushed, for the Company had made 
a promise to the citizens of San Francisco 
and was determined to keep it. To quote the 
Golden Era of June 29 : 

"One of the events of the coming Fourth 
of July in San Francisco will be the intro- 
duction on that day of the waters of Pilar- 
citos Creek, from San Mateo County, by 
Spring Valley Water Company." 

The last link in the Pilarcitos line, from 
The Abbey to Laguna Honda, was finished, 
but Laguna Honda would not be ready to 
receive water until August. So the water from 
Pilarcitos was brought temporarily to the 
Brannan-Street Reservoir. The Islais Creek 
supply was about to be abandoned forever. 
Meanwhile the laying of pipes through the 
streets had been pursued with vigor. The 

papers announced with great satisfaction the 
piping of Montgomery Street. 

VI. The Clipper Ships 

Before we come to the great events of the 
glorious Fourth, a word about the clipper 
ships. The newspapers gave the names of 
three that brought Spring Valley pipe to San 
Francisco, and concerning these three we 
have the following interesting information, 
kindly supplied by Mr. F. C. Matthews of 
this city, the foremost authority on clipper 
ships : 

"Skylark, Captain Bursley, arrived at this 
port February 24, 1862, 145 days from New 
York. In 1858 she had been here under Cap- 
tain Follansbee, who, I think, was grand- 
father to the present Marine Secretary of 
Fireman's Fund Insurance Company. Sky- 
lark was sold about 1864 to parties in Ham- 
burg and renamed Albertine. 

"Mary Robinson, Captain McCleave, ar- 
rived here May 4, 1862, 125 days from New 
York. She was again here in March, 1864, 
and was lost the following June while load- 
ing guano at Howlands Island, Pacific 

July, iq2_| 


Upper Pilarcitos in the Sixties, showing the old artesian 
well and pump at the head of the reservoir 

"Flying Mist, Captain Foster, arrived 
June 24, 1 86 1, 119 days from New York. 
She was lost on the coast of New Zealand, 
August, 1862." 

It will be noticed that the Flying Mist, 
true to her name, made the speediest voyage 
of the three. And yet she was considerably 
behind the record which had been establish- 
ed by the clipper Flying Cloud in 1854 — 89 
days from New York to San Francisco. On 
that record voyage the Flying Cloud left 
New York eight days after the clipper 
Archer, and led her into San Francisco Bay 
by nine days. The feat has never been 

VII. The Glorious Fourth 

It is no wonder that San Francisco prepared 
to celebrate the Fourth of July, 1862, with 
the maximum of patriotic enthusiasm. 

The telegraph had brought the news of 
the terrific struggle on the Chickahominy, 
foreshadowing the victories at Mechanics- 
ville and Malvern Hill. San Francisco had 
thrilled to Lincoln's call on July first for six 
hundred thousand volunteers, and to his 
second call on July second for three hundred 
thousand more. 

And the fact that Abraham Lincoln, on the 
first of July, had signed the bill for a rail- 

road from the Missouri River to the Pacific 
Ocean was not lost on the continental imagi- 
nation of San Francisco. 

A look at San Francisco papers for the 
third of July, 1862, is enough to convince us 
that great preparations for the celebration 
were forward. 

Anticipating the throngs that would 
gather, J. B. Bayerque, trustee, advertised 
that beginning on the Fourth the Market- 
Street steam railroad would run "from San 
Francisco to The Willows, connecting with 
the Hayes Valley car and the Lone Mountain 
omni buses." 

The Dashaways advertised a grand Fourth 
of July ball at their new hall, with music by 
Willis' Quadrille Band. 

The American Theater advertised a great 
patriotic drama, "Spirit of '76,'' starring 
Mrs. H. W. Leighton, supported by Harry 
Courtaine, for the benefit of the Ellsworth 
Guard Zouaves. 

For the thirsty, Daniel Gibb advertised 
that there had just arrived from Glasgow on 
the Peter Clinton, 554 casks of ale and por- 
ter, and twenty puncheons of fine Scotch 

And for the children, who of course had 
to have their oranges as they watched the 
parade and the fireworks or sat in the gallery 
of the American Theater, there was joy in 
the announcement that the steamer Golden 
Gate had brought a cargo of "very superior 
quality" from Acapulco, whosesaling at $35 
per thousand. 

And then there was a new song to be had 
at all the music stores, none other than "Aunt 
Dinah's Quilting Party." You may be sure 
it was sung in many a San Francisco home 
on the glorious Fourth. 

So eager was San Francisco to celebrate 
the Fourth in that year of patriotic fervor 
that the festivities began at sundown on the 
third. That evening the employees of Wells 
Fargo in the Parrott Building had a huge 
bonfire on California Street just above Mont- 
gomery, "and flashed off $300 of fireworks." 
Says the Bulletin of that gay evening before 
the Fourth: 

"Pop! pop! pop! all over town flew frag- 
ments of Chinese crackers, and pop! went 
many a champagne cork in the houses." 

At sunrise on the Fourth the city was 
awakened by the joyful ringing of every bell 
in the city and the harbor, and the firing of 



July, 1924 

the "federal salute" by the First California 
Guards. Not a building in the city, large or 
small, but was decked with flags, and the 
ships that thronged the Bay showed the 
colors of every maritime nation in the world, 
Old Glory of course predominating. 

The grand parade started at Washington 
Square, where Brigadier-General Wright, 
U. S. A., commanding the Department of the 
Pacific, reviewed the military at nine o'clock. 
No such parade had ever been seen before 
in San Francisco. In the line of march, 
gorgeously and colorfully uniformed, were 
the San Francisco Hussars, the Sacramento 
Rangers, the Second Brigade California 
Militia, a battalion of the 9th U. S. In- 
fantry, the Ellsworth Rifles, the California 
Fusileers, the Sumner Light Guard, the 
National Guard, the City Guard, the Sigel 
Rifles, the California Rifles, the Union 
Guard, the Oakland Guard, the Washington 
Light Infantry, the Franklin Light Infan- 
try, the Santa Clara Light Infantry, the 
Ellsworth Guard Zouaves, the First Cali- 
fornia Guard, the First Light Dragoons, 
and the Irish contingent, consisting of the 
Emmet Guards, the Montgomery Guards, 
Shields Guards, the Wolf Tone Guards, the 
Irish Invincibles, and the McMahon Grena- 
dier Guards. This first division was led by 
the Grand Marshal, Alexander G. Abell. 

Then followed in carriages, Mayor Tes- 
chemacher, president of the day, Reverend 
Albert S. Williams, the chaplain, Robert C. 
Rogers, the orator, W. H. Tiffany, reader of 
the Declaration of Independence, Frank 
Soule, poet of the day, foreign army and 
navy officers, consuls, and a swarm of local 

To exhaust the features of this wondrous 
parade would take too long. A few must 
suffice. Of course the fire laddies, volunteer 
and paid, were out in force, the former with 
their wonderfully elaborate apparatus. Nota- 
ble were the boys of Lafayette Hook and 
Ladder Company wearing the brass helmets 
and the fulldress uniforms presented to them 
by the Emperor Napoleon III. Then there 
were the California Pioneers, the Schutzen 
Verein, the Sons of Temperance, the Fenians, 
and the floats, which included an iron-clad 
Monitor of painted canvas, and the wagons 
of the Philadelphia and Lafayette breweries, 
with jolly King Gambrinus dispensing ale 
a Ion." the line of march. 

The parade moved from Washington 
Square up Powell to Washington Street, to 
Stockton, to Filbert, countermarched on 
Stockton to Washington, to Sansome, to Mar- 
ket, to Second, to Howard, to Fifth, back 
to Market, to Montgomery, and so to the 
Metropolitan Theater, where the patriotic 
exercises were held. 

Poet Frank Soule read 184 long lines of 
original verse, of which this will serve as a 
sufficient specimen : 

"Then on with our Flag! till it floats wide and far 

From Kane's open sea to hot Panama ; 

To rocky Alaska out west in the sea 

From icy Cape Race — oriflamme of the free ; 

Our continent's Banner to float overhead 

Wherever the foot of a freeman shall tread; 

As proud as the standards of princes or czars — 

Our conquering Stripes and our clustering Stars." 

Orator Rogers made the rafters ring with 
his speech, and the papers noted that when 
he twisted the British lion's tail, as he did 
most energetically, the British Consul sat 
and listened "with all polite resignation." 

In the evening there was a magnificent 
display of fireworks on the vacant lots 
bounded by Second, Third, Brannan, and 
Townsend streets, a display, as was proudly 
pointed out, costing $2500. There were heavy 
bombs "of various garnitures, discharged 
from copper mortars, bursting at an eleva- 
tion of one thousand feet and suddenly dis- 
playing all the colors known in the art.'' 
There were "bouquets of rockets and single 
rockets of the largest caliber; wheels and 
floral shells; Indian white fires, full glory; 
fountain fires ; fancy revolving pieces ; Egypt 
pyramids;" and innumerable other marvels. 

The display came to an end with "a grand 
national tableau, a structure 250 feet in 
length and 50 feet in height, the largest 
pyrotechnical structure ever fired on the 
Pacific Coast." It represented the Goddess 
of Liberty, a sword in one hand and the up- 
lifted Liberty Cap in the other; the Eagles 
of the Republic on golden globes; American 
flags; a steamship and a locomotive, "em- 
blematic of steamer connection with China 
and the Pacific Railroad," a great motto in 
letters of fire, "One Country, One Destiny;" 
the whole ending with "the bursting of bat- 
teries of candles, mines, floral shells and the 
flight of five hundred rockets, forming a most 
brilliant feu de joie." 

And so, "amid the applause of acres of 
delighted people who drowned out the music 

July, 1924 




h Jfc&x 

(rtg \\ U't Ct( :zjfo, l///; J, San S raiutao, ~/<r,y /*« *ft *. 

< (-7/.; . <' ^.,, ' /(j & &*& *■ „. ,£ 


\ \ J J ' J„ <u/uuna fo£> Jt-'UP /torn „&ap /V 4> J«ne /.,/. / < ^^ 

1 )c\\ """"""*"' » / . ^- ^**ca - ^ Collector. 



?/,;/« .//,- 



| ^ ^^ fmont/t/y ia&J/iem Dec. J to Jan. 1 1867, $ <y <S%. 

l No 


Langley's Directory for 1S61 lists Thomas F. Steere as a "waterman." He sold water from a cart and rendered his 

bills on neat slips of writing-paper. The bills of the Bensley Company and Spring galley are printed on the 

light-blue paper that was popular with business men in the Sixties 

of the bands," the memorable celebration of ter into the city on the Fourth of July? \\ as 
the Fourth of July, 1862, came to an end. the new supply available for possible fire- on 

the great day? Let the newspapers tell the 
VIII. On the Stroke of Midnight st 

And what of Spring Valley? Had the Com- "just after the clock struck the midnight 

pany kept its promise to bring Pilacitos wa- hour,"* says the Alt a, "the water flowed into 



July, 1924 

the city through the Spring Valley pipes, un- 
interruptedly, from Pilarcitos Creek." 

And the Herald told the story in these 
equally simple words: "The Spring Valley 
Water Company introduced water from 
Pilarcitos Creek into their reservoir at the 
Mission, soon after midnight on the morn- 
ing of the Fourth. The supply will hence- 
forth be from this source, that from Islais 
Creek being shut off." 

Perhaps President Sullivan, Chief Engi- 
neer von Schmidt, and the directors cele- 
brated the event with champagne in the 
office of the Company at the southeast cor- 
ner of Montgomery and Jackson streets. It 
seems likely. But there was no blare of trum- 
pets, no beating of drums, no grand flourish. 
The work had been done on time, as promis- 
ed. That was sufficient. 

But stay! There was one magnificent ges- 
ture on this occasion, one spontaneous tribute 
to Spring Valley. The man whose imagina- 
tion took fire from this great water event of 
the glorious Fourth must remain anonv- 

mous ; but one likes to think that he was the 
skipper of one of those splendid clipper ships 
that had brought Spring Valley pipe around 
the Horn. Under the caption "Mingling of 
the Waters" the Alta tells this best of all 
stories of that glorious Fourth of July: 

"The Captain of the last clipper ship, ar- 
rived at this port from Boston, had a four- 
gallon keg, filled with Cochituate water, 
which was in an admirable state of purity 
when broached in our harbor. So he be- 
thought himself of a novel idea. An equal 
quantity of water from the Spring Valley 
pipes was secured, and the two contributions, 
one from the Atlantic stream, and the other 
from the Pacific, poured into a common 
receptacle, viz., a big bowl. To give the 
mingled fluid flavor, some choice brandy, 
with the necessary concomitants, were thrown 
in, which perfected a grand jorum of Union 
Punch, and hosts of friends of the gallant 
Captain, in flowing bumpers, drank to the 

Of Tap-Water 


On Monday as the sun went down 
I saw a white cloud turn to brown, 

Then make a rainbow all about 
The sunset till it faded out. 

And now it fills the bowl for Kate 
To wash my saucer and my plate, 

And from the tap the cloud is drawn 
To feed the flowers and the lawn. 

It brims my bath, a soapy sea 
To wash the dirt away from me, 

And makes my skin all clean and white ■ 
The cloud I saw on Monday night. 

July, 1924 



San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

425 Maso?i Street * Phone Prospect 7000 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. III. 

July, 1924 

No. 3 

DEFICIENT rainfall and runoff 
throughout California over a succes- 
sion of seasons culminated this year in the 
state's most serious drought. 

In the country around San Francisco Bay, 
recognized from the beginning of San Fran- 
cisco history as a region of semi-aridity, the 
situation — basically no worse than in many 
other sections — is complicated by the huge 
water uses arising from congestion of popu- 
lation. Both population and industry have 
here made very long strides in the past few 
years, while litigation withheld proportion- 
ate water development until the decision of 
the Railroad Commission in 192 1. 

In the case of San Francisco, much addi- 
tional water has of late years been developed 
from Spring Valley's prolific transbay 
sources. Transmission facilities, however, 
control water supply, and the development of 
such facilities has been unavoidably re- 
tarded by obstacles of peculiar difficulty. 
The Calaveras Reservoir project has already 
increased the resources of Spring Valley Wa- 
ter Company, and will result shortly in still 
greater increases, but augmented daily de- 
liveries to San Francisco are waiting for the 
completion of new pipe-line facilities. The 
drought, therefore, makes water conservation 
in San Francisco an imperative measure; 
at the same time it emphasizes the obligation 
of all concerned to complete the transbay 
transmission line now under construction. 

Protracted litigation between Spring Val- 
ley and San Francisco for seven years so 
obscured the future of the city's water supply 
that the large capital investments needed to 
develop the supply and the transmission fa- 
cilities were economically impossible. But 
when this litigation was brought to an end 
(Spring Valley carrying its points of con- 
tention), a basis for the future was found in 
a program of co-operation between city and 

company, a program which this Company 
accepted when it was formulated by the Rail- 
road Commission, and to which the un- 
agreed after exacting additional conditions. 

The result was, on the part of this Com- 
pany, immediate and intensive activity to 
increase the capacity of Calaveras Reservoir, 
the construction of the concrete aqueducl in 
Niles Canyon, and the installation of 
voir at Niles and of a transmission line 
thence to Irvington. At Irvington the Spring 
Valley structure finds contact with the aque- 
duct of the city. From Irvington the 1 it\ i- 
building the Bay Division of Hetch Hetchy 
Aqueduct to Crystal Springs Reservoir, and 
through this line Spring Valley water from 
Calaveras will be delivered, increasing our 
daily supply from forty-two to sixty-six mil- 
lion gallons. The city's Hetch Hetchy line. 
which includes the finished Pulgas Tunnel, 
is well on its way to completion — all but the 
section known as the Submarine Crossing. 
Despite unfortunate delay, the city hopes to 
finish this by the first of the year. Spring 
Valley's corresponding development will be 
ready in advance so as to store and deliver 
the first product of early rains of the coming 
winter season. 

Meanwhile Spring Valley has been inten- 
sively engaged in developing additional wa- 
ter from its subterraneous sources, including 
San Francisco, so as to replenish as far as 
possible its depleted reserves, and has ap- 
pealed to the public — with gratifying results 
— to avoid waste of water and to control 
leakage. The effort has been to present the 
facts without disguising the very real emer- 
gency and also without inspiring undue 
alarm. The Company's engineering activi- 
ties have been aggressive and responsive to 
the needs of the community, and in its pub- 
lic appeal it has combined a frank statement 
of the case with constructive suggestions to 
water users. The Company recognizes it- 
responsibility not only in its administration 
of the water supply, but also in its relation 
to the general welfare of our city. 

Out of the whole situation there is arising 
a more general appreciation of the problems 
this Company has had to solve in the face of 
great odds over a period of years when it 
was not given that co-operation by public 
authority which is today, and must always 
be, such a noteworthy circumstance of the 
water situation in San Francisco. 

S. P. Eastman. President 



July, 1924 

Water Conservation— The Sales Viewpoint 

By O. E. Clemens, Manager, Water Sales Department 

FREE, by the nature of its business, from 
the ordinary selling problems, Spring 
Valley cultivates a special kind of sales- 

Spring Valley sells service. Our organiza- 
tion tries to give our patrons the same careful 
consideration, to take advantage of every op- 
portunity for increasing our usefulness to 
them, as if we were engaged in a highly com- 
petitive business. Also — which means more, 
expressed in dollars and cents — we assist 
them in the control of uses to the end that 
our bills will represent only charges for 
water that has been beneficially used. This 
is going a step farther than the average pri- 
vate producer or distributer of commodities. 

Water conservation really began during 
the years 19 16 and 19 17, following the Ex- 
position. The increasing demands for water 
and the almost certain knowledge that the 
transbay Calaveras supply, on account of the 
pending negotiations, could not be developed 
and brought in for several years, made im- 
mediate action necessary. 

The first step was the metering of all serv- 
ices, of which about fifty thousand at that 
time were on the unmetered or flat-rate basis. 
When this work was completed and a check- 
up made, a saving of six to eight million 
gallons of water daily was evidenced. This 
was due entirely to the repairing of broken 
house-pipes and fixtures and the elimina- 
tion of careless and wasteful uses by the 
consumers. Few people like to pay excessive 
bills for water that is not used — it is cheaper 
to pay a plumber for repairs. 

A crew of inspectors was organized — ex- 
perienced men — whose sole duty was the 
following up of apparently excessive deliv- 
eries, by request, or on our own initiative. 
These men visited the premises of the con- 
sumer, making examinations of the fixtures 
and giving helpful suggestions regarding 
their repair and the proper use of water. 
This work, intended primarily as a tempo- 
rary measure to meet the reaction following 
the setting of meters, has proved so worth 
while that it has been made a permanent 
feature of our organization. We have now 
augmented this force with a crew of night- 

leak tracers and follow-up plumbing in- 

The wisdom of the management of the 
Company in inaugurating and continuing 
this policy is certainly confirmed by the 
present condition of state-wide drought. If 
meters had not been installed and an aggres- 
sive campaign of education in the proper use 
and conservation of water carried out, we 
would now face a much more serious condi- 

Thanks to this program, although our res- 
ervoirs are lower than ever before and the 
unprecedented growth of San Francisco and 
the peninsular district has imposed greatly 
increased demands on our resources, we will 
be able to carry over until next January, pro- 
vided all co-operate. 

And we know that we shall be able to 
carry over, because from all quarters comes 
gratifying evidence of co-operation. 

The City Fire Department has substituted 
salt for fresh water in its high-pressure sys- 
tem. The Park Commission has instructed 
its foremen and workmen to conserve as 
much as possible. The Board of Public 
Works and all other city departments are 
giving close attention to leaks and uses. The 
Police Department is keeping us posted on 
evidences of leakage and waste, which are 
immediately followed up. 

The golf clubs have discontinued the use 
of Spring Valley water on the fairways, 
which reduces their requirements by a very 
large percentage. The hotel, apartment- 
house, club- and office-building managers 
have posted notices requesting their guests, 
members, tenants, and employees to save 
water. The State Harbor Commission and 
the large industrials are co-operating. The 
householders are reducing uses to the mini- 

This program naturally does not appeal 
to the sales instinct, for it is much more to 
our liking to see a steadily climbing curve of 
business growth than to expend money and 
energy in keeping down the daily consump- 
tion of water, and, thereby, revenue. But, as 
a public service corporation, this Company 
has a responsibility that it fully realizes. 

July, 1924 



The temporary loss of revenue will be offset uses down to the minimum and thus prevent 
many times over if we can by our efforts keep too heavy a draft upon our reserve supplies. 

Aquaphone Inspections 

By V. E. Perry, Assistant Manager, Water Sales Department 

THE word aquaphone is derived from 
the Latin for "water" and the Greek 
word meaning "sound.'' Together they sig- 
nify exactly what we are trying to do: to hear 
the sound of water running in leaky fixtures 
and broken pipes. 

The aquaphone consists of a steel shaft 
about three feet in length, to which is attach- 
ed an ordinary telephone receiver. The steel 
end is placed against a water-pipe and the 
receiver against the ear, whereupon any leak, 
no matter how small, is readily detected by 
a peculiar humming noise. 

When the state-wide dry spell made it 
necessary to introduce our campaign of wa- 
ter conservation, it was decided to make an- 
other aquaphone inspection of the entire city 
(similar to one made in 19 13), and to assist 
the consumer in locating leaks that were 
both unnecessary from a water conservation 
standpoint and expensive from the con- 
sumer's standpoint. 

In the previous campaign, the water serv- 
ices were only about 30 per cent metered, the 
meter schedule then applying only to com- 
mercial institutions; all other services being 
unmetered and under flat rates. Today we 
are 100 per cent metered, and all leaks in 
house-piping are registered by the meter. 

In the 1913 inspection, considerable diffi- 
culty was experienced in locating the stop- 
cock at the curb, and frequently it became 
necessary to enter back yards for the purpose 
of locating exposed piping where the aqua- 
phone could be applied. As the inspections 
are made between one and six a.m., when 
most people are asleep, it was not without 
considerable fear and trembling that the in- 
spectors entered the yards. Only too fre- 
quently were they chased to a safe position 
on a high fence by some well-meaning and 
highly efficient watch-dog. As all our meters 
are set adjacent to the curb, we will not, dur- 
ing the present inspection, disturb the owner 
or his faithful hound in making our test. 

While our previous inspection showed 
about 49 per cent of the house-piping tested 
to be leaking, the present inspection shows 
only about 8 per cent. This is a very large 
reduction in waste, and the meter should be 
given full credit for the saving. 

When an apparent leak has been dis- 
covered, the consumer is notified by mail 
and an offer made to send an inspector to 
examine the fixtures, and, as there is no 
charge for this service, the consumer usually 
accepts. Prompt repairs are rewarded 1>\ a 
fair adjustment of the bill. 

Heater at Home and Abroad 

B\ Chester H. Rowell 

The following, from the pen of a gifted Californian, 
is an extract from a travel letter published in the 
Examiner and copyrighted by the All Western 

THERE is one thing that most of the 
world lacks on which we may be frank- 
ly and proudly provincial. That is drinking- 

The ancient Romans invented sewers and 
pure-water aqueducts. That is doubtless the 

reason why Rome survived so long. Not un- 
til moral decay had accomplished what 
sewers and aqueducts had prevented physi- 
cal decay from doing, did Rome fall. Then, 
for a thousand years nobody in Europe took 
a bath and no city could grow much beyond 
village size without its drinking-water 
poisoning its people. 

Wine and beer might fuddle the brains of 
the Occident and tea might tan the stomachs 



July, 192 

and rasp the nerves of the Orient, but these 
drinks were at least not poison. They might 
shorten life, or render it less efficient, but in 
ordinary quantities they did not terminate it 
suddenly, as water was likely to do. 

It took modern sanitary engineering to 
make total abstinence reasonable or prohibi- 
tion possible. And drinkable water is still 
the last and rarest product of scientific clean- 
liness. It is the monopoly of America and of 
the most modernized parts of Western 
Europe — plus Rome, where four of the an- 
cient aqueducts still supply to the modern 
city the pure water of which the ancient city 
consumed the products of more than a score. 

Going around the world, westward, from 
the time you leave Honolulu until you reach 
Rome, you are in countries without sewers 
and without drinkable water. The lack of 
sewers is merely an annoyance and an in- 
convenience — and accounts for the prover- 
bial stench of the Orient. But the lack of 
safe water is a constant and vital problem. 

The natives meet it by drinking only tea, 
the boiled water of which is relatively safe. 
Or they drink the water, and such of them as 
survive the diseases it gives them may be 
immune thereafter. 

Foreigners drink bottled distilled waters, 
beer, or tea, or become violent cranks on 
knowing, personally, from the European 
manager of a hotel that he personally knows 

that the drinking-water is actually boiled. 
The word of no native can be taken on that 
subject. In fact, in Siam, outside of Bang- 
kok, the rule is to take nobody's word, and to 
drink no water unless you have personally 
seen it boiled, and know personally where 
it has been and what has been done to it. 

You eat no raw food; no salad, lest un- 
cooked water may have touched it; no un- 
peeled fruit, and no peeled fruit, unless you 
know who washed it, in what water, and 
unless you peeled it yourself. Most of the 
human race, around most of the circuit of 
the globe, lives under these conditions — 
where water must be shunned as a poison. 

The food question may lie within the 
realm of Spirit. Whether you can eat rijstta- 
fel or must have a French menu in Java, is 
a mental and moral matter, on which cosmo- 
politan adaptability is a virtue. 

But the water question is within the realm 
of Matter, and on that one can afford to be 
only as tolerant as the typhoid bacillus is — 
and the law of the court where he presides is 
that ignorance is not excused, and that the 
penalty of honest error is death. 

So on the water question one must go 
around the world fussy, intolerant, and pro- 
vincial, sure that there is no place like 
home, and that one must carry his home 
standards with him through the regions 
where no one else understands them. 

Black Point in the early Sixties, showing the old Bensley flume. To the extreme right is the home of Fremont the 
Pathfinder; to the extreme left, the Haskell home, where Senator Broderick died after his duel with Terry 


&* till .ff'llifii? If -*5 




■ f 




fi 'lift m '' '/iH?V*%* : 1 • ^ 

1 1 b- TBI 1 to* 1 






an Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 


Volume 1 1 1 

October, 1924 

Num ber 4 

J^Jiks *3XCerced Trails 

By the Editor 

AKING into consideration 

the fact that equestrian oppor- 
tunities have always been 
limited in San Erancisco, 
Spring Valley Water Company decided 
recently to throw open to the riding pub- 
lic, under proper safeguards, that por- 
tion of the watershed properties com- 
prised within the Laguna de la Merced 

Equestrian trails were laid out under 
the supervision of Mr. Gardner A. 
Dailey, the aim being to give riders as great 
a diversity of scenery as possible, while at 
the same time minimizing the danger of 
trespass on Lake Merced, the golf courses 
and the vegetable gardens. 

About ten miles of trails were laid out, 
and the various approaches were marked by 
gates and posts with hanging signs of dis- 
tinct artistic treatment. 

There are four main trails, as follows: 
Ocean Road Trail (3^ miles) — It takes 
its name from the old Ocean Road, which 
was formerly the highway from Ingleside to 
the ocean beach, but was closed when Sloat 
Boulevard was constructed. This trail winds 
past the sites of the Ocean Race Course, 
which flourished in the '60s, the Ocean Road 
House, made famous by the management of 
Cornelius Stagg, and the Lake House, where 
Senator Broderick, his seconds and his sur- 

geon passed the night before his duel with 
Judge Terry. 

Lake Trail (2 miles) — This trail >kirts 
the shore of Lake Merced, opening up some 
of the most beautiful vistas on the Merced 

Beach Trail (2]/, miles) — Starting near 
the new Municipal Swimming-Pool and 
Playground, this trail follows the line of tin 
cliffs along the ocean front and is a revela- 
tion of inspiring seascape. 

Broderick-Terry Trail ( 1 ■ ', miles) — This 
trail leads directly to one of the most import- 
ant spots of historic interest in California, 
the site of the Broderick-Terry duel, fought 
September 13, 1859. The ground where the 
duelists met and where Broderick fell, 
mortally wounded, has been marked by the 
Native Sons with granite shafts and a bronze 
tablet, but hitherto has been inaccessible. 

It goes without saying that all the riding 
groups in San Francisco were enthusiastic 
when they learned about these equestrian 
trails, and it was determined to make the 
opening day a gala occasion. Members of the 
riding academies, army officers -tationed at 
the Presidio, the mounted police, and the 
vaqueros of Butchertown joined hands to 
signalize the event. From these four groups a 
committee was appointed, as follows: Atholl 
McBean, E. Y. Saunders. Thornwell Mullal- 
lv, Lawrence Cofer, S. L. Goldstein, Colonel 


October, 1924 

W. C. Short, Dr. T. E. Shumate, John G. 
Rapp, Charles H. Sooy, Dr. George Bosko- 
witz, J. W. Gilkyson, A. B. C. Dohrmann, 
Joseph Aurrocochea, Thomas Meredith, Mar- 
tin Hanly, Ed O'Sullivan, Joseph O'Day. 

The trails were thrown open on Sunday, 
September 7, and the first ride was followed 
by a barbecue with music and one address. 
It was a thoroughly enjoyable occasion. 

The address delivered during the barbe- 
cue was unusually notable. The speaker was 
Lewis F. Byington, Past Grand President 
of the Native Sons of the Golden West, and 
one of the most active members of the His- 
toric Landmarks Committee of that order. 
Introduced by Charles H. Sooy as a deep 
student of California history, Mr. Byington 
gave a succinct and graphic account of the 
Broderick-Terry duel. As a climax to his 
address Mr. Byington displayed the white 
linen shirt that Senator Broderick wore dur- 
ing the tragic encounter. This grim relic of 
the last field of honor in California, with 
the bullet-hole in the breast and slashed by 
the knife of the surgeon who cut it off the 
body of the dying man, was sent to Mr. 

Byington by Broderick Haskell, of Penn- 
sylvania, son of that Leonidas Haskell in 
whose home at Black Point Senator Brod- 
erick died. The shirt bears the name of 
Broderick on the neckband and its history 
is fully authenticated. 

For the purpose of properly controlling 
the use of the Lake Merced riding-trails the 
Spring Valley Riding Club has been formed. 
Membership may be had by any rider who 
applies at the office of the secretary of Spring 
Valley Water Company with credentials 
vouching for his responsibility. A permit is 
issued without red tape, the applicant, by 
attaching his signature, pledging himself to 
observe certain simple but necessary rules. 
No further formality is required. 

At the barbecue on September 7, Mr. 
Byington spoke without notes. As there is a 
widespread interest in the facts of the Brod- 
erick-Terry duel — an interest greatly stimu- 
lated by the opening of the trail which makes 
the historic spot accessible — we present here 
a full account taken from a rare and accurate 
book entitled "The Field of Honor," by 
Major Ben C. Truman. 

Charles H. Sooy introduces Lewis F. Byington, of the Native Sc 
speaker at the equestrians' barbecue 

Landmarks ( 'oinniitu-c. 

October, IQ24 


The "Broderick -Terry "Due/ 

I. The ( 'mist' 

AMONG the many duels 
in the early days of Cali- 
fornia none excited so 
much interest, and none 
had such an influence on 
politics and society. The 
duelists were representa- 
tive men. David C. Brod- 
erick was a United States 
Senator, and David S. 
Terry was Chief-Justice 
of the Supreme Court of 
California. They were 
filling important niches 
in the history of the 
young state. No such po- 
litical antagonism had 
existed since the days of Burr and Hamilton. 
The Republican party was a healthy infant, 
and growing rapidly. The state was con- 
trolled by a two-winged Democracy. Gwin, 
Terry, Ashe, Brooks, Benham, and others 
worked the Lecompton wing, and Broderick, 
the friend of Stephen A. Douglas and an 
ardent opponent of the extension of slavery, 
was the soul of the anti-Lecompton wing. 
He and his followers occupied middle ground 
between nascent Republicanism and the 
Southern slave-Democracy. The friends of 
the Administration cherished a deep hatred 
for Broderick. With him out of the way, they 
might reunite the party on the old basis and 
control it. Broderick and his friends had 
thwarted the ambition of the "Chivalry." 
After a desperate struggle he had secured a 
seat in the United States Senate, and had 
brought the haughty Gwin to terms. To re- 
tain his own seat in that body, Gwin had 
given the stonecutter a document pledging 
himself not to meddle with the official pat- 
ronage of the Pacific Coast. This document 
was known as the "scarlet letter." Broderick 
had said in a speech that its writer ought to 
be as clearly marked for political ostracism 
as Hester Prynne was socially marked by 
the initial on her breast. It was a fatal letter. 
Politicians said that the man who had it in 
his possession was doomed. 

The immediate cause of the quarrel grew 
out of a speech made by Judge Terry before 
the Lecompton Democratic State Conven- 

tion in Sacramento in [859. He called Brod- 
erick an arch-traitor. He -aid: 

"They (the anti-Lecomptonites) are tin- 
followers of one man, the personal chattels 
of a single individual whom the) an- asham- 
ed of. The}- belong, heart, soul, body, and 
breeches, to David C. Broderick. They are 
yet ashamed to acknowledge their master, 
and are calling themselves, aye, forsooth, 
Douglas Democrats, when it is known, well 
known to them as to us, that the gallant 
Senator from Illinois, whose voice ha- al- 
ways been heard in the advocacy of Demo- 
cratic principles, who now is not disunited 
from the Democratic Part}-, has no affilia- 
tion with them, no feeling in common with 
them. Mr. President and gentlemen, I am 
mistaken in denying their right to claim 
Douglas as a leader. Perhaps they do -ail 
under the flag of Douglas; but it is the ban- 
ner of the Black Douglass, whose name is 
Frederick, not Stephen." 

Broderick read this speech while at break- 
fast in the International Hotel, in San Fran- 
cisco, and grimly smiled. "I see," he re- 
marked to D. W. Perley, a lawyer and a 
friend of the Gwin faction, "that Tern- has 
been abusing me. I now take back the re- 
mark that I once made, that he is the only 

One hundred and 11 ft 

Byington told the s 


( )CTOBER, I924 

honest judge on the Supreme bench. I was 
his friend when he was in need of friends, 
for which I am sorry. Had the Vigilance 
Committee disposed of him as they did of 
others, they would have done a lighteous 

He alluded to Terry's arrest by the Vigi- 
lantes in August, 1856, charged with cutting 
a man named Sterling A. Hopkins, in the 
attempt to free from arrest Reuben Maloney. 
Had Hopkins died, Terry would probably 
have hanged. As it was, it took the strongest 
influence to save him from banishment. 

II. The Challenge 

Perley resented Brod- 
erick's remark. He pro- 
fessed to be a warm 
friend of Judge Terry, 
and even went so far as 
to challenge the Sena- 
tor on his own account. 
His challenge was curt- 
ly declined with the 
contemptuous remark, 
"Sir, I fight only with 
gentlemen of my own position.'' Perley hur- 
ried off to Terry and repeated Broderick's 
slighting remarks. The spark did not need 
fanning. It was already alight. The Judge 
wrote a letter of inquiry, to which Broderick 
returned the following reply : 

"Friday Evening, September 9, 1859. 
"Hon. D. S. Terry: Yours of this date has been 
received. The remarks made by me were occasioned 
by certain offensive allusions of yours concerning 
me, made in the Convention at Sacramento, and 
reported in the Union of the 25th of June. Upon 
the topic alluded to in your note of this date, my 
language, so far as my recollection serves me, was 
as follows: 'During Judge Terry's incarceration 
by the Vigilance Committee I paid two hundred 
dollars a week to support a newspaper in his 
(your) defence. I have also stated heretofore that 
I considered him (Judge Terry) the only honest 
man on the Superior bench. But I take it all back.' 
You are the proper judge as to whether this 
language affords good ground for offence. 
"I remain, etc., D. C. Broderick." 

Judge Terry considered the Senator's re- 
marks "fighting talk," and there was a re- 
sort to the code. Calhoun Benham, S. H. 
Brooks (State Comptroller at the time), and 
Thomas Hays attended to his interests, and 
Joseph C. McKibben, David D. Colton, and 
Leonidas Haskell acted for Senator Brod- 
erick. As to the niceties of affairs of honor, 
the gentlemen who assisted Terry were much 

superior to Broderick's friends. McKibben 
was a Congressman, and probably had never 
participated in a formal duel. D. D. Colton 
had been sheriff of Siskiyou and the hero of 
many rough-and-tumble fights incident to 
his office in those lawless days. Haskell was 
an every-day man, who dabbled in politics 
without neglecting his business. Benham, 
Brooks, and Hays, on the contrary, had 
figured repeatedly on the field, the last as 
principal on one or two occasions. Mr. Brod- 
erick was somewhat surprised at the action 
of Mr. Hays. They had been warm political 
friends in New Vork, and measurably so in 
California. Both were of Irish extraction. 

A meeting had been arranged for the 12th 
of September, at sunrise, on the Lake Merced 
Rancho, near the boundary-lines of San 
Mateo and San Francisco counties. The 
principals and their friends were all on the 
ground, when the chief of police, Mai tin J. 
Burke, placed them under arrest. They were 
brought before Police Justice H. P. Coon, 
and discharged on the ground that there had 
been no actual misdemeanor. 

John A. McGlynn, a brother of a well- 
known Roman Catholic clergyman in New 
York; Andrew J. Butler, a brother of Gen- 
eral B. F. Butler; and other friends of Brod- 
erick, had tried to dissuade him from fight- 
ing. He had listened to all their arguments, 
and had replied that his mind was made up 
— the duel could not be avoided with honor. 
He was quiet and composed, but inflexible. 

III. The Duel 

It was thought that the 
arrest would stop further 
proceedings, but the prin- 
cipals were determined 
to have it out. The fact 
that a second meeting 
was to take place on the 
following morning was 
whispered to a few re- 
porters under a promise of secrecy, and at 
midnight several vehicles left the city and 
drove toward the Laguna de la Merced. 
Here the fight was to take place. The breeze 
from the ocean cut like a knife. It was cold, 
and the drivers frequently lost their wax- in 
the darkness. They all drew up at a rail 
fence which marked the boundaries of a 
milk-ranch owned by one Davis, who rubbed 
his eyes in sleepy astonishment at such an 

October. 1924 


irruption of visitors. There was not much 
conversation. One or two remarks were made, 
and a partisan of Terry's audibly whispered 
that Broderick might be carried dead from 
the field. Everybody seemed to feel that to 
one man, at least, that beautiful day was to 
be a day of death. Vaulting over the fence, 
the party went up a valley the center of 
which had been selected as the scene of the 
encounter. Mr. Broderick had slept at the 
Lake House, near by, and with his friends 
was early on the ground. Judge Terry and 
his friends were also prompt. About eighty 
spectators were present. 

The seconds held a conference and the 
pistols were examined and loaded. Judge 
Terry won the choice of weapons by the toss 
of a half-dollar. Mr. Hays marked off the 
prescribed distance, ten paces, and warned 
spectators to get out of the line of fire. Mean- 
time the respective seconds were busied about 
their principals. The Terry party were cool 
and collected, as became old hands at the 
business. Mr. Broderick's friends were ap- 
parently nervous and hesitating. One inci- 
dent was not calculated to put the Senator in 
good heart. Mr. Haskell partly untied the 
Senator's cravat, and then walked off a few- 
paces, wringing his hands as though over- 
come by his feelings. He then returned and 
removed the neckerchief. 

Broderick was dressed in a long black 
surtout, and wore a soft wool hat drawn 
down over his brow. Terr}- was similarly at- 
tired. When the principals were placed, the 
punctilios of the code were observed. Cal- 
houn Benham, Terry's chief second, ap- 
proached Mr. Broderick and passed his 
hands closely over his sides and chest, 
searching for concealed mail. Mr. McKibben 
made a similar examination of Terry, but 
he only touched his fingers to his waistcoat, 
bowed and withdrew. It has been thought 
that Mr. Benham's action irritated the Sena- 
tor and impaired his poise. Before this Mr. 
Broderick had taken some coins from his 
vest-pocket and passed them to Mr. Mc- 
Kibben. Terry gave his loose change to Ben- 
ham, who scattered it contemptuously on 
the sward. All things being in readiness, the 
pistols were cocked and their hair-triggers 
set by the seconds. They were then delivered 
to the combatants. It was observed at this 
time that Mr. Broderick appeared nervous 
and ill at ease. He repeatedly twitched the 

skirts of his surtout, as though they were 
in his way. lie was also somewhat out of 
position, and Mr. McKibben corrected him. 
Broderick closely measured with hi- eye the 
ground between himself and Terry. Ben- 
ham read the condition- of the meeting, and 
Mr. Colton followed with instructions as to 
the firing. Me had won the word. Broderii '.: 
was still nervous, but Terry stood firm and 
erect, a silhouette against the early morning 
light. The men held their weapons muzzle 
downward. A moment of painful silence 

"Gentlemen," said Mr. Colton, in a clear 
voice, "are you ready?" Both replied, but 
Broderick delayed a few seconds, lie then 
said, "I am ready." 

"Fire! One — " There was a report from 
the Senator's pistol. It was answered in a 
second by Terry's weapon. Broderick'- pistol 
was discharged before he brought it to a 
level. This was probably caused by the fine- 
ness of the hair-trigger and his want of 
familiarity with that particular weapon. The 
bullet buried itself in the ground, two-thirds 
of the distance between himself and hi- an- 
tagonist. It was a splendid line-shot, fallen 
short of its mark. Broderick had the reputa- 
tion of being an expert with the pistol, and 
this result surprised those who knew his 
skill. With the crack of Tern'- weapon 
Broderick winced, turned half round, and 
then made an effort to recover himself. 
"Hard hit," his friends murmured. This 
was proved by his unavailing efforts to main- 
tain an upright position. He drooped until 
finally he fell on the ground, with his pah- 
face toward the sky. He was hard hit. 

Juggling in the choice of weapons was 
openly charged in the newspapers. Bernard 
Lagoarde, the armorer, a Frenchman, loaded 
Mr. Broderick's pistol, and Mr. Brooks 
charged the one intended for Judge Terry. 
The Judge had won the choice, and had 
chosen weapons owned by R. Beard, a friend 
of Dr. Aylette, physician of the Insane Asy- 
lum at Stockton. The}- had been in the Doc- 
tor's possession two years. The armorer said 
that there was a difference in the pistols; 
that used by Senator Broderick carried the 
lightest bullet. He suggested that the usual 
mode in choosing weapons was to select 
those with which both parties were un- 
familiar. He asked McKibben why he did 
not force his principal to use his (the 


October, 1924 


The entrance to the Lake Merced trails, just south of the 
new Municipal Swimming-Pool on the ocean beach 

armorer's) pistols. McKibben replied that 
Terry had won the choice, and the pistols 
were brought by his seconds. The armorer 
had never seen the pistols before, but main- 
tained, in the presence of the seconds, that 
they were too light. He said that they could 
be discharged by a jar or jerk, and even went 
so far as to say that their hair-triggers might 
be so finely set that the breath of a strong- 
lunged man would discharge them. 

The wounded Senator lay on the sward, 
with his head supported by his seconds, 
Colton and Haskell. His surgeon, Dr. Von 
Loehr, was nervous, and seemed uncertain 
how to act, and incapable of taking prompt 
measures. Mr. Broderick's life was ebbing 
away, and his face was pallid. Mr. Brooks, 
one of Terry's seconds, advanced, and, on 
behalf of his principal, tendered the services 
of his surgeon, Dr. Hammond. 

"Yes, for God's sake," exclaimed McKib- 
ben, who was greatly excited, "send some one 
here, or Mr. Broderick will die where he 

Dr. Hammond then came to Dr. Loehr's 
assistance, and cut away the wounded man's 
clothing, exposing his chest and the wound. 
It was a sorry sight. With every breath 
arterial blood spurted from the wound in 

bright jets and stained the fair skin. The 
group surrounding the fallen man shuddered. 
Strength of constitution, fortified by ab- 
stemious habits, might enable him to hold 
death off for a short time, but the brightness 
of the blood told that he was doomed. The 
ball entered the right breast between the 
second and third ribs, passing under the 
sternum, fracturing the edge, and then took 
a course over the heart, through the upper 
lobe of the left lung, striking the fifth rib 
on the left side, and proceeding upward, 
passed through the left armpit. Its tortuous 
course was remarkable, and the rending of 
the vitals must have been terrible. No won- 
der the Senator was unable to maintain an 
erect position for a second shot, and no won- 
der that he sank nerveless to the earth. 

"Baker," said he, on his dying bed, to his 
fast friend, the orator, soldier, and states- 
man, — and they were the last words he spoke 
to him, — "Baker I tried to stand firm when 
I was struck; but I could not. The blow 
blinded me." 

As soon as Broderick fell, Davis, the 
owner of the ranch, who had been silently 
regarding the proceedings, started to his feet 
and shouted, "That is murder, by God!" He 
moved toward Terry, as though intending to 
assault him. He was intercepted by by- 
standers who said that it was folly to provoke 
additional bloodshed. Davis brushed them 
aside, exclaiming, "I am Broderick's friend: 
I am not going to see him killed in that way. 
If you are men, you will join me in aveng- 
ing his death." 

"We know you are Mr. Broderick's friend, 
but we know as well that if you attack Terry 
there will be a general fight, and but few 
will get off this ground alive. Think a 
moment before you do this thing." 

Luckily, this scene was not witnessed, nor 
the remarks overheard, by any of the Terry 
partisans, else there would have been a 
bloody conflict, whether their leader had 
been attacked or not. 

The milkman was finally quieted and sat 
himself down, breathing threatenings of 

Terry remained in his place. His arms 
were folded, and the muzzle of a pistol pro- 
jected behind him. He stood erect, with face 
raised and an inquiring look, as though 
awaiting a demand for a second shot. His 
coolness and nerve were shown in the re- 

October, 1924 


mark just after he delivered the fire: "The 
shot is not mortal; I have struck two indies 
to the right." Others say his words were, 
"Ah! I struck him a little too high." 

_ Being assured of the helpless condition of 
his antagonist, he moved toward the car- 
riages with his friends, and then drove 
hastily to the city. He went to Stockton, 
where he owned a ranch, and quietly awaited 
events. Here he was arrested on the 23d of 
Septemher by two San Francisco police offi- 
cers, brought to the city, and put under ten 
thousand dollars bonds. 

IV. Broderick's Death 

v Mr. Broderick was re- 

j^r- ^*W t moved from the ground 

%fmC^S ^X__. direr quarters of an hour 
after he was shot, placed 
SM on a mattress in a spring 

wagon, and taken to the 
residence of his friend 
Leonidas Haskell, at 
Black Point. He lingered 
in great pain until Fri- 
day, September 16, and 
expired at 9:20 in the morning. He did not 
speak much during his suffering. From his 
rent and torn breast no breath came without 
exertion. Words were agony. He felt, to use 
his own expression, as though a thousand- 
pound weight was pressing on his chest. 
But he did utter a sentiment which had great 
significance a few years after his death. 
"They have killed me,'' he said, "because I 
was opposed to slavery and a corrupt ad- 

The death-bed scene was deeply affecting. 
The viaticum had been given by the priest, 
Father Maraschi. Around the couch, which 
had been drawn into the center of the room, 
weeping friends were grouped — those who 
had honored and loved him in life, and were 
now assembled to witness through their tears 
the exit of that great soul that had won men 
and controlled councils. There were present 
Mr. and Mrs. Haskell, the Misses Mc- 
Dougall, Miss Cook, Colonel Edward D. 
Baker, ex-Governor McDougall, Hon. J. C. 
McKibben, General Colton, Hon. John Con- 
ness, Colonel A. J. Butler, John A. Mc- 
Glynn, Elliott J. Moore, Herman Wohler, 
Moses Flannagan, and many others, promi- 
nent in social and political life, whom he had 
"grappled to his heart with hooks of steel." 

Governor McDougal] Stepped forward and 
closed the eves that had looked their last. 

Editors wrangled over the dead in a way 
that led to the belief that a feeling of self- 
interest had mingled with their sorrow. I he 
Times, edited by C. A. Wa seemed 

to say, "See how much greater i- my grief 
for the dead Senator than yours." Main 
expressions never uttered were credited to 
Broderick. Washburne was working in the 
interests of the Republican party. The Alta 
and ( 'all mourned without stint, while the 
Bulletin lost sight of individuals in consider 
ing the superior question of the ethics of 
duelling. The Herald (Lecompton) had no 
tears for the fallen. It criticized only the 
mode of the killing, and patted Tern on the 
back. One of its articles brought out this 

"In the Herald this morning we are reported as 
saying, 'And if there was any advantage on - 
side it was surely with Mr. Broderick.' We have 
not made this statement, nor, at the same time, 
have we imputed any unfairness to Judge Terry or 
his seconds. Further, we have passed no judgmenl 
on the press and its peculiar views as to the un- 
fortunate affair, our duty being simply to cornet 
statements emanating either from the friends of 
Mr. Broderick or Mr. Terry not warranted by the 
facts. This we have done in all cases. The Herald 
of this morning contains the most serious mis- 
statement we have yet seen. Mr. Broderick had not 
the choice of weapons, nor were his friends aware, 
until the publication of the Herald, thai on. 
weapon was easier on the trigger than the other. 
Had we believed that there was any unfairness 
there could have been no meeting. 

"Jos. ('. McKtbben, 
"David D. Colton. 
"San Francisco, September 16. 1859." 

V. The Funeral 

From the time thai brod- 
erick was wounded the 
whole city was in mourn- 
ing. Every consideration 
was subordinate to anx- 
iety as to his condition. 
His death was a public 
calamity. The remains 
were brought to the 
Union Hotel, corner of 
Kearny and Merchant 
streets, where they lay in state timid pyra- 
mids of flowers until Sunday, the [8th. 
Crowds of citizens awaited the body. Among 
others an old man walked up to the coffin, 
with hands crossed over his chest, whisper- 


October, 1924 

ing a prayer. He touched the forehead of the 
dead, and murmured, "God bless you ! Your 
soul's in heaven! God bless you! California 
has this day lost her noblest son." 

Then, reverently crossing himself, he 
walked slowly away. The incident is cited as 
an example of Broderick's peculiar power 
in creating a following aside from those who 
looked to him for patronage. This magnetic 
power was the bedrock of his political 
strength. He inspired affection other than 
that of mere gratitude. 

The funeral took place at half-past one 
o'clock on Sunday afternoon. Before the 
procession moved, Colonel Edward D. Baker 
took a conspicuous place on the Plaza, Ports- 
mouth Square, opposite the hotel, and in the 
presence of a concourse that embraced nearly 
the entire adult population of the city pro- 
nounced a funeral oration. The beauty and 
magnificence of this tribute to a dead friend 
are historical. The orator's voice was heard 
far and wide, and those who crowded the 
streets leading to the plaza, for blocks away, 
caught his words distinctly. The peroration 
was as follows: 

"But the last words must be spoken, and 
the imperious mandate of death must be ful- 
filled. O brave heart, we bear thee to thy 

rest; thus surrounded by tens of thousands 
we leave thee to the equal grave. As in life 
no other voice among us so rang its trumpet- 
blast upon the ear of freedom, so in death 
its echoes will reverberate amid our moun- 
tains and our valleys until truth and valor 
cease to appeal to the human heart. 

"The earth may ring from shore to shore 

With echoes of a glorious name, 
But he whose loss our tears deplore 

Has left behind him more than fame. 
For when the death-frost came to lie 

Upon his warm and mighty heart, 
And quenched his bold and friendly eye, 

His spirit did not all depart. 
His love of truth, too warm, too strong 

For hope or fear to chain or chill; 
His hate of tyranny and wrong, 

Burn in the hearts he kindled, still. 

"Good friend! True heart! Hail and fare- 

Editor's Note: In the speech that led to the 
duel, Terry mentioned Frederick Douglass. This 
was the well-known colored orator, born 181 7, died 
1895. His mother was a negro slave of exceptional 
intelligence, his father a white man. Frederick 
escaped from slavery to the North in 1838, and 
joined the ranks of the New England abolitionists. 
He was an orator of unusual parts. Two of his sons 
served in the Union ranks. Before his death he was 
American Minister to the Republic of Haiti. 

Here one of the Lake Merced riding-trails passes through a eucalyptus glade 

October, 1924 


San Francisco Water 


Spring Valley Water Company 

San Francisco, California 

425 Mason Street * Phone Prospect 7000 

Edward F. O'Day, Editor 

Vol. III. October, 1924 


DESPITE the fact that this is called 
"the horseless age,'' the horse is very 
much with us. There are notable signs of a 
horse revival. Driven from industry by the 
motor-truck, and from agriculture by the 
tractor, the horse proudly assumes a more 
exalted position than ever as the chosen com- 
panion of man's sports and pastimes. 

Who broke the first wild horse? We shall 
never know. But we do know that in 3800 b.c. 
Sargon I, King of Akked, rode forth to battle 
the Persians in a horse-drawn chariot. This 
is the earliest record of the use of the horse. 

Two thousand years later horses appeared 
in the sculpture of the Egyptians and the 
Syrians. These nations regarded the horse as 
a kingly animal, and used him for war and 
sports. Oxen they domesticated for the fields, 
and the camel for journeys, but the horse was 
put to a nobler use. The Greeks carved 
splendid horses on the friezes of the Par- 
thenon and other temples, and gave the 
horse a place of importance in mythology. 

By the first century of our era the horse 
was generally used throughout the civilized 
world. In each country he changed to suit 
his environment. The Arab barb, the Nor- 
wegian pony, the English horse, and the 
large stallions of France and Flanders all 
developed types — changing in accord with 
the needs of the warfare and sports in which 
they were employed. It was not until the 
eleventh century in Europe that the horse 
lost his dignity and was made to pull the 
wagon and the plow. 

With the conquest of new lands in the 
age of exploration, the horse traveled with 
man. It was Cortez who first brought the 
horse to the Western Hemisphere when he 
landed in Mexico in 15 19. To the American 
Indian the horse was an object of wonder, 
believed to be the creature of the sun. It was 
undoubtedlv from these first horses, aban- 

doned by the Spanish explorers, that the 
wild horses of Mexico and Peru descended, 
since upon escaping they reproduced rapidly 
and spread over the plains. 

This was not of course the origin of the 
large American horse, which was brought to 
the colonies from England, as it had in turn 
been brought to England from the list. ,,f 
Flanders and France. 

After all these ages of association in war 
and peace, it is incredible that we should 
utterly lose a love of horseflesh so <l 
rooted. The cry for speed has driven old Dob- 
bin from the streets and highways, and the 
cry for efficiency has supplanted him on the 
farms; but as the horse disappears from 1 In- 
field of business, he is more prominent in 
the field of sport. In other words, as the com- 
mon horse disappears there appears in his 
place the thoroughbred. We cease to use him 
as a beast of burden, and, like the ancients, 
dignify him by giving him a kingly pla< e. 

Recent statistics taken all over the United 
States show that the number of well-bred 
horses has increased tremendously, amaz- 
ingly. Interest in racing, polo, and riding 
has been revived throughout the country, and 
the horse arises from his threatened oblivion. 

The Government, through the Army and 
the Department of Agriculture, has given an 
impetus to the breeding of thoroughbreds by 
sending out blooded stallions and mares to 
different sections of the country. Riding- 
schools and riding-clubs, formed on senti- 
mental grounds by groups of horse-lovers, 
have been so eagerly patronized by the gen- 
eral public that they have made astounding 
profits. Small cities are building polo fields 
as they build baseball diamonds, and there 
is a nation-wide interest in racing. 

In the large cities the only thing that 
threatens to hamper the popularity of the 
saddle-horse is the scarcity of good riding- 
trails. Man}- cities are incorporating trails 
and equestrian paths in their city planning. 
In this respect San Francisco is fortunate 
in acquiring the Laguna de la Merced trails 
of the Spring Valley Riding Club. Nowhere 
in the country has any metropolis, within the 
confines of its city boundaries, such sylvan 
isolation as is afforded by the Laguna de la 
Merced properties of Spring Valley, and no- 
where can equine sports be more greatly ap- 
preciated and enjoyed. 

— Gardner A. Dailkv. 

10 SAN FRANCISCO WATER October, 1924 

Secretary Spring Valley Water Company, 1910-1924 

October, 1924 


John Edward "Behan ^ 1868- 1Q24 

The Ideal Public Servant 

By James Rolph, Jr., Mayor of San Francisco 

TO a long period of public service John 
E. Behan gave the same qualities of 
loyalty, enthusiasm, intelligence, and tireless 
devotion that made him successful and be- 
loved as an executive in a great public serv- 
ice organization. For many years he was the 
executive officer of the Board of Supervisors 
This service began during Mayor Phelan's 
administration, and it was from the Board of 
Supervisors that he went to Spring Valley 
Water Company in iqio. 

The office of the Supervisors touches even- 
activity of the city government. In the hand- 
ling of even - great municipal project for 
many years Mr. Behan played an important 
part. He had an expert knowledge of San 
Francisco land titles and had made a deep 
study of the old Spanish and Mexican grants, 
United States patents, decisions of the United 
States Land Commission, and other data in- 
volved in land titles in this city. This knowl- 
edge was of vast benefit to the community. 

But it was after the great fire of 1906 that 
he rendered his most signal public service in 
undertaking the restoration of the records of 
the Board of Supervisors. He assembled a 
complete set of municipal reports, replacing 
those destroyed by the conflagration. From 
newspapers on file in Sacramento he assem- 
bled for publication all ordinances of the city 
from 1900 to 1906. He compiled an inven- 
tory of the city's real property and restored 
the records of street grades and names. The 
records he thus restored to the Board of Su- 
pervisors are in constant use to this day. 

Few men in public life have had more or 
truer friends than John E. Behan. He was in 
constant touch with the public. His desire, 
always, was to be helpful and useful. His 
success as an executive lay in his devotion to 
his endless duties. The affection that is ex- 
pressed wherever his name is heard grew out 
of a universal recognition of a character in 
which honesty was blended with kindness, 
kindness with tolerance, tolerance with un- 
derstanding, and all cemented in a love of 
humanity that counted no effort a sacrifice 
that could benefit either an individual or the 
whole people of a great city. 

The Mind and Heart of John E. Behan 
By John ./. Sharon, 

It was a great sorrow to our organization 
when we learned of the death of our friend 

John E. Behan. Few there were among us who 
at some time or other had not had intimate 
personal contact with him, and all who had. 
liked him. His friendly way, his kin< 
pathetic, liberal-minded, and helpful nature, 
endeared him to all. Frequently we 
upon him our personal difficulties, and as 
frequently we received his most considerate 
attention and helpful aid. 

Those of US who were brought closesl to 
him in the affairs of the Company wen- en- 
abled to appraise his true worth as an indus- 
trious, hard-working, faithful official; his 
wealth of experience in dealing with men 
and affairs; and his sound judgment, good 
common sense, and keen perceptions. He was 
never too busy but that he could cheerfully 
stop to help us in our problems, and we could 
always rely upon his friendly co-operation, 
his constructive criticism and helpful advice. 

From all accounts of him he was always 
as we knew him; loyal to his family, his 
friends, and his employment. 

He was a deep student of men and affairs. 
He schooled himself to be thoroughly inter- 
ested in each task he had in hand, and as a 
consequence of this concentration he ac- 
quired a wealth of knowledge which stood 
him well in hand in his various activities. 

His uniformly patient courtesy and fair- 
ness to people and his intimate knowledge of 
their affairs did much to establish friendly 
relations between the public and the muni- 
cipal administration, and, later, promoted 
the policy of this Company to establish cor- 
dial relations with its consumers by fair 
treatment and helpful service. 

The old-fashioned attitude of indifference 
to the public has been superseded by a 
friendlier disposition on the part of the rep- 
resentatives of public utilities, and in the 
promotion of this latter-day attitude the 
mind and the heart of John E. Behan were 
deeply engaged. 

So high was the standard of work set by 
John E. Behan that his successor at the sec- 
retary's desk will be happy if he approxi- 
mates it. 



October, 1924 

JVillis Polk: by "Bruce "Porter 


rjkla%e no little plans; they have no magic 
to stir men s blood and probably themselves 
will not be realized. Make big plans; aim 
high in hope and work, remembering that 
a noble y logical diagram once recorded will 
never die, but long after we are gone will 
be a Hiving thing, asserting itself with ever- 
growing insistency. T^e member that our 
sons and grandsons are going to do things 
that would stagger us. J^jt your watch- 
word be order and your beacon beauty. 


INCREDIBLE fact: that Willis Polk is 
dead ; and more incredible that he dies at 
beyond middle age; for, in spite of the years 
and the decrepitudes that attend upon time, 
he remains to his friends one with his high 
youth of vision and adventure. His vision, 
to the last, was always of this city of San 
Francisco as the most noble architectural 
opportunity of the New World. 

For thirty-five years he was listened to, 
laughed at, frequently encouraged, and more 
frequently rebuffed, until he suffered a kind 
of isolation with his dreams, because no- 
body else in the community cared so deeply 
nor had his particular kind of faith or in- 
terest in that destiny of noble beauty which is 
finally to be San Francisco's. 

In spite of his prophetic drive and pro- 
phetic instigation, he was singularly con- 
temporary with his time and with the ques- 
tionable "boosting'' ideas and ideals that 
seem to animate us. He accommodated him- 
self to the twentieth century when he prop- 
erly belonged in the sixteenth. 

This would seem to indicate a neglect of 
Polk's gift by patrons, when, in reality, he 
had what would count to any architect as a 
very substantial success in his profession. 
He came to San Francisco in 1890 as assist- 
ant to the late Page Brown, with whom he 
was brieflv associated. 

After a period in Chicago in professional 
association with Daniel H. Burnham came 
a return to San Francisco, with the long rec- 
ord of accomplishment as embodied in the 
Hayward (now Kohl) Building, the Insur- 
ance Exchange, the First National Bank, the 
Hobart Building, the restoration of the Mills 
Building and the Pacific Union Club, etc. 

These are but a few of the names in an 
impressive list, and there remain to be built 
the Woman's City Club and the great and 
noble project for the Crocker National Bank. 

He was quick and generous in his recogni- 
tion of good work from any sincere artist. 
The stories of encouragement, of material 
and spiritual help which he gave, will be told 
now in studios and workshops throughout 
the city. Artists and workmen regarded him 
with respect and affection. A childlike and 
lovable character was in him that endeared 
him to his fellow workers and associates. 

Editor's Note: Willis Polk regarded the 
Water Temple at Sunol as one of his most 
successful achievements. In that structure he 
expressed himself fully, richly. 

In addition he designed for Spring Valley 
the Central Pumps on Sloat Boulevard, the 
Pleasanton Pumping Station, and the Spring 
Valley Building in Mason Street. 

I tCTOBEK, [024 



<L/f ^it of Earthquake "Damage 

By W. B. Lawrence, Superintendent Water Division 

THE Crystal Springs Upper Dam of 
Spring Valley Water Company was 
constructed in 1876, 520 feet long and 70 
feet high, built of earth with a clay puddle 
core. The outlet of this reservoir was con- 
structed through the hill at the east end of 
the dam, and consisted of a brick-lined tun- 
nel horseshoe shape, six feet high and five 
feet six inches wide, the total length of the 
tunnel being 775 feet. On the hill at the 
easterly end of the dam a shaft was con- 
structed ninety feet deep, lined with brick, 
and a 42-inch regulating gate installed at 
the tunnel-inlet side of this shaft to regulate 
the flow of water from this reservoir, with 
operating mechanism at the top of the shaft. 

In 1884 a 42-inch pipe was laid in this 
tunnel from the regulating gate in the shaft 
to a short distance outside the outlet portal. 
This pipe was installed for the purpose of 
taking advantage of the lake pressure in the 

During 1889, when the construction of 
the Lower Crystal Springs Dam was reach- 
ing a height at which the water in the dam 

would cover this pipe-line, a Hume was con- 
structed from the outlet portal of this tun- 
nel to and over the unfinished portion of 
Crystal Springs bower Dam, and here again 
connected with the Crystal Springs pipe- 
line. The 44-inch pipe laid from tl 
Crystal Springs Dam outlet tunnel to the 
Crystal Springs concrete dam. a distance of 
approximately two miles, was taken up. Not 
being able to discontinue the use of this 
water from the Upper Reservoir to San 
Francisco for a sufficient time, the 42-inch 
pipe laid in the tunnel, and for a short dis- 
tance outside the portal, could not be re- 

In 189 1, in order to take care of the travel 
from San Mateo to Half Moon Bay, owing 
to the flooding of the traveled roads, tin- 
Upper Crystal Springs Dam was raised by 
an earth-fill and a large concrete culvert sub- 
stituted for the wooden spillway at the west- 
erly end of the dam, at elevation 52 feet 2 7 s 
inches on the gauge of the Upper Reservoir. 
This culvert provided an outlet from the 
Upper Reservoir into the Lower Reservoir 





October, 1924 

Portal of old Upper Crystal Springs outlet tunnel, show- 
ing redwood timbers in excellent condition after being 
buried for thirty-five years 

when the surface of the water was above 
this height on the gauge-board. 

The earthquake of April 18, 1906, ob- 
structed the Upper Crystal Springs Dam out- 
let tunnel (the San Andres fault passes 
through the dam) and left the impounded 
water below the spillway level unavailable. 
This outlet tunnel would have drawn the 
water down to a level of 14 feet 9 inches on 
the gauge. 

Since 1906, when the surface of the water 
in the Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir was 
below this elevation of 52 feet 2% inches 
on the gauge, the water was syphoned into 
the lower lake through a 2 2 -inch pipe laid 
through the concrete culvert at the westerly 
end of the dam. 

This year the water in the upper lake had 
lowered to such an extent that it was im- 
practicable to syphon it, and it became neces- 
sary to remove the obstruction in the original 
outlet tunnel. 

The numerous experiments made with the 
regulating gate since 1906 had proven that 
the obstruction in the tunnel was between 
the regulating gate and this outlet portal. 

Soundings were made and the outlet portal 
of the tunnel was located. A point was 
selected just west of the fault line on a 
straight line between the brick gate shaft and 
the outlet portal as the point from which a 
working shaft should be excavated to re- 
move the obstruction. An excavation five by 
five feet square was made to a level with 
the surface of the water in the lower lake. 

A submarine diver was employed and 
made a thorough investigation of conditions. 
He could not locate the end of the 42-inch 
pipe because it was covered with dirt, but 
obtained an accurate description of condi- 
tions at the portal. This indicated that the 

first thing to be done was the removal of dirt 
which covered the pipe and the tunnel portal. 
This was accomplished by installing a large 
steam-driven suction pump, the diver direct- 
ing the suction end of the hose to accomplish 
the best results. This exposed the tunnel 
portal and the 42-inch pipe for a distance 
of six or eight feet outside the tunnel. 

As this pipe had to be removed before the 
portal of the tunnel could be boarded up, 
ripping chisels with bars long enough to 
reach from the surface of the water to the 
bottom of the pipe were made to enable men 
on the raft to strike the bars with sledge- 
hammers while the diver directed the chisel 
end under the water by prearranged signals. 
Three complete cuts around the entire pipe 
were required, including a cut several inches 
inside the face of the tunnel. Fortunately the 
six-inch by six-inch redwood timbers that 
were bolted on the face of the tunnel for 
connection with the flume were in sound 
condition. These were used for attaching the 
three-inch by twelve-inch plank to the face 
of the tunnel. 

The diver then nailed eight three-inch by 
twelve-inch planks horizontally across the 
face of the tunnel, tacking a large piece of 
heavy canvas to these planks, and then eight 
three-inch by twelve-inch planks over this 
canvas, vertically. All the joints between the 

The outlet tunnel ran straight before the earthquake of 

1906 caused a lateral movement of more than 

five feet at this point 

October, 1924 



clearing of the Upper Crystal Springs outlet tunnel, twenty-fi 

lake sui Fai e 

brickwork and the timbers and the joints of 
the timbers were then filled with cement. 

Provision was made for unwatering the 
tunnel, using a steam-pump with a suction 
hose passed through a fourteen-inch-diameter 
hole made through these planks near the 
bottom of the tunnel. 

The excavation in the five-foot by five- 
foot shaft was then continued down to the 
tunnel, and it was found that, although the 
location of this shaft was on a straight line 
between the brick shaft and the outlet portal, 
the tunnel was to the east of this shaft sev- 
eral feet. This is accounted for by movement 
of the earth by the earthquake. 

A portion of the brick arch was then re- 
moved and an exploration made to determine 
the location of the obstruction. It was found 
that the outlet tunnel and pipe from this 
point to the outlet portal of the tunnel, a 
distance of 1 15 feet, were intact and that the 
tunnel and pipe for a distance of four feet 
easterly toward the brick shaft were intact. 
Beyond this point the tunnel was filled with 
earth and large pieces of broken brickwork. 

Owing to seepage and poor drainage to- 
ward the outlet portal of the tunnel, it was 
necessary to install a pump in the working 
shaft to take care of the water. The work of 
removing the dirt and broken brickwork and 
4 2 -inch pipe then proceeded for a distance 
of eight feet, when it was discovered that 

there was a large cave-in over the tunnel and 
that the dirt was coming into the tunnel as 
fast as it was removed. 

The limited space in the tunnel would not 
permit timbering of sufficient size and height 
to obtain the full size of the tunnel when 
again lined, and to obtain this it was neces- 
sary to remove the top brick arch of the tun- 

The old Locks (reck pipe-line crosses the San Andres 

fault, and the earthquake of 1906 threw it 

violently oul of alignment 



October, 192 

nel from the five-foot by five-foot shaft to 
this point, using timbers of sufficient height 
to allow for the relining. Owing to the 
character of the ground, this was slow work, 
making on an average twelve-inches per day 

At a distance of twelve feet from the shaft, 
the tunnel was entirely destroyed; the 42- 
inch pipe was badly distorted from its 
original shape and torn apart in several 
places. This pipe was made of J^-inch metal. 

From this point forward for a distance of 
twenty feet, overhead slides and side pres- 
sure were encountered, which made it neces- 
sary to use double lagging kept close up to 
the face, with timbers set two feet apart. 
During this time it was necessary to cut the 
distorted 42-inch pipe into short pieces with 
acetylene gas and remove it from the tunnel. 
In drifting forward the line of 42-inch pipe 
was followed to the easterly end of the 

When all the distorted 42-inch pipe, 
broken brickwork, and dirt were removed, 
it was found that the tunnel was fractured 
for a distance of twenty feet and a shift in 
alignment of five feet six inches had oc- 
curred. The portion of the tunnel west of 
the fracture was found to be about twelve 

inches lower than the portion east of the 
fracture. The fractured portion of the tun- 
nel was relined with twelve inches of con- 
crete. The relining of the damaged portion 
of the tunnel was laid out in an S-shaped 
curve to connect the two undamaged por- 
tions. The total length of the tunnel relined 
was thirty-two feet. 

The water was turned through the tunnel 
on August 28. At this time the upper lake 
was some forty feet higher than the lower 
lake, and a flow estimated at seventy-two 
million gallons daily passed through. This 
rate of flow is gradually decreasing as the 
water surface in the two reservoirs is ap- 
proaching the same level. 

Fifty-two years ago the Locks Creek pipe- 
line was laid across Crystal Springs Valley. 
It had never been uncovered until this year, 
and its condition tells another interesting 
story of the effect of the earthquake of 1906 
along the San Andres fault-line. Where this 
pipe crossed the fault line, an extraordinary 
displacement took place. One section was 
thrown nine feet out of place, and other sec- 
tions were wrenched from the trestle. To see 
this pipe as it lies at present, uncovered, is 
to witness a striking example of the violence 
of the earthquake shock. 

In the earthquake of 1906 there was a displacement of nine feet in this section of the old Locks Creek line 



' m